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Friday, 24 October 2014

What do you understand by Social Sanctions and Discuss their importance in the society



Most of us have regard for social norms and accept them for the betterment of society and we expect the same from others. All of these behaviours reflect some basic norms of socialization of a culture and we are bound to act according to them consciously because we, know that if we do not adopt them according to norms, we will have to face punishment from others that can be ridicule, physical punishment or a fine or imprisonment. This system or mechanism of society is called Sanctions.


Social Sanctions

     There is a spontaneous and prompt system in every society to keep it according to the expectations of the individual of a society to keep going on according to the demands of social life; which consist of encouragement or discouragement, praise or ridicule. This reaction is called Social Sanctions.

Definitions :
1. C.H. Persell :
      "Sanctions the rewards or punishments issued by individuals, organizations or societies in an effort to secure conformity of behaviour."
2. R.T. Schaefer :
      "Sanctions are penalties and rewards for conduct concerning Social Norms."
                    

Types of Social Norms

      In order to understand social sanctions, its explanation is done with reference to four types. The detail is given below:
i. Positive Sanctions :
      On adopting a positive, favourite and expected behaviour of an individual of a society shows a pleasant reaction of encouragement or prize is called Positive Sanction.
      Positive sanctions may have the expression of a smile, praise, cash, prize, bonus, model or a certificate award. These rewards point out the cultural values of a society and also provide a mechanism to maintain the cultural values.
ii. Negative Sanctions :
      In order to discourage the non-favourite and deviating behaviour of individuals of a society, the reaction of the society consists of punishment or disliking, is called Negative Sanction. These may consist of anger, hatred, suspension of relations, fine imprisonment, instead of revengeful activity, these have a reformative aspect and their aim is to divert the individuals towards social norms and values to maintain the harmony of the society.
iii. Formal Sanctions :
      There are informal institutions to maintain social control: Folk ways, mores, values and tradition and formal system controls laws, organizations and societies etc. that help the individuals to keep their behaviour impose reward or punishment formal sanctions include models, certificates of merit, fine or imprisonment which are enforced through regular organizations and their rules and regulations and certificates of merit are given through governmental organizations and fines and punishments are given through courts of justice.
iv. Informal Sanctions :
      Such sanctions, without any rules and regulations, are enforced on individuals for going against laws, norms and mores are called Informed Sanctions. These sanctions are the result of some undesired action of some individual as a reaction. For instance, to express hatred, to beat for nothing and to praise on good morals etc. are informal sanctions.
          

The Importance of Social Sanctions

     To keep the social control in the society and to save it from deviation, disorder, dispersion and turmoil, the effective system of sanctions has a great importance because:
  i.   They provide pursuance and punctuality to the social norms of a society.
   
ii.  Social sanctions fake care of social values, customs and traditions and keep their regard and importance in the society, which give the guarantee of the survival of the culture of a society.
  
iii. Social sanctions keep the behaviour, tendency and activities of individuals within limits of culture.
  
iv.  Social sanctions lessen the sense of insecurity and loneliness in the individual of a society and create an emotion of doing something because prizes and awards promote positive behaviour and sense of self-belongingness and unity increases. Instead of separating from the society, an individual, take interest in working together. Because of this mental pressure and depression become less and the individual remains safe from it.
  
v.   Social sanctions in the socialization act as an effective weapon or a policy. In schools, colleges and in other training institutions through these sanctions, individuals under training are kept towards training matters continuously and their record is kept up. A threat of discharge from a school and a reward on good working, the environment of a school becomes pleasant. Discipline is easy to maintain and total working remains satisfactory.
   
vi.  The social sanctions through a balance of fear and joy create a pleasant- ness and agreement between the relations of the individuals of a society, make the working, doing duties easy and confirm the belief of concept of rights which increase the confidence in the structure and environment for the individual of a society and positive behaviours created hope which becomes a source of social control and stability.
   
vii. Social sanctions provide an effective system of safety for cultural heritage because they save cultural heritage from change by giving punishment to law-breakers and awarding the people abiding by good values and beliefs and the cultural heritage is transferred to the next generation in an effective and safe manner and thus, the cultural continuity is maintained.
            

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