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Sunday, 10 July 2011

What is importance of livestock? Discuss its problems and suggestions for the development of livestock

IMPORTANCE OF LIVESTOCK :-
The livestock population in India and Pakistan consists of buffalo's, cows, goats, poultry, camels, donkey, horses etc.
Live stock is an important source of food meat, butter and power. In India and Pakistan it is sub sector of agriculture. The importance of livestock in the economic development can be judged by the following facts :

1. Source of Food :-
Livestock provides some basic foods like meat, milk , butter, eggs and fish which is an important source of balanced diet. Healthy nation cannot survive without balanced diet.

2. Importance for Agriculture :-
About 75% of agriculture depends upon the cattle for the cultivation of the land, because machinery is very costly and it is not with in the reach of small farmers.

3. Use of Transportation :-
The cattle's are also used for the transportation. Our agriculture product is mainly transported from rural areas to urban areas by the cattle's. The product is transported to the market with the help of animals.

4. Supply of Raw Material :-
Livestock also provides the raw material like skins and wool to the industry. The production of hides and wool is increasing from year to year.

5. Source of Foreign Exchange :-
Some animals like buffalo, cow and fish provides valuable foreign exchange. In visible exports their share is admirable.

6. Share in GDP :-
Livestock share in the GDP is 8% which shows that it is an important sector of our economy.


PROBLEMS OF LIVESTOCK :-
In India and Pakistan the quality and quantity of livestock is very poor as compared to the advanced countries.
Following are the important problems of livestock :

1. Slaughter of Animals :-
As the population is increasing in India and Pakistan the slaughter of goats, buffalo and cows is increasing day by day. So it has created shortage of animals.

2. Lack of Grazing Grounds :-
As the population is increasing land holdings are reducing and people are sowing only food crops instead of grass.

3. Imperfect Market :-
The market of milk, ghee is not well organized. The owner of milk giving animals are at mercy of milk sellers. Villages are not connected with the markets by metaled roads, so product is wasted.

4. Lack of Livestock Farms :-
We have no well established livestock farms in our region. There is also no arrangement for cattle show in various parts of the country which may encourage the farms.

5. No Proper Care of Cattle's :-
Our farmer is unable to keep the cattle's in sheds. The animals are facing the extreme cold and hot weather conditions. So these are caught by the various diseases.

6. Lack of Veterinary Hospitals :-
In India and Pakistan the facility of hospital is not sufficient for the animals due to this large number of cattle's die, without treatment.

7. Low Per Capita Out Put :-
In South Asia per capita out put is very low as compared to the advanced countries, for example milk giving per capita out put is only 92.9 liter, which is very low.

8. Lack of Milk Plants :-
In India and Pakistan milk plants are also not sufficient. There are very few plants in all our the country. So they are not sufficient to process the milk and variety of milk product.

9. Inferior Quality of Cattle :-
In India and Pakistan the quality of cows, buffalo are generally inferior and costly. People are not interested to do this business on large scale.

10. Low Prices of Milk and Milk Products :-
The prices of milk, ghee and cream are very low in villages. The sellers of milk and ghee are not attracted to increase the milk giving animals. The middle man purchases the product on low rate and sell at high rate.

11. High Prices of Animals Feed :-
The price of animals feed is increasing day by day but the rate of output is low. So the owner of cow and buffalo suffers a loss when he compares the price of feed and the prices of the milk.

12. Prohibition in Cities :-
Now the government is not allowing the people to keep animals in urban areas. It has also discouraged the people to keep animals in their houses.


Note :- This measurement section is only prepared on Pakistani Government Policies.

MEASURES TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS :-
The government of Pakistan is trying to improve the quality and quantity of livestock and their products, in the country. The government has adopted the following measures. The government has adopted the following measures :

1. Separated Department :-
In 1973, the government created the separate department of live stock to develop the condition of cattle's.

2. Research Centers :-
In Pakistan 33 livestock farms/experiment stations have been established in the four provinces and one in Bahadur Nagar for research on breeding, feeding and marketing.

3. Poultry Farms :-
There are more than 3450 commercial poultry farms which produce meat eggs in the country. The govt. has also provided various incentives to poultry industry.

4. Establishment of Veterinary Hospitals :-
The government has established 588 hospital and 1100 veterinary for the treatment of animals.

5. Artificial Insemination :-
This programme is also working successfully. This facility is provided in 305 centers of the country to develop this sector.

6. Milk Plant :-
In Pakistan 20 milk plants are operation to process about 600 tons of milk and milk products daily.

7. Foreign Assistance for Livestock :-
Iran and Pakistan has cooperated with each other for the development of livestock.
The Newzealand government is also assisting Pakistan for the establishment of animal husbandry.
Australian government has offered 50,000 cattle's head as a gift for promotion of milk plant.
World bank is also providing assistance for livestock development a pilot project near Pattoki to increase the livestock production.

8. Private Sector Should be Encouraged :-
The private sector should be encouraged for the establishment of dairy farms, and poultry farms. For this purpose machinery facilities should be provided.

9. Credit Facilities To the Farmers :-
Credit facilities should be provided to the farmers without for cattle breeding. They should be also allowed to import the animals.

10 Control on Slaughtering :-
The government should also take effective steps to reduce the rate of slaughtering in the country. Govt. can increase the number of meatless days.

11. Increase in Hatcheries :-
There are only 48 hatcheries in the country which are inadequate than our needs. We should increase the production of chickens and eggs by expanding the poultry industry.

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