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Tuesday, 11 November 2014

Describe the sources and problems in formulation of hypothesis

The Sources of Formulation of a Hypothesis :

Hypothesis is a supposed statement but it is not a meaningless, unconnected and illogical statement. Formulation of a hypothesis is an art and requires mental, intelligence and guidance and support to formulate it. In scientific knowledge, a hypothesis is arranged by logical relationship of cause and effect when keeping in view the incident the material knowledge and wisdom help to know the causes and through deduction a relation is established to investigate through research. A hypothesis may have few sources and derivations the detail of which is given below:

1. Available knowledge :
Hypothesis can be formulated by knowledge because it increases the thinking and imagination. Through which a vastness of vision is produced in the researcher, producing an ability to analyze the social problems and he can formulate hypothesis by using this ability.

2. Theories :
The theories present in a knowledge serve the purpose of formulating the hypothesis because theories are proved or not proved facts. In the light of these facts through deduction, hypothesis can be formulated from theories which act as amendment or rejection of the theory and become‘ a cause of formulating the scientific knowledge. The most of the scientific knowledge consists of the research results gained from present theories and which keeps the scientific knowledge progressive.

3. Analogy :
Through analogy, hypothesis can also be formulated. It can be of two kinds :
(A) Within the same branch of knowledge by analogy with the present theories and hypothesis, the hypothesis is derived. For example, in sociology, a new hypothesis can be derived from the present two
i. Over-population decrease sources.
ii. Lack of sources decrease the life standard.
From these two hypotheses, a new hypothesis can be formulated :
“Overpopulation decreases standard of life.”
B. Hypothesis can be formulated through analogy with biological theories for research in sociology. There is a theory in biology that parent’s characteristics are transferred to the children through genetic action. In sociology by using this theory, a hypothesis can be formulated that parent’s cultural characteristics can be
transferred to children through cultural transmission.

4. Personal intelligence and observation :
A Researcher’s intelligence and personal observation are also of much importance and play an important role in formulating hypotheses. A researcher’s mental abilities, depth of thought and observation provide help to him in formulating hypothesis. lbne-e-Khuldun’s theory of ethnocentrism was a sum of his personal intelligence and observation because be arranged this hypothesis by his own personal observation. Ethnocentrism is a, cause of group stability and it of form the theory by observing historically different tribes.

Problems in the Formulation of Useful Hypothesis 

In the formulation of useful hypothesis, there are three difficulties :
1. Absence of clear theoretical Framework :
Generally, theoretical knowledge is found as unclean and ambiguous which presents difficulty in understanding, therefore, useful hypotheses cannot be derived from these.

2. Lack of ability to utilize theoretical framework :
There is a need of intelligence and observation ability to avail the theoretical knowledge so that through deduction, the formulation of hypothesis be done from theoretical knowledge but because of lack of this ability theoretical knowledge cannot be availed and there is difficulty in meeting useful hypotheses.

3. Lack of Acquaintance with available research techniques :
Scientific research procedure is so complicated and vast that complete knowledge and its correct use is difficult and to formulate useful hypothesis, there is a hesitation and Worry in the minds that how to test them. 


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