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Thursday, 30 October 2014

Functions of the Family



Functions of the Family

Functions of a family may be different in different cultures. William F.Oghlum determined the following functions of a family after observing about one hundred families in 1950:

l. Reproduction : 
To survive human race, family reproduction is its function to keep the social life continue and its activities also. A family reproduces children in an agreed way of marriage to maintain social and cultural life.

2. Regulation of Sexual Behaviours :
A family fulfils the sexual needs of a society by selecting proper mates and holds ceremonies of marriage and engagements. Family is the only way to meet the sexual requirements of an individual under certain restrictions and there have never been allowed any breach of these because any irregularity in this respect, affects the social set up of a society.

3. Security or Protection :
Contrary to other animals, human children need social, physical and economic protection for a long time to rely on parents and relatives. It is the family that provides this protection with responsibility. A family fulfils all
responsibilities to look after, education, economic needs, old-age care and treatment of its family members. Family is a sure source of protection.

4. Affection and Companionship :
A family provides love and passion of love to individual and a pleasant environment to make an individual free from fear of separation. A family meets the emotional needs of an individual, makes mutual relations pleasant and makes other attend to our problems 'and help us at the time of need.

5. Socialization :
A family is the greatest source of socialization. A child learns through social interaction his culture of language, dress, norms, traditions, habits and skills to adapt him with the outer social life in a better way. In the modern age, family is responsible to arrange the education of children according to its economic position and to make them good citizens of a society.

6. Providing Social Status :
Because of background of family and social position in the family, one gets inherited ascribed role and family gives as a gift to the child race, decent and ascribed status that determines the social position in the society and social stratification. Economic conditions of family affect child by providing him chances of higher education and help him to make his social position better.

7. Transmission of Culture :
The most important latent function of family is transmission of culture informally to the next generation. A family teaches children about dress, regards, cultural values, Folkways and mores etc. Marriage parties are important activities of family to teach customs, to meet with relations and their compliments. Thus the culture is transferred to the next generation informally.

8. Religious Functions :
A child learns religious activities by imitating the religious activities of a family that to convey in accurate manners all religious values to the individuals enable them to follow the religion. A family uses pressure for religious socialization of an individual but environment counts very much in this respect. The personality of an individual reflects the tendency of the family towards religion. A family deepens the religious impression on the minds of an individual.

9. Personality formation :
At the time of birth, a child has some physical and mental abilities by inheritance but their growth takes place in the environment of a family. The evolution of self-concept and its completion takes place through social interaction and behaviour and the other members of a family determining the direction of personality. Family love provides a balanced environment for the growth of a child’s personality, creating in him a sense of responsibility and confidence. Conversely, if a child gets less attention and love from a family he falls a prey to inferiority complex, creating in him a sense of rebellion and fartherness from domestic environment. He may be inclined to crimes. So, a family plays an important part in developing personality.

10. Provision of Recreational Facilities :
Whatever is type of society whether traditional, agrarian or industrial, provision of recreational chances is the function of a family. To ensure health and It interest with domestic environment, different games and recreations are arranged. To provide toys to children, to swing, to make children walk in a park, to provide
recreation through radio and TV are the responsibilities of a family. A family saves its individuals from boredom, monotony and keeps them healthy through these recreational activities.

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Define family and explain different types of family



A family is formed by a married man and woman living with their unmarried children.
According to sociologists, family is the most important institution of a society because survival of human race is related with it. It is the family that brings up an individual by taking care and by training him. An individual passes most of his time in a family, affecting his personality most of all. Family is the center of a society and is a source of culture. However, family structure is under culture and is in harmony with its demands. The definition of family by different sociologists is given below.

Definitions of Family

1. “A family is parents and their children.”

2. “A family is a set of relatives.”

3. “A family is all the descendants of a' common ancestor.”

4. “A family is small or large group of close relatives.”

The definitions are limited to number of individuals and give nothing about the functions of a family. There are different societies and different cultures. So, culture is the measure to decide the structure and function of a family.

