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Saturday, 25 October 2014

Explain the different kinds of culture with reference to examples from Indian Pakistani society



Culture is that everything or style of behaviour of a society that human beings have developed or created by themselves which should have been transferred from race to race and should have been variable. William F. Ogburn has divided it into four types to distinguish between ingredients of culture:

1. Material Culture : 
"Material culture refers to the physical or technological aspects of our daily lives, including food items, houses, factories and new materials, etc. (W.F. Ogburn) With reference to Indian Pakistani culture, shalwar qameez, bullcart, ajruk, turban, lehnga, specific design of houses, buryani, sawayan, daggers, drums and pitcher etc. are parts of material culture.

2. Non-material Culture : 
According to Ogburn definition: "Non-material culture refers to ways using material objects and to customs, beliefs, philosophies, government and patterns of communications."
    Non-material culture includes all things which can be felt but not touched like knowledge, art, views, customs, language and values. They show the behaviour and trend of an individual and point out the ture of a way of living,
 In India Pakistan, Hindi or Urdu is our language, Hinduism and Islam our religion and code of life. Ideology of India Pakistan is our non-material view and our non aerial recognition. Death, marriages, proposals, eids, manners are ,ur cust, .ns. Joint family, arranged marriage, service of parents and obedience to them are our values. Saiful Malook, Heer Waris Shah, Sussi Punoo, Ghalib, Mir, Iqbal, poetry of Faiz is our literature.
 All of these are our non-material culture part.

3. Ideal Culture :
     That part of culture or life style that is liked by the society and which is desired to be acted upon by the society, is called Ideal Culture. It is the goal o every culture. Morality, beliefs and thoughts persuade and determine the love o action towards this goal. For example, mutual regard, unity, good treatment respect for norms, honesty and obeying the orders of religion are called ideal culture. The minority of a society acts upon ideal culture but the society desires
 that majority of people should act upon this for which persuasions like preaching and way of punishment method is adopted and during training, this culture is made others remember also.

4. Real Culture :
     The part of culture on which most of the people are acting upon despite the fact that that culture is useful or not or is liked by all or is not liked by the society. For instance, telling a lie is a common thing. Bribery is thought a social need, in spite of dislike much is spent on marriages. Spending theft and pomp and show have become part of our life. Quarrels on petty things or matters common and disorder is our recognition culture. The more the vastness of ideal culture, the more the difficult social stability will be. 

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