PersonalityPersonality is a purely human quality and is a very complicated instinctual organization. It is the thoughts and character, interests and behaviour even it is the philosophy of life of a person. There is nothing more interesting than personality topic. Husband wife, officer and subordinate and capitalists and labourers are all
on the way of finding the personality of one another.
Apparent and Literary meaning of personality :
It is derived from Latin word ‘persona’ meaning shape or form. Nowadays, this word is used in different social science - Sociology, Social Psychology and Psychology in very vast and different meanings to a large extent. Apparently, we say that an individual has a charming personality or has no personality. This is just on the basis of apparent features of a person i.e., nose, eyes, forehead, contours, dress etc. but the social scientist do not think apparent traits as the personality but according to them, personality is that building prepared fro. ‘ innate tendencies and interaction of environment which consists of habits, actions, beliefs and feelings.
Definitions of Personalityl. Alpert :
Such a dynamic organization of psychological and functional system of an individual, that determines ideal adjustment with environment is called a personality."
2. Dr. Mun :
“The personality is the most characteristic integration of an individual’s structure, modes of behaviour, interests, attitude and capacities, especially when considered from the stand-point of adjustment in social situation.”
3. McDougall :
The complete organization of heredity features and natural tendencies is called personality."
Personality FormationThe growth of personality is growth of mind and physique which pertain to genes, called also physiological limit, influenced by environmental harmony because the adaptation with environment is not done, it affects the growth of personality.
Important Factors in Personality Formation :
l. Heredity :
There is a theory that "the personality of an individual resembles his parents is heredity factor." Intelligence of an individual, his tendency, physical built and innate tendencies and needs play an important part in building
2. Social Environment :
An individual is a biological unit at the time of its birth but to say that he is just a clot of blood is wrong but in the form of genes, there are numerous characteristics which brought it up' in a specific environment but it is a
complicated action. However, the personality building is done through mutual interaction of social environment and heredity. Heredity is out of our control but environment can be controlled and can affect the personality directly.
The institutions of education and training, build personality of specific characteristics by arranging a specific social environment which shows that a social environment plays a central role in personality building. For example, Army, medical college, engineering colleges and professional colleges are institutions, teaching different skills by part in building personality. Social environment includes family and school which do the same as other institutions.
i. Role of Family :
Family is directly related with the growth and building of personality and it affects the individual’s life socially and hereditary. A child is affected by his parent’s qualities and these qualities play an important role in his life. He imitates them, thinking them the best model and unconsciously or consciously adopts their actions. Children are necessarily like their parents because of other elements. According to the psychologists, family is the best workshop for children where people of a family work together, learn to live life and prepare themselves to cope with future challenges. Because of this close interaction, a child is deeply impressed by individual, psychologists have given great importance to the early years of a child with reference to the building of his personality.
“Early years are the period that determines the direction to which a child is to grow and flourish.”
The pleasant and self-belonging environment of home makes the child’s personality healthy and satisfied and quarrels, economic and family conflicts create frustration in a child and promote negative behaviour.
According to psychologists, the highest motive in the human personality is the achievement of superiority which is a reaction of inferiority complex. Older thinks that little children think themselves inferior to elders and to conceal this inferiority complex, they do things of many types. On this delicate occasion, if correct guidance in terms of giving importance, giving responsibility, doing uniform treatment to end inferiority complex, etc. is not given, the child’s personality growth may be affected. Similarly, such position affects the child’s personality and the child alone is affected.
ii. School Role in Personality Development :
After family, school plays an important part in the growth of the personality of a child which is deep and durable nostalgia of pleasant recollections of the period. In the school, a child passes a period of ten to twelve years. This is the place, from where he promotes his habits, intelligence and abilities and his aim is determined. His behaviour and tendency to take a specific direction. A close study of school life of a child can foretell about the future of the child. The impression of school environment, teacher’s behaviours and relations with school fellows are long. If all of these conditions are encouraging, the personality of the child becomes pleasant and converse conditions do the reverse.
3. Influence of Culture on Personality Development :
From the very birth of a child, he is under the influence of culture. The traditions and customs of family or tribe influence his life from the very first day. Every child is born in a specific sub-culture and afier a few years, he comes to know that he is to live in a culture and to lead a successful life. Therefore, he has to adopt the aims, thoughts, views, dealing and viewpoint of the culture, according to its social values and his personality becomes a representative of the culture.
Anthropologists and psychologists did many researches to study the influences of culture on personality. Some of these are given below :
i. When culture was ancient, rate of flexibility was less and there was no deviation from norms, traditions and customs and as a result there were no incidents of mental disorder whereas in modern urban societies, rate of flexibility is high and as such there is more deviation from traditions and more mental disorder as has been observed in a tribe Zulu whose life was village life with no industry and no urban facility. There is unity and harmony in the society and no deviation because Zulu tribe culture was similar to ancient civilization. In the societies of France, Italy and Sweden, urban life was at its height. There was a high rate of competition because of industrialization and mental disorder rate was high as compared to Zulu tribe. (Margaret Mead).
ii. The culture of Italy and Ireland were studied comparatively. In Ire Land society and culture matter was very strict regarding sexual behaviour of children with a punishing attitude and wanted her children to be controlled regarding emotions whereas Italian culture gives freedom for expression of emotions. In this cultural environment, the personality of Irish people seems submissive, obedient, constructor and law-abiding with no incidents of deviation whereas in Italian culture individuals are of aggressive, of competitive nature and of innovators personality. They are sociopathic to deviation. (Opter)
iii. In Formosa, the influence of culture on personality was checked by a research study. It was observed that extended family system is still favoured and is in vogue. People of family live with love and interest and cooperate with each other and because of this there are no diseases like psycho-neurotic and rate of suicide is less than that of European countries where there is simple family with alienation among children and elders.
Unique Experience and Personality Development :A unique experience sometimes plays an important role in the growth of personality and gives a new direction to it. It affects personality in two ways:
i. Because of heredity complex, a child comes with so many heredity characteristics which is the base of his genetic make up. For example, beauty, colors and contours of the face, all of them play an important part in the growth of self-concept of an individual because he gets a positive response in the society which creates a
confidence, pride and self-liking passions in his personality. Conversely, the absence of them promotes non-confidence, anger and hatred passion in the personality of an individual and he has to face bitter experiences, making his self-growth negatively.
ii. The analysis of an expected experience is also called unique experience just like, a dreadful dream, terrible situation, confrontation with a terrible supernatural being, some incident with thieves, dacoits or some pleasing smile, etc. change the whole chemistry of an individual with deep and durable effects, influencing the whole life and gives anew direction to personality being formed by influence of heredity, social environment and cultural effects just as, a law obedient and of a constructive mind person becomes aggressive and cruel having fallen a prey to some cruelty.
However, to say that anyone the above elements has more importance, is wrong. All of these elements affect the personality in a combined and complex manner for its growth. That is why, siblings having many elements common, are of different personalities.