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Wednesday, 10 December 2014

Write a note on newspapers and explain their characteristics or types



NEWSPAPER JOURNALISM

Newspapers are economic and social element of all societies. They are major free in forming public opinion the world over and thus mightly affect national and international efforts towards economic progress and global understanding. To the average man, journalism simply suggests his daily newspaper.

Today’s Newspapers :
Today, the newspaper industry has become one of the largest unit in the world. Current newspapers come in a variety of shapes, sizes and also are multi-colours. Some newspapers printed daily, while other printed weekly. Newspapers and newspaper industry have survived wars, economic collapses and social destruction, yet remain essentially the same type of medium that it was centuries ago-pages of print information communicating to readers.

Characteristics of a Newspaper :

German scholar Gorth developed a set of five standards that modern scholars generally hold as acceptable criteria for determining a true newspaper. Gorth’s five standards are :
First Standard :
A newspaper must be published periodically at intervals not less than once a week.
Second Standard :
Mechanical reproduction must be employed.
Third Standard :
Anyone who can pay the price of admission must have access to the publication. In other words, it must be available to everyone, not just a chosen few. No organization an have an exclusive right to read or obtain the publication.

Fourth Standard :
It must vary in content and include everything of public interest to everyone, not merely to small and selected groups.

Fifth Standard :
Publication must be timely with some continuity of organization.

Modern Newspapers :
In 1980, modem newspapers came into existence. USA today introduces new trends in print newspapers.
a. Splashy graphics and colour.
b. Short easy-to-read stories.
c. Lots of graphs, charts and tables.
d. Factors (a factor is a list of build-down facts with a little dot in front of them).

The biggest trend in technology in the 19905 was the move of newspapers into the digital age as many newspapers went online.

Types of Newspapers

1. National Newspapers
2. Regional Newspapers
3. Small-Town Dailies
4. Weeklies

1. National Newspapers :
Only a handful of papers fall into this category. These are publications whose content is geared not for one particular city or region but for the entire country. These papers typically use satellites to transmit images and information to their regional printing plants or regional head branches, where the papers are assembled and distributed.

2. Regional Newspapers :
After national dailies, regional newspapers have much importance. These papers are printed from big cities and then distribute in small towns and related villages.

3. Small-Town Dailies :
This category of newspapers has also made circulation gained. In Pakistan, transportation problems gave these papers chance to emerge. These papers are best medium of communication within the town.

4. Weeklies :
The number of weekly newspapers in Pakistan is fairly stable. Many weekly newspapers have lot of circulation. Weeklies can offer advertisers more precise local exposure at prices that are more affordable. Daily papers are competing with the weeklies by introducing more zoned editions and special deals for local merchants and special coverage for local public. It is apparent that the future may bring even more competition.

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