1. Broom and Selznick :
“The family is a kin-based cooperative unit.”

2. Murdock : 
“The family is a social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation and reproduction.” 

3. Richard T. Schaefer :
“A set of persons related by blood, marriage or adoption who shares the responsibilities for reproduction and caring for members of society.”

Types of Family

The definition of family befitting every culture is difficult. It is necessary to explain its structure. For this purpose, types of family are necessary to be explained.

1. Family pattern (according to membership) :
i. The Nuclear Family :
This family consists of husband, wife and children. This is the characteristic of modern societies, however, urban societies consist of nuclear families because of its resembling structure and harmony with the urban societies. In Western societies, nuclear family is popular whereas in Pakistan, urban societies, there are nuclear families.

Characteristics of Nuclear Family :

1. It consists of husband, wife and children with no external interference and thus, having stability.

2. Social interaction is intense and deep, closeness and sacredness is more and individual gets more attention and have a deep impression on the personalities.

3. There is no cultural rigidity but there is a tendency to change, to innovate and to accept the changes easily that take place in society.

4. The relationship of husband and wife is based upon mental regard and harmony by giving weight to each other’s opinion and also giving the right of opinion to the children.

5. It is a unit and presents the best example of economic cooperation with intense unit and dependence on each other.
ii. Extended Family :
A family consisting of parent’s children and near relations likes grandfather or uncle etc. living in a same house. This was current in traditional families. In Pakistan, village has extended family system and is in harmony with demands of agrarian economy. In India Pakistan, extended family generally consists of parents, children, grandsons, aunts and uncles etc. Such a family is a sign of unity and .love and elders are thought a blessing of God.

Characteristics of Extended Family :

i. Its number is more, consisting of three generations i.e., parents, children, grand-children.
ii. The eldest of the family, man or woman, is head of the family who decides family matters and all obey his or her orders.
iii. All economic affairs are common and are spent with the approval of the head of the family just as, in India Pakistan, agricultural activities are done collectively and income is used commonly.
iv. This is a custodian of social values, cultural traditions and customs. In matters of death, marriage occasions and cultural tradition are abided by this type of family and dislikes any change.
v. Education of children in such a family, is a collective responsibility, lacking individual attention and thus producing personal problems. The abilities and personality of an individual do not get chance of promotion and personal complications become serious.

2. Family Pattern (According to Decent) :

It has three basic types :

i. Patrilineal Decent 'Family :
It is that type of family where decent comes from father and grandfather. With reference to property, only father side relatives have importance along with emotional attachment. In the world, in most of the societies this family pattern is current.

ii. Matrilineal Decent Family :
It is that type of family where decent is connected with mother and grandmother. Here heredity and emotional attachment is with mother’s relatives. This type is in the North India within certain tribes. In addition, in the Western societies due to certain social problems, decent is becoming attributed to mother
and legally an individual is recognized by reference to his/her mother.

iii. Bilateral Decent Family :
In this family pattern, both father and mother decents are considered. The relatives of both father and mother have importance. This type was found in traditional societies. In Arabian countries, this type has been very popular and even today has importance.

3. Family Pattern (According to Residence) :
In every society, there are certain norms for newly married people fart residence. These divide a family into three types : 

i. Patrilocal Family : 
If the new married people reside with father of the bridegroom, it is called patrilocal family. Its reason being the need of an emotional and economical support of kinsfolk for the couple. In Pakistan and India, this type is current.

ii. Matrilocal Family :
If the newly married couple lives with the parents of the bride, it is called matrilocal family. This type is less current in the Society but under specific circumstances, it comes into existence. In some tribes of India, this is popular.

iii. Neolocal Family :
If a newly married , couple resides separately from parents, is called neolocal family and this is found in modern industrial societies. However, in Arabia, this type has been current for centuries.

