Social Ailments TheoryShah Walliullah holds that the secret of successful social life lies in the cooperation of people, in the use of abilities for serving other’s needs. To material these qualities, a particular place is needed where people should live and fulfil the needs of each other and he calls this place Madina which is not a particular place
but any place for above. activities. MAdina extends into a state which is Called collective life where stability and dispersive forces work together. Dispersive forces create social ills and thus make the society unbalanced. It is very difficult to find out the reasons of ills of a society and to establish a healthy society.
Shah Walliullah has given three basic and dispersive ills which become a serious danger for collective life of a society :
1. Bad Customs :
Customs play an important part in the collective life of city life for mutual cooperation and transfer and keep balance and harmony in the society but the wrong use of customs by the society because of its bad and cruel actions, these become bad for collective life. Shah Walliullah describes the forms of customs:
a. Such customs which are to become a hindrance for good actions to cause, to submit, to power and to depress the abilities of correct leadership.
b. Such customs which are to make a collective custom for the achievement of needs through wrong means. Theft, deception, the occupy others property, etc. sexuality, adultery and vice versa and people in authority willfully tolerate because of certain preference then the situation becomes of an ill-society.
c. Such customs which are to take away religious acts, to make the people busy in business matters more and more, to make relations with God very weak then such a situation creates disorder and uncertainty and a society suffers many ills.
2. Economic Unbalance :
Shah Walliullah calls economic unbalance as the greatest ill in the collective life. This is such a social condition where a specific class owns wealth more than its need and a large number of people become unable to meet basic needs and people are demoralized. When a person is obliged by economic unbalance, the morality of collective life suffers destruction. Such a society will be called a seriously ill-society and will fall a prey to moral and economic depression.
3. Crimes :
Social and economic bad actions are called crimes. According to him, usury, profiteering, hoarding, blaming, magic-ship, riot-ism and unnatural acts are bad actions and a society, suffering from these ills, will be called an ills-affected society.
Shah Wali Ullah has divided these bad acts into six parts as given below:
a. Physical actions :
Such actions which are hurting body and creating a fear for collective life just as beating, quarrelling and murder.
b. Social actions :
Such actions as hurting the economic condition of men making the getting of needs of life difficult. For example, theft, deception, usury, profiteering and hoarding.
c. Moral actions :
Such actions which are affecting the individual and group life rights making the individual mentally worried and restless. For example, blaming, mischief and magical acts.
d. Unnatural acts :
Such acts which are against human nature and are damaging to the unity of a society. For example, adultery, drinking, adoption of men’s ways by women and vice versa.
e. Secret acts :
Such acts that are being done to damage the society like magic and gambling etc.
f. Ethnocentric acts :
Such acts that damage the unity and cooperation of the. society and collective life is in danger of losing its peace like ethnocentrism, language superiority, caste system, religious sects and cultural prejudices etc.
The Concept pf Consummate SocietyShah Walliullah has presented a concept of a society keeping in view the ills of the society.
According to Shah Wali Ullah, collective life is in the nature of man. So collective life should be according to natural demands to satisfy these in the best way without suffering from any deviation.
He has described four characteristics of human morals :
a. Piety (Physical and mental).
b. Humility (Worship of God whole-heartedly).
c. Control oneself (From bad acts).
d. Justice and balance (Correct doing of acts and balancing avoidance from greed).
He says that consummate society is not possible without a consummate caliphate and a government state needs such a sultan (caliph).