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Saturday, 9 July 2011

Discuss the major food crops and cash crops of Pakistan and suggest measures to improve them

Wheat, rice, maize, grams and pulses are included in the food crops. The cash crops are cotton, tobacco and sugarcane.

FOOD CROPS
1. Wheat :-
It is the basic food crop of Pakistan. The area of wheat cultivation is increasing in Pakistan. The per acre yield has also increased due to the introduction of new wheat varieties and use of modern technology. But still Pakistan is facing the food shortage problem. Now Pakistan has achieved nearly self sufficiency in wheat. Smuggling of wheat to India and Afghanistan is still continue.

2. Rice :-
It is also an important food crop for the people. It is also an important source of foreign exchange. The average per acre yield is also increasing day by day and now it is 1800 kg per hectre.There is a stiff competition in the export of rice. The government of Pakistan is trying her best to improve the quality and quantity of the product. Research efforts are being made to introduce new varieties. The flow of inputs and credit is also being increased. It has encouraged the farmers and increased per acre yield.

3. Maize :-
It is an important food as well as raw material for edible oil production. It is also used in the poultry food. The major portion of this crop is growing in NWFP. The average is 1250 kg per hectre. The performance of this crop is very poor due to the inadequate facilities. There is a need of proper attention to improve this crop. The main reason for the poor performance is the lack of adequate seed supply and inadequate practices.

4. Gram and Pulses :-
These are an important of protein and balanced diet. In 1994-95, 1430 thousand hectre areas was cultivated under pulses and production was 740 thousand millions tons. The yield per hectre was 530 kg. The production decreases due to inadequate rate. The government is providing new varieties of seed to improve the production.

5. Barley and Millet :-
These are also food crops. These are cultivated in the dry and sandy areas. Now their consumption has decreased. But it was used in the poultry feed. The per acre yield is low due to inadequate fertilizer and poor land preparation.

CASH CROPS
1. Cotton :-
It is an important cash crop of Pakistan. Its yield per hecter is 770 kg. It is not only an export earning crop but it is also provides raw material to local industry. The rate of production has increased. The domestic consumption is 4.1 million bales. While 4.8 million bales are exported. The increase in the production of cotton is due to the introduction of new varieties of seed. The government is also providing the credit facilities to the farmers for spray and fertilizers. To give incentive to the farmers. Government also fixes the high price of cotton. It has encouraged our farmers.

2. Oil Seeds and Vegetable Oils :-
Rape, sunflower and soybeans crops are grown for oil. However the major source of domestic oil production is cotton seed. The average yield of oil seed is 700 kg/hectre. If we want to improve the production of oil seed we should import the better quality of seed from other countries. Government should also provide the various incentives to the farmers for the cultivation of oil seeds. We should pay special attention to the development, harvesting and thrashing of oil seeds. It is an important cash crop of Pakistan. Pakistan has achieved the self sufficiency in early 1980's.

3. Sugar Cane :-
In Pakistan sugar industry is one of the largest industries. It is cultivated on large area. The average per hectre is 35 tons. There is a need of special attention to the sugar cane industry. At present 1/3 of sugar-cane product is wasted in transit from farms to mills. Credit and inputs facilities are also not sufficient. The excise duty should also be reduced to encourage the farmers.Due to increase in sugar consumption Pakistan has to import the sugar from time to time. Due to research and development of new varieties and agro economic practices have to be imported. Inputs and credit both are readily available. We can increase the efficiency of sugar mills through higher recovery and full use of by products.

4. Tobacco :-
Pakistan is meeting all the domestic requirements of tobacco and also exporting tobacco in the form of cigarettes. It is cultivated in Sindh, NWFP and Punjab province. New varieties should be developed to increase the production is mainly concentrated in lower Indus Basic Plane of the Punjab. We are only exporting the refine quality of tobacco in the shape of cigarettes.

3 comments:

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gexhouse2 26 September 2013 06:28  

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