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Monday, 3 January 2011

Historical Background of Forex


The development of the foreign exchange market and some historical points:-
Exchange rates can be traced back to antiquity, when traders sold currencies from one country to another. In ancient Egypt, the first coins were used, and notes on paper were later recorded by the Babylonians. The history of money still in the Middle Ages as currency held by international banks was. This allowed the growth of the European powers and contributed to the spread of foreign currencies in Europe and the Middle East. The history of money is perhaps the longest of all other markets, one of the advantages of currency options market.


The Bretton Woods Agreement and the Gold Exchange:-
In 1967 a bank in Chicago refused a college professor named Milton Friedman a loan in pound sterling because it provides the means to use the British currency. Friedman, who had perceived sterling is priced too high against the dollar, wanted to sell the currency, then buy it back to the bank to repay after the currency fell, pulled a quick profit. The refusal of banks to grant the loan, through the Bretton Woods Agreement, twenty years earlier, fixing the national currency against the dollar and put the dollar at a rate of $ 35 per ounce of gold.

Bretton Woods was established in 1944, aimed at installing international monetary stability by preventing money from fleeing across nations, and restricting speculation in currencies. Before the convention, the gold standard - in fact, between 1876 and World War II - dominated the international economic system. Under the gold was the currency of a new phase of stability, because they were backed by gold. He abolished the old practice of kings and rulers of arbitrarily debasing money and inflations were triggered.

But gold exchange standard is missing chess. As an economy strengthened, it would be very much falls on imports from abroad, until it takes its gold reserves to the money and thus to reduce the money supply, interest rates rose and economic activity slowed to save the extent of the recession.
Ultimately, the prices of goods were made attractive ground, other nations in the acquisition of folly, that the economy fell injected with gold until it increased its money supply the interest of wealth creation in the economy lower. These cycles of boom and crisis in the gold standard until the outbreak of World War I interrupted trade flows and movement of gold prevailed.

After the war the Bretton Woods institutions were founded, the attempt by the participating countries, the value of its currency within a narrow range against the dollar and a corresponding rate of gold as agreed necessary. Countries were prohibited from devaluing their currencies, their trade advantage and were entitled to depreciation of less than 10%. In the 1950s, the increasing volume of international trade in massive movements of capital generated by post-construction run. This destabilizes the exchange rate, that the configuration of the Bretton Woods institutions.

The Agreement was finally abandoned in 1971, and the U.S. dollar no longer convertible to gold. In 1973, the currencies of major industrialized nations floated more freely as they were controlled primarily by the forces of supply and demand. Prices were floated daily, with an increased volume, velocity and volatility in the 1970s, leading to new financial instruments, deregulation and liberalization of trade.

In the 1980s, cross-border capital movements accelerated with the advent of computers and technology, extending market continuum through Asian time zones, Europe and America. Transactions in foreign currencies increased from about $ 70 dollars a day later, in early 1980 to over 1.5 trillion U.S. dollars a day, two decades.


Explosion of the Euro market:-
A above agitator to the dispatch of Forex trading was the accelerated development of the euro dollar market; area US dollars are deposited in banks alfresco the US. Similarly, Euro markets are those area assets are deposited alfresco the bill of origin. The Eurodollar bazaar aboriginal came into getting in the 1950s if Russia’s oil revenue-- all in dollars -- was deposited alfresco the US in abhorrence of getting arctic by US regulators. That gave acceleration to a all-inclusive adopted basin of dollars alfresco the ascendancy of US authorities. The US government imposed laws to bind dollar lending to foreigners. Euro markets were decidedly adorable because they had far beneath regulations and offered college yields. From the backward 1980s onwards, US companies began to borrow offshore, award Euro markets a benign center most for captivation balance liquidity, accoutrement concise loans and costs imports and exports.

London was and remains the principal offshore market. In the 1980s, became the key center in the euro dollar market, as the British banks lending dollars as an alternative pounds, to keep its leading position in the global financial world began. London favorable geographical location (in the Asian markets and the U.S.) also plays a role in maintaining their dominance in the Euro market.

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