Marriage is social arrangement specified for human beings and is present in all cultures of the world in one or the other way. It is the basic biological need and sexual satisfaction for which : society fixes norms. It is a social cultural custom based recreation which is socially approved by the society.
Definitions of Marriage1. Macionis J.J :
“Marriage is a legally sanctional relationship, involving economic cooperation as well as normative sexual activity and child bearing, that people expect to enduring.”
2. Robertson Jan :
“A socially approved mating arrangement between two or more individuals is recognized as marriage.”
3. CH. Persell :
“Marriage is a social institution that recognizes and approves the sexual union of two or more individuals and includes a set of mutual rights and obligations.”
1. By Mate Membership :
Types of Marriage
Cultural norms and social customs determine relation of mate With a family. From membership point of view, the manners of marriage can be divided into two types:
i. Endogamy :
Such a marriage, that is in the same kinship, religion and race is called Endogamy. Its standard, manner and norms pertain to culture and it is different in different cultures. In Pakistan, caste is very important and it is to keep unity of Bradary and to preserve the property. Because of ethnocentrism, it is considered to have the relation with a superior race family. Exogamy has defect of blood mixing of the purity and most generation not to have good qualities and abilities. Moreover, it brings ignomy to Bradary and disperses the Bradary.
ii. Exogamy :
Such a marriage, where the couple belongs to different castes, families, religions or social groups. Its standard is determined by the cultural values and norms, depending upon the Bradary customs, traditions and intensity of values. This type of marriage promotes harmony among different classes and sects, makes cultural diffusion rapid. Exogamy is current in such cultures where there is higher rate of literary and less ethnocentrism. Social stratification is based on human feelings instead of intensity of traditions. In Pakistan, in the traditional societies of Balochistan and Sindh it is thought a social evil whereas in Punjab in the urban society it is going to be current.
2. By Number of Spouse :
i. Monogamy :
This is a marriage, when one man conjugates with one woman. This is current in all the cultures of the world and the most popular. It is thought socially, psychologically and economically as the best in Europe, America and India because a family constituting monogamy is the stable family.
ii. Polygamy :
It has three sub-types:
i. Polygamy :
When one man mates two or more women and it depends on religious sanction and status of a person just as, Islam allows four wives to be kept. However, most Muslims prefer monogamy. Some social status like kingship and Lordism have the tendency of polygamy. In case of no issue or a desire for male issue, polygamy is current and is allowed by the society.
ii. Polyandry :
A form of marriage when a woman conjugates with two or more men. This type of marriage is rare but on northern parts of India, a few hilly tribes and tribes of Tibet had this custom because agriculture is difficult and land ownership is considered very precious. This gives family unity and manpower for agriculture. There is no custom of such a marriage in the traditional and urban societies of modern times.
iii. Group Marriage :
According to Sober, cultural ethnocentrism provides for this type of marriage and there was a custom of such marriage in ancient tribes. In the Isles of Marqais, such custom was present. In this type, a group of men conjugates a group or" women commonly between two tribes or two branches of one tribe and the offs springs as a result of this marriage were attributed to the tribe and such children were used for collective works like war or agriculture.
3. By Mate Selection :
The mode of marriage can be divided in the following kinds:
i. Arranged Marriage :
In this type of marriage, mate is selected by the elders of families and the couple has no will of its own. This type is present in extended families where patriarch family system is found. Arranged marriage is popular in Pakistan, Bharat and Bangladesh for social stability.
ii. Love Marriage :
In this type, both mates select each other by their own will and it is going to be current in modern societies and is thought a'sign of civilization. In Europe, America and other progressive societies, this is approved but in Pakistani traditional society, it is disapproved. Especially in the south Punjab and Sindh, such couple is murdered or excommunicated forever. In modern Pakistani society this type is not current but it is getting currency in the form of arranged love marriage where mates like each other first and parents give its approval.
iii. Booty Marriage:
Two hundred years back, booty marriage was in vogue because conquers had every right over the conquered with no law. The soldiers collected women and divided them among themselves and made the women their wives. This type is not current now.
iv. Elope Marriage or Marriage by Elopement :
It was customary in some ancient tribes, when one of the mates wilfully or unwillingly married by eloping with or making one elope and it was considered a sign of pride in Some tribes whereas, it was a sign of disgracing the enemy tribe.
v. Exchange Marriage :
This custom is culturally current in some societies where the marriage of a man and woman is done with man and woman of another family in exchange with the same condition for both and in case of divorce, the second couple is also separated. In Pakistan, this is common but in urban society of educated people exchange marriage is avoided and disliked.
vi. Purchase Marriage :
When a mate male or female purchases and marries. In Africa, this custom is current and the sum is determined by the beauty, decent and tribal importance of women and afterwards, the woman is respected in proportion to purchase price. In the tribes of India, this is current. However, women purchase men and after paying the price, middle man is bound by the will of the woman. In the N.W.F.P of Pakistan, this is current also because of poverty and people receive money for their daughters and afterwards, the girl has no connection with her parents and is under the control of the man who paid the price.