Effects of OverpopulationOverpopulation is an unsolvable problem of the twentieth century which has been named as Global Social Problem, because it affects social situation in a multi-direction way. These are the effects of this global problem :
1. Increase in Dearness :
Thomas Malthus in his essay on, “The Principles of Population” has pointed out the growth of population in geometric progress and increase in production in the arithmetic progression. It means simply that population increase in 2 to 4 to 8 times whereas increase in food production is from 1 to 2 to 3 times respectively. This is due to fact that of food results in the increasing of its price according to principles'of economic and thus dearness is increased. Pakistan faces the same situation. In 1951, its population was 34 million and wheat was surplus but its production has not been increased to feed a population of 2000 which has increased to 140 million and this has given to increase in dearness.
2. Less Educational Facilities :
There has been a world record increase in population in Pakistan during 1971 to 1981 as 3.9%. A newly-born country with problems of rehabilitation of refugees and war with more powerful enemy had difficult in providing educational facilities because of its limited sources and the increase in population made it more difficult. The institutions are less than the required number of admission and many children remain uneducated and this increases the illiteracy rate. Poor people cannot afford education and making the problem in progress of the country more oblique.
3. Shortage in Health Facilities :
Overpopulation requires rapid provision of facilities but the lack of sources has made it difficult to provide facilities in the field of health rapidly in Pakistan. There is rush of patients in hospital, the prices of medicine increased and health facility has gone out of a poor man’s reach. Family planning which was to improve health facility became a means of fun. The standard of health is falling down day by day. Now medical science and medicine have stopped deaths but have served as a source for increasing the population of the country but ultimately the decrease in health facility and polluted water will become a source of more death thereby decreasing the population.
4. Decrease in Number of Houses :
Residential facilities for families are decreasing day by day due to increase in population and overcrowding is taking place in population. Multi-storied building are increasing in cities. On one hand, fertile land around cities is being used for housing schemes thereby decreasing green belt, and on the other hand, price of land increased most of all other household articles. The government has failed to provide this facility and private enterprises have made lot of money. People have been obliged to adopt common family concept and the size of house for 6.7 persons in 1981 was shrunken to 6.6'in 1998, which shows that the problem has existed for the last twenty-five years and overpopulation is a great hindrance in solving this problem.
5. Lack of Better Standard of Life :
Overpopulation decreased income per capita and increased dearness making difficult in getting basic needs of life. According to survey in 2006, in Pakistan, the income of per capita was 847 dollars per year which is less than that of developed countries. For example, in Turkey, it is 2270 dollars. According to above survey, 33% population of Pakistan is under the poverty line whereas 40% population is obliged to eat non-standard edibles and to drink pollute water. The standard of life as a whole is falling because of overpopulation with the following manifest effects :
A. Increase in unemployment :
Overpopulation is inversely proportional to chances of employment. The more the population, the less the employment chances. This has been the consequence of lack of. investment in the local private sectors, lack of new activities in the department of trade and agriculture.
B. Increase in social evils and crimes :
When socially approved sources do not meet the need of making the life standard better, when employment chances become limited, then the individuals Mum to social evils and crimes including thefts embezzlement adulteration, bribery and corruption. Pakistan being an overpopulation country is facing this problem and people have indulged in social evils to make their standard of life better.
C. Increase in Pollution :
Overpopulation has increased rush on social. Road crossing has become difficult in big cities and fumes from vehicles have become a cause of pollution. The defective system of sewerage, heaps of rubbish here and there are lack of knowledge of health case has increased pollution very much.