4. Family Pattern (According to Authority) :
Family is an important unit of society. Its decisions are important. Who is to decide and who has the power to decide culturally? From this point of view, the family pattern has three forms:

i. Patriarchy Family :
Such a family, where power to decide lies with father or man. Such a family is called patriarchy family. The headship of the family is with the elder man or the father. Women are not given importance and no consent or suggestion is taken from them. In Pakistan and India, such system is present.

ii. Matriarchy Family :
If a woman or elder woman of a family decides matters, it is called matriarchy family. Men have no concern with family matters and an elder woman decides matters and has all economic matters and sources with her.
Anthropologists think, that this was the custom in the beginning of the societies but today there is no trustworthy example of this. However, there are certain families where in the absence of men, women decide matters under their headship and their decisions are accepted.

iii. Egalitarian Family :
In this type of family, neither man nor woman is authority to decide but both wife and husband give equal importance to each other’s suggestion. Decisions are made with mutual consent. Children are also included but it does not mean that every decision is made in a democratic manner but domestic matters pertain to mother and business matters and education pertain to father. In the selection of mate, children are consulted. This type is current in modern industrial society and is thought a symbol c I culture and civilization.

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Define a social institution and describe its characteristics and functions



According to famous sociologist Samuel Durkheim: “Sociology is the study of social institutions.” Since societies have their existence on the basis of social institutions and complete the needs of individuals. Institutions organize the life and create continuity. There are many variations and revolutions in the society and it is the durability of structure of social institutions and the functions of their continuity that keep it safe from damaging shocks. These institutions not only provide a strong structure but also keep the attachment of individuals by fulfilling their basic needs. Human beings are not only animals, remaining dependent on the completion of biological needs but also being social animals they feel three kinds of needs to be fulfilled.

i. Biogenic needs i. e., hunger, thirst, sleep and sex desire.
ii. Sociogenic needs i. e., wealth, fame, honour and prestige.
iii. Psychologenic needs 1'. e., love, attention, belongingness and feelings.

All of these need make him turn towards attachment with institutions and give stability to the existence of institutions.


Definitions of Institution 

1. Ian Robertson : 
“An institution is a stable cluster of values, norms, status, roles and groups that develops around a basic social need.”

2. Kingley Davis : 
“A set of interaction of Folk ways, mores and laws built around one or more functions is defined as the institution.”

3. Harton and Hunt :
“An institution is an organized system of social relationships which embodies certain common values and procedures and meets certain needs of the society.”

4. Barnus :
“A social institution means a structural skeleton through which the societies complete and guide the organizations of different activities regarding satisfaction of human needs.”

5. RT. Schaefer :
“Social institutions are organized patterns of beliefs and behaviour centered on basic social needs.”

The above definitions show and explain that common values mean common views and aims. 'Common way of working means standard group behaviours and system of relative means status and role status combination just as, in the institution of family there is a set of common values i.e., love and mutual respect etc. Common procedures i.e., children‘s care, routine works and network of roles and stabilities i.e., father, mother; brother, sister etc. It sets up social reaction system that fulfils the family life basic needs. Simple and complicated societies have fine important basic institutions i.e., family, schools, religion, political institutions and social institutions. In addition to fulfil specific secondary needs, there are secondary institutions in the modern societies. For example, recreational institutions, welfare institutions, health institutions and industrial institutions, they are of formal nature and demand a modern life.


Characteristics of Social Institutions


1. Stable Position and Permanent Structure :
Social institution is of permanent nature with a special structure just as, family, husband, wife, parents and children formulate its entity. This structure has been existing since ancient times and in spite of numerous changes this structure has not been changed.

2. Fulfils Specific Needs and Goals :
A social institution is a source of completion of specific needs and objectives just as, a religious institution functions as a ,spiritual peace, social security and integrity.

3. Specific Relation Patterns :
A social institution is a collection of social values, norms, status, role status and customs and on the basis of this, it established relations. A family comes into existence through Nikah for conjugal relations of husband and wife and abides by all the mores, method of domestic working, marriage, engagement and deaths.

