KINDS OF MOBILITY
1. GEOGRAPHICAL MOBILITY :- If labour makes from one place to another it is called geographical mobility. For instance labour move from Bombay to Bangalore, it is geographical mobility.
2. HORIZONTAL MOBILITY :- If the labour moves from one factory to another with different working capacity but in the same position it is called horizontal mobility.
3. VERTICAL MOBILITY :- If the labour mover from one post or grade to another is called vertical mobility. For example if one officer is promoted in the next grade, it will be called vertical mobility.
IMPORTANCE OF MOBILITY OF LABOUR
1. IMPORTANCE FOR PERFECT MARKET :- Labour market is imperfect there is no mobility in labour. Due to mobility of labour all the labourers possessing same capability will get the same wages. Employer can not pay the workers below the opportunity cost.
2. REDUCES ECONOMIC DISPARITY :- When labourer and skilled persons will move from developed to under developed areas, they will be very helpful in establishing the new projects and using the idle resources. So rate of economic development will increase in the backward areas and disparity will reduce.
3. DECREASE IN UNEMPLOYMENT :- Due to mobility in labour Indians and Pakistanis went to middle- east and other countries of the world and got employment. So it is very helpful in reducing the rate of unemployment in the country.
4. FAIR DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH :- When there will be perfect mobility every labourer will get the reward according to his ability and capacity, so fair distribution of wealth will occur.
5. SUPPLY OF LABOUR :- If there is a shortage of labour in any country, due to mobility it can be supplied easily in that country. For examples Saudi Arabia when ever feels shortage of labour , it is supplied from the Asia.
6. CREATES LOVE AND BROTHERHOOD :- Due to mobility of labour the people of different areas and colors are mixed. So love is created among them and they become friendly with each other. It also improves the culture, habits and manners of the people.
In the developing countries particularly , there is less mobility in the labour, it has various causes, like homes sickness, political unrest and lack of education.
OBSTACLES TO MOBILITY OF LABOUR
1. LANGUAGE PROBLEM :- It is major obstacle in the way of labour mobility. People hesitate to travel to other areas and countries where there is difference of culture traditions and language.
2. LACK OF TRANSPORT FACILITY :- In some area there is no proper transport and communication system , so people fear to move from one place to another.
3. HOME SICKNESS :- Some people are habitual in living with the family members. They prefer to live with the family and they are not attracted by higher wages and incentives.
4. IGNORANCE :- Some people are ignorant about the job opportunities in other parts of the world, So they can not move.
5. LACK OF EDUCATION :- Lack of education and skill which reduce the mobility of labour. Because in some places people do not have adequate facilities for training.
6. IMMIGRATION RULES PROBLEM :- The main barrier on the mobility of labour is the immigration rules of the different countries. They do not allow the labour to enter in their countries.
FACTORS PROMOTING THE MOBILITY OF LABOUR
1. TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION :- Transport and communication system plays an important role in generating the mobility of labour. If this system is quick and cheap then mobility of labour will be fast, otherwise low.
2. POLITICAL STABILITY :- A sound government can ensure the safety of the people and labour is encouraged to move from one place to another. Political instability discourages the mobility of labour.
3. BETTER ENVIRONMENT :- If the environment in which work is done pleasant it will attract the workers and mobility of labour will increase.
4. ATTRACTIVE REWARD :- Workers always move to those jobs which offer higher wages and allowances. Mobility can be promoted by offering higher wages.
5. NEW PROJECTS :- If new development projects are started, these will attract the labourer and will increase the mobility of labour.
6. BETTER PROSPECTS :- If there is difference in prospects of different enterprises then labour will move to better prospects.
7. PROPER GUIDANCE :- Proper guidance and information about the better jobs compel the workers to move from one place to another and from one occupation to another.