Kinship or BradaryIn the social life of the Sub-continent, especially Bradary system is in vogue. In this respect, many regions were specific for specific bradaries. In the ancient cities, different bradaries resided in different towns or mohullahs where there another bradary individual were thought alien and'there coming going was not approved.
This term has been taken from Persian word ‘Bradary’. Many families make Bradary and its individual claim to be the offspring of the same ancestors and thus are joined by blood relations. Therefore, of a same caste people live with special geographical limits. In the modern age, social mobility has made the individual of a Bradary to leave his specific geographic limits and because of exogamy, one’s Bradary relation is becoming weak.
Definition of Kinship or BradaryIt is the name of one’s caste, people living together and they share matters of social life by cooperating with each other.
Anthropologists have a word near to Bradary as kinship which they use. “In every society, ties by blood and marriage tend to be basis for building the more intimate and essential relations that is kinship.”
In addition, if an individual has an equal emotional attachment from paternal and maternal relation, anthropologists call him kindred. In Arabia and Africa, the tribes have this type of Bradary.
“Recognized members of a bilateral decent group are called collectively
For some tribes, anthropologists use the word class which consists of either paternal or maternal relations.
A more clear definition of class is :Clan : “A clan system assigns a number of individuals in each generation to a common decent category which by unilateral principle, may be either patrilineal or matrilineal.”
“The clan has been called a form of great family extending either in the male or the female line.”
This shape of Bradary or clan, was more popular in ancient societies when woman had lower status in the society. This form was made clearer by these two form. of marriages - Booty marriage and purchase marriages. In this case, Bradary consisted of by only paternal relatives. In the Sub-continent, Aryan
societies were in the form of clans. Whatever the manner of bradary or kinship, according to the sociologists,
its function are the same.
Functions of BradaryI. Bradary is a group consisting of different families and it has a system of traditions, values and norms to keep control and uniformity in the group life. Whatever was learnt from elders of a Bradary was adopted in the social life.
2. Bradary creates a sense of security and we feelings and cooperates at the times of joy and grief, promoting mutual unity. There is no sense of social loneliness in the individuals and their social belongingness remains in tact.
3. Bradary has a system of specific norms and sanctions through reward and punishment keep the unity of the Bradary. Sometimes, Bradary expresses its serious hatred and disapproval for the deviants by showing its reactions in case of normative deviance. To keep traditions of Bradary Secure, such deviants are either murdered or excommunicated from Bradary which is a bitter lesson of shame and fear for others and they do not deviate from the norms of the society.
4. The important function of Bradary is to provide matrimonial facility. In some societies, especially in Africa and in India once or twice festivals are held for this in which individuals of specific age select matches for marriage but most of these matters are settled with the advice of elders of the Bradary and endogamy is discouraged.
5. A Bradary is holder of values, traditions and customs of a society and no change or amendment is liked by a Bradary. It is reacted, thinking its against the existence of culture. In spite of this effort, in the industrial societies Bradaries have failed to exist and in the post industrial Societies this system has vanished completely.
Changes in BradaryIndustrial revolution has affected the social life, the most of all bringing about changes in structure and functions and Bradary has been affected the most. Because of modernity and industrial progress, economic changes have occurred. The families have been obliged to go to distant places for employment and business and Bradary influence has lessened in terms of values and traditions and its structure has changed.
l. Mate-selection :
Previously, Bradary has arranged marriages in festivals and collective decisions for the individuals and because of no pressure of Bradary, families are doing this with their own will and endogamy is not compulsory, now an exogamy is not disliked.
2. Sanctity of Traditions :
Agrarian especially tribal societies, the center of social life is considered the traditions and values of Bradary and abiding by these is an important characteristic of the social and cultural life. But in modern industrial societies, people adopt modern values and style of life instead of the values of Bradary and are careless about it and as a result of it, the importance of Bradary has decreased.
3. Bradary as Identification :
A Bradary name was the identification of an individual of a society whereas in the modern social life, wealth and post determine the status of an individual in a society and ancestor-ship and Bradary is ignored ground. Superior or inferior status concept pertaining to Bradary is ending and an individual is recognized not by his Bradary but by his ability, experience, skill, post and popularity.