No society of the world has ever been able to create an environment to help all the individuals to live their lives according to social norms. Opposition of social norms is continuous. Every individual may any time deviate from behaviour, may be normative behaviour in one society and in another society it may be a deviation. For example, in Pakistani society, a child is beaten by parents, it is a normative behaviour whereas in Britain, it is a deviation of behaviour. So, deviation requires the study of culture, time and place. According to James M. Henslin : "We must consider deviance with reference to culture, time and space".
Definition :1. James H. Henslin :
"All violations of social rules, regardless of their seriousness."
2. Wickman :
"Deviance is behaviour that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group of a society."
3. Hat-ton and Hunt :
"Any failure to conform to customary norms."
Sociologists think deviation a social behaviour. A common man thinks deviation a negative attitude but, according to sociologists, it is necessary for proper growth of personality and for satisfaction of inner self of a person because it dissipates frustration and restores normal behaviour. However, it is a social behaviour of man and it has been tried to explain in different ways as is detailed below :
Comparing Biological, Psychological and Sociological Explanations :
Some norms are compulsory for society. Why do the people violate them?
The explanation of the answer of this question has been given by different schools of thoughts—Biologists and Psychologists, differing from that of the sociologists, which is compared here.
Biologists' viewpoint :
According to them, deviation is natural among individuals. Their physical structure compels them to deviate. Genetic disposition is stressed in biology which is formed because of waywardness and crimes (Lambrose 1911, Sheldon 1949). Three points of view according to biology are important :
1. Intelligence :
"Low intelligence leads to crime deviation."
2. XYY Theory :
An extra Y chromosome in males leads to crime deviance.
3. Physical Structure or Body Type :
Body type-people with, squarish muscular bodies are more likely to commit crimes.
Psychologists' viewpoint :
The defects of physical body of individual called personality disorders, are a course of deviation. "The supposition is that deviating individuals have deviating personalities." (Kalichman 1988, Heilburn 1990)
Sociologists' viewpoint :
They answer the question that social environment inclines some individuals towards deviation of social norms. According to the sociologists that outer effects are because of socialization, sub-culture membership and social class.
We learn social deviation from the people to whom we are attached most of the time (Sutherland 1974-92). We learn deviation like other things from family and friends. Neighbors and sub-culture play an important role in teaching these.
"Sometimes social environment is so tight and austere that an individual feels that from normative way the attainment of object is difficult, therefore, he adopts a deviation way."