4. Permanent Behaviour Pattern :
In a social institution, behaviours are fixed and individuals are accustomed to these, therefore, institutions prevent the changes, coming into the society which causing damage to the values. They think that change brings about a decrease in stability and mutual respect, therefore, these do not hesitate to attack changes.

5. Tend to be Interdependent :
Social institutions depend on each other and have a mutual co-existence. A family provides men forces for other institutions. Religious institution provides spiritual relief. A political institution provides security and stability to a society.

6. Tend to be the Site of Major Social Problems :
When social institutions do not function properly or are not'in harmony with the social needs, problems are created. For example, if economic institution fails to provide food, employment and supply according to demand, then problems of famine and unemployment will be produced, if a political institution fails in maintaining peace, order and justice and then lawlessness, crimes and disorder will appear.

7. Tend to Change Together :
Social institutions present the change but it does not happen that if a change is brought about in an institution, other institutions are not affected because they are interdependent. Other institutions are bound to change. A change is in an agrarian economy then an industrial economy is bound to affected, family institution from common family to simple family, etc.


Functions of Social Institutions

Social institutions have manifest and latent functions tending to make the stability and setting Up of complicated relations in the society. These functions are discussed below :

1. Preservation of Human Race :
The family institution basically functions to preserve the human race and its growth by socially approved way of conjugal relations (marriage), provides food and dress for survival of life. The political institution provides security. Educational institutions and religious institutions help for better relations in the society, keeping the existence of society.

2. Transmission of Culture :
Social institution not only plays an important role in keeping the culture but also transmits it to the next generation. The family teaches values, traditions, language, dress and customs to the individuals. Educational institution transmits experiments through knowledge. Religious institution teaches to hold beliefs and values about sacred things and ways of worship in the minds of new generation.

3. Satisfaction of Basic Needs :
All social institutions aim at providing basic human needs and their satisfaction. The family institution provides sex satisfaction and survival of race. Economics institution provides food and political institution provides security to life and property. Religious institution provides moral training. Family and school arrange for education of children, teaches different skills. In short, all social institutions are for the satisfaction of basic needs of members of a society.

4. Social Solidarity :
Social institution plays a role in keeping law and order and unity. Family institution saves from sexual waywardness, keeps children safe from disorder by providing training of norms, values and traditions of the society. Religious institution keeps the society free from dispersion by teaching regard for social sanctions. Political institution provides stability by saving the society from external changes and by keeping law and order. The economic institution provides biological needs of the individuals of the society.

5. Social Welfare and Development : 
Social institutions do the jobs of welfare of the society. Political institution establishes orphan houses, knitting centers for women, recreation for elders and old people through welfare institutions and for physically disabled persons to promote their welfare. Similarly, to establish schools, colleges, universities, professional colleges, research centers, industrial centers to promote modern inventions are the responsibilities of the social institutions.

6. Provision of Recreational Activities :
Social institutions provide peace, satisfaction and pleasant environment to the individuals of a society through a strong system of family. Different festivals are arranged to provide recreations to the individuals of a society just as, family provides such joys through function of marriage and engagement. Educational institutions do this through plays, games, Speech contest and other recreational programmes. Political institutions provide national athletic games competitions. Films, TV and setting up of theater also provide recreational chances to make a society healthy to enjoy pleasant activities.

7. Mental and Physical Security :
Social institution provides relief to the individuals in trouble and worry and provides mental peace and security. Religious institution makes the individuals hopeful and peaceful during failures and worries. Family provides a sense of security to the old, the rich and with refuge a mental and physical peace by providing an emotional, social and physical support. Political institution establishes departments of police, judiciary and jails to provide a security of life, property, honour and prestige. Welfare centers are established for refuge-less orphans and disabled people to provide them a mental and physical security.

