Steps to Restrict Deviancy and CrimeAll cultures and sub-culture of a society try their pest to check deviancy and crime to restore the norms of the society.
According to R.T. Schafer,
“Strategies to maintain positive social behaviour in society is called social control.”
“The term social control refers to the techniques and strategies for regulating human behaviour in any society.”
No society can fully be free from deviation and crimes, however, a society can be saved from the maximum damages due to deviancy and crimes as it is necessary for smooth development of the society. The following proposals are given for getting useful resultsc:
1. Internal Forces :
Internal forces play an important part in keeping the society safe from crimes by directing the behaviour of the individual to keep away from crime in the absence of some external pressure.
Aronson states policies of internal forces :
i. Indoctrination :
It is necessary to check the deviation and crime that the individual of a society should be aware of the values and beliefs and should have a strong belief in the correctness of these beliefs. If an individual does not accept a belief; one cannot make one's attitude change. For example, if a Muslim does not believe in the Day of Resurrection then all actions of his life free from fear of God and accountability and he may adopt a deviant behaviour. When the beliefs of the individuals are strong, these show their effect and they act according to the norms of a society. Thus these internal forces act as a restraint and an effective system.
ii. Imitation :
A man is a great imitator. All animals except monkey and parrot, act according to their genetic characteristics and cannot imitate but man learns from imitation by seeing others doing something. Customs, values, tradition and arts are imitative social actions and are a source of collective behaviour. When we observe certain actions, then seeing their popularity we are impressed and imitate these actions and this brings uniformity and harmony in the social behaviour. When a person carelessly ignores the red signal and passes it, other people also follow him. Thus an attitude of deviancy is produced. This is a negative side of imitation. If a person gets a high post through his labour, then other people do labour to get that high position. This is a positive type of imitation. If the individual of a society adopts positive social behaviour, their imitation creates positive behaviour which discourages deviancy and crime.
iii. Habituation :
A habit is a second nature and it plays a role in modifying the behaviours of individuals of a society. Habit is an integral part of culture and is a continuous process adopted for a long time. The continuous action of imitation of belief and values results in the formation of habits and when positive behaviour becomes part of our habit these become automatic and are in harmony with the social system. To greet is a custom learnt from elders and we see this action operative in the society then we start doing this also and this habit becomes automatic. Habituation prevents us from going against norms set up by the society of formal and informal nature. This checks the individuals against deviancy and crimes.
2. External Forces :
internal forces create a strong and durable social control but because of overpopulation, social complications and strangeness has rapid change in values makes this control weak. Social disorder demands external forces to enforce this control in a better way.
These are the external forces :
ii. Social Sanctions
iii. Organizational Power and Authority
i. Socialization :
Socialization as an external force plays a vital role in preventing deviancy and crime because all sources of control can be effective only in harmony with the socialization. Its circle is vast enough to cover the whole life. It is continuous in its effects even afterwards. In childhood, the family, at the age of six years, the peer 2 id school interaction, in college playmates and in youth office workers and gossiping with them play an important part as agents of socialization and all of these prevent an individual from formal and informal norms deviation and crimes. Family teaches an individual the norms of eating, speaking, meeting and-sleeping; school teaches him punctuality respect for discipline and teachers and in case of deviancy the fear of punishment and thus is a source of control of norms. Informal control is learnt in games by abiding by rules and regulation and any deviancy from the rules is a cause of ridicule on the part of others and thus serves a social control. In the office, formal environment of office social interaction and regulatory ways of working, doing of duty and abiding by rules act as socialization of an individual. All of these sources of socialization act as external forces.
ii. Social Sanctions :
Social sanctions provide a mechanism of both formal and informal ways of controlling deviancy and crime in abiding by social traditions, values and norms through rewards in the form of praise, prize or encouragement by certificates, cash prizes, medals, etc. Similarly, such acts as injurious for the society are prevented by certain social sanctions in the form of ridicule, warning, line, imprisonment and to the extent of death sentence and these acts as a check from deviancy and crimes. In this way, social sanctions play a role in preventing
deviancy and crimes.
iii. Organizational Power and Authority :
This is certainly a most effective external force to check deviancy and crimes.
