Define the status and Explain through examples the elements determining the achieved and ascribed status
StatusThe social structure of human society demands status of individuals in a society and the nature of their relations should be according to the accepted status of the society. The word status is used about the wealth or fame of an individual but, in sociology, it means somewhat different from its general meanings. This is actually the position of an individual in the structure of a society. Status is a wonderful invention of human beings which relates us with etch other and is able to determine our position in the society. Every society's status has its specific duties, rights and expectations which determine the behaviour of an individual. For instance, the role of a child is recognized in every society and children have specific rights of proper diet and as duty they should respect their elders and expectations are to help to collect food, to play with playmates. According to sociologists, status changes with place, time and with reference to individuals. The rapidity with which an individual changes social interaction with place and other individuals, with the sense rapidity and speed status is changed. For instance, one social situation may have different status just as in a college students, professors, principal, clerks and chowkidar etc. Similarly, one individual may have different status in different social structures just as in a home a son, brother, husband and father etc. In the light of this explanation, status can be defined as :
1. Van der Zander : "Status means a position in a social structure."
2. R.T. Schaefer : "Status refers to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society."
3. C.H. Persell : "A socially defined position in a society that carries with it certain prescribed rights, obligations and expected behaviours."
4. Paul H. Landis : "Status is that position or place that an individual has on the basis of his specific role in his groups."
5. Ralph Linton : "Status is an open achieved fact in .1 society that gives a higher or lower position to an individual in a group life."
6. Harton and Hunt : "That place or position that societies give to individuals n their group . life."
7. Broom and Silznick : "The place of an individual in a social system is called social status.
Types of StatusIt has two kinds according to sociologists:
1. Ascribed Status : "An ascribed status is assigned to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talent or characteristics." (C.H.. Persell)
Ascribed status is assigned generally with VII: birth of an individual. Just as sex, age, social background and caste etc.
Ascribed status cannot be changed. However, its collective status can change the social .structure just as a caste or social background gets some importance. For instance, in Africa, black were considered inferior and most of their rights were confiscated but sometimes they got their rights and they became first class citizens.
2. Achieved Status : "An achieved status is attained by a person largely through his or her o efforts or talent."
Though this status is determined with reference to social structure but the individual's own mental or physical ability is kept in view and one's effort is of great importance. For example, professorship, athlete and dacoity are achieved status but in the social status, determination, mental ability (Professorship), physical strength for that athlete and effort for dacoity have importance:8A1 social structure the goodness, apprOval and standard determination is already present.
Achieved status is changeable and rules and regulation for this change are present in the social structure and individual are expected to adopt determined ways just as to become a professor a certain educational standard is necessary and it is also necessary to show ability in an interview.
Master Status :A sociologist, Hevertt Hughes, observed that in all societies, a few status had more importance than other status and have a central role in determining the position of an individual. These are called master status. According to him the definition of master status is as follows:
"A Master Status is a status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's position within a society."
For instance, an individual has a status of Imam Masjid in a village society. This is his master status and this will determine his general position in home, market and masjid and his other status of father, of husband in home, friend. and customer have no special importance so far as that his ascribed status of sex, age and caste cannot decrease his master status and its respect and regard. Similarly, in tribal societies, the head of tribe on the basis of this master status has a special position and his other status .111 have secondary position and his status will not change because of change of place, time and with reference to social interaction with others.
In some society's caste, social background and religious recognition have the position of master status. In the ancient societies, especially in the modern societies generally, sex is given the master status. With reference to Master Status, Evert Hughes explain's, "Master status is a key or care status that carries primary weight in our social interaction and relationships. It lays the framework within which our goods are formulated and our training is carried out."