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Friday, 29 July 2011

Write a note on the following 1. Pakistan Railway 2. Air transport in Pakistan (PIA) 3. Road transport in Pakistan 4. Communication system in Pakistan

PAKISTAN RAILWAYS :-
Pakistan railway is an important source of transport in the country. In the world war second railway was used a very important source of transportation. But its condition was miserable at the time of independence.

Pakistan has paid special attention for the development of railway. In every plan a sufficient amount was allocated for its development. The development of railway can be judged by the following facts :

1. Project Completed :-
1. Karachi circular railway constructed.
2. Kot-Adu, D.G.Khan, Kasmore link completed.
3. Marshalling yar and pipri completed.
4. Mehran Bridge Kotri completed.

2. Project Near Completion :-
1.Work on phase of Margala to Islamabad is in hand.
2. Construction of Karachi Terminal Station is near completion.
3. Oil yard at Mahmood Kot is also completed.
4. Improvement in telecommunication is under process.

3. Fast Trains :-
Fast trains and rail cars are introduced between various cities of Pakistan. There are many comfortable trains, Shalimar Express is very fast train between Lahore and Karachi.

4. Electric Train :-
Pakistan railway has also introduced electric trains between Lahore and Karachi and Khanewal. Further it will be extended from Lahore to Karachi.

5. Workshops :-
A number of workshops have been set up on various stations. The workshops on Mughalpura Lahore is making wagons and carriages.

6. Factories :-
Various factories has been set up in the country for the production of wagon and carriages. These are set up in Islamabad, Shukhur, Jehlum, Kohat, Kotri, Khanewal.

7. Export :-
Now Pakistan is also exporting the wagons and carriages to other countries like Bangladesh.

Problems of Pakistan Railways :-
The Pakistan railway out put is very low because private trucks and NLC have adversely affected its earnings. Railway has also to operate the uneconomical routs. The passengers misuse the trains. Management has shown inefficiency and railway is suffering a loss.


AIR TRANSPORTATION IN PAKISTAN (PIA) :-
In 1949 there were only three small air companies in 1955, Pakistan International Air Line was set up.

Objectives of PIA :-
It was set up to provide safe and efficient transport services on domestic and international routs according to the international standard.

PIA Performance :-
PIA has made rapid progress is increasing the domestic and international flights. All the important cities of Pakistan are now provided air transport services. On the international route, PIA has extended its services to all the important countries of the world. In the world PIA is considered an efficient airlines. PIA earned profit Rs. 11813 million during 1993. During the period of 6th five year plan PIA added :
1. One 747.
2. Six Boeing's.
3. Two Twin others.
4. Three Air Buses and two Fokker to its Flee.
5. PIA fleet is comprised 48 aircraft of different types.

Problems of PIA :-
In the last few years there are complaints that ticket are being black marketed. Reservation problem is also fell by the people. To improve the efficiency of PIA last government had banned the union and provided engineering facilities. But now again government has decided to restore the union in PIA Govt. has also approved 13 private parties to operate new domestic lines. Now there are four private carriers operating on various routes on 24.9.2000.


ROAD AND TRANSPORT IN PAKISTAN :-
Road transport is an important means of conveyance in Pakistan. Buses, Trucks, Cars, Rickshaws and Motor Cycles are included in the road transport. About 82% passengers in the country use the road transport. At the time of partition roads were inadequate to meet the needs of the country.The government of Pakistan paid special attention on the improvement and construction of new roads. During the 6th five year plan almost Rs. 19 billion were allocated for the development of road in the country. In the 8th five year plan sufficient amount was allocated.

Advantages of Road and Transportation :-
1.It has increased the revenue through taxes.
2. Road transport is cheaper than rail and air.
3. It has great importance for agriculture and industrial sector.
4. The return of road transport investment is quick.
5. It facilities the trade.
6. It is an important source with the urban areas.
7. Villages are connected with the urban areas.

Operation :-
In Pakistan mainly road transport is in the hands of private sector. To improve the urban transport government had set up the transport corporation. In 1977 Punjab and Karachi transport corporation was set up.


COMMUNICATION SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN :-
If in any country communication system is well developed and cheap it expands the market of various goods and saves the time. In the development of Pakistan it is playing very effective role.
In Pakistan following are the important means of communication :

1. Postal Services :-
In Pakistan our postal system s well organized. The officers of this department are selected through Federal Public Commission by the competitive Examination (CSS). These postal training centers have been set up to train the postal stuff. Post offices are also collecting the small savings of the people. Now letters are lifted by air from the important cities.

Urgent Mail Services :- Post office department has introduced urgent mail services. Within 24 hours letter can b received in the important cities. It is great advantage for the people.

2. Telecommunication :-
In 1947, there were only seven telegraph offices and 12346 telephones in the country. In 2000 it has been increased 3035000 and now it linked all over the world through satellite communication system.

3. Radio :-
There were only two radio stations in 1947, one at Lahore and other at Peshawar. The government of Pakistan improved this sector and set up various radio stations in Multan, Quetta, Karachi, Rawalpindi and Bahawalpur. In 1972, it was converted into corporation. Radio is an important source of political awareness.

4. Television :-
A private limited company introduced television in November, 1964 in Pakistan. In 1967, this company was converted into public limited company. In Pakistan T.V is operated on commercial lines. PTV covers 82% population of the country. The license fee is also charged. Noe government has introduced the other channels for students education, PTV has also introduced the morning programmes.

5. The Pakistan Motorway :-
This project was initiated by the former Govt. Nawaz Sharif, At present there is one National Highway No. 5 in Pakistan. It is also called Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Peshawar Highway. It carries about 56% traffic of the country. Due to Central Asian Republics there is great trade potential for Pakistan.

1st Section :- The first section is the six lane Islamabad, Lahore, motorway which is 335km in length.

2nd Section :- It is from Islamabad to Peshawar which is 154 km in length.

3rd Section :- It is from Sheikupura to Multan. Its length is 317 km.

Completed Section :- Gwader Road Motorway is 895 km Karachi-Hub-Kakar is 341 km. These have been completed in 1998.and Lahore to Islamabad and Islamabad to Peshawar Motorway is also completed and Pindi Bhatian to Faisalabad motorway too completed..

Objectives :-
1. To promote international trade.
2. To promote the infrastructure to the industries.
3. To reduce the traffic pressure on the present roads.
4. To provide fast and cheap transportation.
5. To create the new jobs.
6. To remove the regional disparity.
7. To boost up the industrial zones.
8. To improve GDP.

It was a controversial project. Some people say that it is very costly and it has no immediate necessity. They consider a luxury. The construction contract of first section of 6 lane was given to South Korean Company. Its cost was 30.5 billion. The contract for second section was given to Turkish Company.
The PPP Govt. was not satisfied from this project and if brought some changes in it. The delay was also taken place. The change in the contract also lowered the prestige of the country.
In-spite of various problems it is a fact that Motorway role can not be ignored in the development of the country.

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