Holding Company :-
A company which holds and controls the amount of stock of other companies is called holding company. In other word we can say that it holds the securities of other companies. The company whose shares are purchased by the holding company is known as subsidiary company. At the same time a company may be holding company and a subsidiary to another company. In order to become a holding company it should hold the majority of the shares of other companies. First of all holding company was introduced in U.S.A.
Advantages of Holding Company :-
Following are the important advantages of holding company :
1. Easy Formation :-
The holding company can be formed very easily. There is no legal formality. Any company may purchase the majority shares from stock exchange and can become ho;ding company.
2. Large Business :-
A holding company can collect the capital and expand the business on large scale.
3. Foreign Capital :-
The holding company may also attract the foreign capital for the expansion of a business.
4. A Stable Combination :-
The holding company is a very stable form of business organization. Its life is not affected by the disagreement of subsidiary company.
5. Goodwill :-
When the goodwill of the holding company is established in the market, it also improves the goodwill of its subsidiary company before the public.
6. Separate Position :-
The subsidiary companies can maintain their separate position under this system. They do not lose their identity.
7. Acceptable :-
A holding company is not critical by the public and it is acceptable for the society.
8. Control on Production :-
A holding company can check the production and adjusts the supply according the demand. So over production can not take place.
9. Elimination of Competition :-
The holding company eliminates competition due to centralized control over the subsidiary companies, so it earns maximum profit.
10. Services of Experts :-
A holding company hires the services of experts and experienced people for the business due to large capital. So its production, distribution and profit increases.
Disadvantages or Defects of Holding Company :-
Following are the main defects of the holding company :
1. Problem of Monopoly :-
A holding company tries to create monopoly over the market. Monopoly is always against the public interest. It fixes higher prices and consumer suffers a loss.
2. Unequal Distribution of Wealth :-
Due to holding companies wealth goes in few hands and society is divided into two classes, rich and poor. Rich class enjoys all the amenities of life while poor class faces poverty and hunger.
3. Costly Management :-
A holding company spends a lot of money on the officers and offices. All the units are managed by the central authority. So it is costly to maintain the proper control on large number subsidiary companies.
4. Minority Interest Ignored :-
The interest of the minority shareholders is ignored and the members of the holding company dispose of every resolution for their own interest.
5. Misuse of Funds :-
The directors of the company enjoys unlimited powers and they take undue advantages. They misuse the funds also.
6. Over Capitalization :-
There is always a danger of over capitalization in the holding companies. It is very harmful for both the companies.
7. False Reports :-
Generally the directors of the company present false reports about the company's financial position. The true condition of the company no body knows, and due to this sometimes creditors suffer a loss.
8. Chances of Fraud :-
In the preparation of accounts the chances of fraud are bright in company transaction.
9. Anti Trust Laws :-
Antitrust laws are always threat to the existence of large scale holding company.
10. Period of Crises :-
A holding company can not carry on production economically during the period of crises and depression.
11. Adverse Affect on Goodwill :-
If a holding company loses the confidence the public, it also affects the reputation of subsidiary companies adversely.
Tuesday, 21 June 2011
Holding Company :-