“The authority is viewed as larger and more important than individual, consequently, the obedient individual shifts responsibility for his or her behaviour to the authority.” (Milgram’s Study of Obedience 1978)
It means that when authority gets vastness in the society then an individual thinks all of these responsibilities are shifted to the authority for his safety and his property in case of theft and arrest of thieves by police. He thinks the responsibility of the state power and authority to do all for him. Thus there is a power to check deviancy and crimes. Every individual finds safety from any excess or cruelty and is sure of justice to safeguard his rights and also provides an environment for doing his duties freely and fearlessly.
Organizational power and authority can be operative in any department or all sphere of life of a society and is such an effective force which by its very structure and function reminds every individual of its presence and the more the effective, powerful versatile the feeling, the more the useful control. This is such an external power that not only does prevent the acts of disorder, dispersion and deviation in terms of catching the culprits, getting them punished from courts and putting them in jail and thus providing individual of a society safety from them but also to take steps in preventing and finishing deviation by providing necessities of daily life, by ensuring the speedy justice, by reforming the criminals to make them useful citizen, by checking drug use to prevent the moral and social evils, by providing shelter to the orphans to save them from sense of insecurity and to make them useful individuals of the society and by providing facilities for games and recreations to the citizens to check and prevent them from falling into ditch of criminal evils.
The organizational power and authority acts in two ways for keeping power and order in a society:
i. By curative measures :
Including catching of deviants, arresting'them to present in the court and getting them punished, putting them in jail (imprisonment) to reform them and to save the society from their negative effects.
ii. By preventive measures :
Include prevention of motivation for deviancy like use of drugs, provision of shelter for orphans and their care to check them from social evils.
3. Reformation and punishment of crimes :
Punishment aims at reformation of crimes to set up peace in society. The second aim of punishment is to revenge the criminal to reform him in a way. Imprisonment aims at providing a relief to the society from the evil acts of a criminal for sometimes and trying at his reformation in the mean time. Moreover, when a criminal is imprisoned for some time, he begins to recognize the value of freedom and punishment is also a source of social stability. It is a common opinion that the more severe the punishment, the more the help in checking the crimes and in reforming the criminal. There is another school of thought holding the view that a criminal guesses the joys and grief of his crime before committing it and these conjectures are the base of their evil actions, therefore, a criminal is made to realize that there is more pain than joy in a crime. The speedy and immediate punishment law has positive effects to help people to get a lesson from it. Whether a punishment is serious or less serious, if it does not prevent the criminal from committing a crime, its object is lost. The punishment should be determined in view of the seriousness of a crime. If the criminal has committed a crime for the first time or have committed it under some emergent condition, he deserves some sympathy and mitigation in punishment to save him from becoming a permanent criminal but if a criminal is a habitual off order, he must be punished. Even if he does not leave criminal activities, then according to a school of thought he should be deprived of some of his body part like cutting one hand or one leg not allowing him to commit a crime. This type of punishment does two things. The prevention of’ crime by making the criminal invalid physically and by teaching others a bitter lesson is example. It has been seen that
the countries having this system of justice, have got good results in reducing crimes from the society. In Saudi Arabia, the punishment of theft is cutting of left hand and there is no concept of theft in that country. Since society is the real cause of crime, therefore, individuals cannot be held responsible for a crime individually. On the basis of thought, society has no right to punish a criminal so a society should try to reform the criminal instead of punishing him to make him useful citizen of a society with no hatred for him policy. For effective and better results of a punishment, immediate and speedy steps be adopted to punish the deviants without indulging in long legal points and discussions. The appropriate punishment will discourage crime and prevent these not to be committed again.
Islamic Point of View about Punishment and Crime :The complete enforcement of Islamic system of justice is necessary to check crimes and to reform criminals, because only Islamic system of justice can be check and remove injustice from the society and punishment should also be enforced in the true spirit of law to reduce the crime to the minimum limit. According to the English Criminal Code introduced still and practised in Pakistan, crime is against state that does not injure the individual’s right but Islam takes care of individual’s right. For example, an individual has right of getting
monetary benefit or some other because of murderer of one’s relation and the family of the murdered has a financial relief and the murdered gets the chance of supporting and touching after his family because of not being murdered or imprisoned. Punishment in Islam is a sacrifice and not a cruelty that a society gives to keep its moral sanctity. It is also a ‘Kuffara’ for a Muslim society and both of there are an example of highest moral values. When a society makes a law for punishment, in fact, it is a readiness to bear a loss for its welfare.