1.C.H. Persell :
"Values are strongly held general ideas people share about what is good or bad, desirable or undesirable."
2. R.T. Schaefer :
"Values are collective conception of what is 'considered good, desirable or proper or bad, understandable, and improper in a culture."
In the light of these definitions, it has been explained that values are those behaviours or things which the people include in their lives with their own sweet will and give importance to those. Values serve as a measure to check the behaviour of people. Robin William points out in one of his studies that in a society where marriage is thought an important value the family system is thought strong. He further explains that use of money has a great importance in pointing social values. If individuals spend more money on books, the acquisition of knowledge will be important values. If much is spent on a marriage ceremonies this show will be an important values. Basically, values affect the behaviour and tendency of people. Though, values change but the rate of change is so slow that it is not felt. Therefore, they seem durable and societies have great pressure to retain them. Especially, elders and old class of a society is very anxious about these and do not spare the people doing any change or making these unstable by showing anger.
If we see from Indian Pakistani society's point of view:
i. Islam is an important social value but the bindings of elements of Islam do not have a social value because saying prayer is not enough estimable and no attempt to say it willingly is done.
ii. Acquisition of wealth is thought a value in our society and a strong desire to get it, is given an important status of a value.
iii.. Arranged marriage is thought an important value, especially in a village society because love marriage is not liked in provinces of Sindh and Balochistan and the individual doing so are dealt with a custom known as `Karo Kare' which is a sort of punishment.
Causes of Value Conflict :
Progress in knowledge, awareness of social conditions and rapid economic progress are cause of value conflict. A detail of this is given below :
1. According to Sociologists, two classes, rulers and the ruled, have different values because of structure and functions and class values are called value conflicts because to adopt class values for the benefit, is a problem of their survival.
2. In the opinion of functional .theorists, economic progress creates basic changes in the structure of a society and the functions of individual, organizations and groups, change because of changing needs and expectations whereas culture affects minds with full force, brings about alternative values for the same social condition and thus creating a condition of value conflict.
3. According to social psychologists, generation gap is cause of value conflict because every generation has its own demands with different consciousness and awareness. There is a difference of group relations and their life style gives rise to different values whereas the lives of their elders have different values because of the demand of the time. Both the groups like their values and want continuity and this produces a value conflict in the same social conditions.
In the words of C.H. Persell, "Taboo is a strongly prohibited social practice."
In all societies of the world, there is an incest taboo. With the.evolution of society, this taboo got intensity to the extent of serious dislikedness and hatred in any society. Generally; any activity which has been considered as restructure or prohibited, produces a serious social stress in case of its validation and that becomes a social taboo just as in Islamic society drinking and eating swine meat is a taboo.
Social taboos are strong social norms which are socially intolerable and collectively the society thinks it against its survival. The society expects its individuals to have the regard of the most strong forms of social norms.
The regard about the social objects of a customary religion in any society is, called a belief. Belief is above reason and sense. It cannot be judged through senses and there is no need of it. It is said about belief that it is either correct or not and there is nothing between it.
According to R.T. Schaefer, "Beliefs are statements to which members of a particular religion adhere."
It is divided into two parts:
i. Religious values
i. Religious values are a common concept of individuals about an object that they are good and the most liked. They determine the rule of an individual and guide him in the social life. For instance, marriage is an important religious duty in Islam and divorce is not liked in Islam and this is to provide survival and guidance to the life of an individual.
ii. The concept of cosmology is a specific concept about its nature. The questions like, what is life, death and world, our coming into this world and leaving it, hell and paradise, soul, angels and a firm belief about the creator of this universe etc.
The methods and manners derived by religion to express beliefs are called worships or invoking which is an expression of. obedience to Divine power practically.