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Wednesday, 29 October 2014

Define social mobility and types of social mobility



Social Mobility

There is no doubt that intelligent people are among all classes and if there are no barriers in advancing, we can expect that some people can move up in social stratification but generally there are many barriers that hinder their upward movement and the rate of mobility is proportion to the barriers but it cannot block it and together. The rate of social mobility points out the fact of closeness or openness of class system.
“An open system implies that the position of each individual is influenced by the person’s achieved status while closed system, in which there is little or possibility of individual mobility, that is, slavery and caste system of stratification.”


Definitions of Social Mobility 

1. RT. Schaefer :
“Social mobility refers to movement of individuals or group from one position to another, of a society’s stratification system."

2. CH. Persell :
“Social mobility refers to the movement from one status to another status within a stratified society.”

3. Harton and Hunt :
“Social mobility refers to progress or slip from a social strata.”


Types of Social Mobility

1. Horizontal Mobility :
“Horizontal mobility refers to the movement of a person from one social position to another of the same rank.” For instance, a shopkeeper doing the business of share selling, starts another business of selling cloth or an officer of grade seventeen adopts the lectureship of grade seventeen. This does not affect the economic position and social strata of an individual and his social class remains the same.

2. Vertical Mobility :
Sociologists and economists, in the analysis of structure and‘ functions of social stratification, take more interest in vertical instead of horizontal mobility. In this, an individual moves from his inferior social position to a superior social position.
“Vertical mobility, refers to the movement of a person from one social position to another of a different rank.”

i. Upward Social Mobility :
If a person of inferior status in a society moves towards a superior social position, he is moving upward or has upward mobility. Just as, a teacher after doing M.Phil becomes a professor in a college or a lawyer becomes a judge.

ii. Downward Social Mobility :
If a person of higher or superior social position moves towards an inferior social position, it is called downward mobility. Just as, a big businessman because of great loss in business becomes a beggar or an officer is dismissed because of his serious offence and is deprived of all privileges.

3. Terrestrial Mobility :
It is to move from one geographical place to another in search of better job or to keep that social position in the social stratification. For instance, individual from Charsadda or Rajinpur residing in Lahore or Karachi in search of employment as to avoid the pressure of tribal heads is terrestrial mobility.

4. Inter-generational Mobility :
Transferring from one race' to another '-race, the change is called intergenerational mobility.
in other words,
“lntergenerational mobility involves changes in the social position of children relative to their parents, or refers to a vertical change of social status from one generation to the next.”
For instance, a son of a carpenter becomes a doctor or an engineer or the son of a police officer adopts a profession of a shopkeeper. It is called an intergenerational mobility.
“Intragenerational mobility, refers to the vertical mobility experienced by a single individual within his or her own lifetime.”
For instance, a woman starts her career as a primary schoolteacher to reach higher position of headmistress of a high school or principal or director till her retirement. Then such a change in status is called intragenerational mobility. Sociologists gave this type of mobility great importance while analyzing such cases for research study.

5. Structural Mobility :
“Structural mobility, refers to the vertical movement of a specific group, class or occupation relative to others in the stratification system”.
For instance, Motor cycle, Rickshaws produced economic difficulties for Tonga-men to become unemployed‘or poor or rapid increase in construction, cause increase in the income of plumber and electricians and their mobility from lower status to higher status is called Structural Mobility and it points towards some society to be open and to be providing chances of promotion.


Factors Affecting Social Mobility

1. Economic Structural Changes :

The changes taking place in the structure of a society are subject to social mobility in an observing manner. If the economy of a society is based on agriculture and that changes' into an industrial society then many people get the chances of employment, income increases and standard of life rises. As a result, the social stratification of an individual improves or if traditional pattern of agriculture is changed into mechanical agriculture the production is increased and results in better position of the social stratification: The progress of technology also opens new economic fields which raise the social status of skilled people.

2. Modernization :
The modernity and innovatory level divert the attention of the individuals of a society towards new, discoveries and inventions which create a passion for better social life and efforts to increase income, become fast. There is rapid advancement in economic activities, new employments are created and social position of individuals becomes a source of upward political mobility.

3. Improvement in Communication Means :
All means of communications are a course of social interaction, connections are increased, information is increased, new economic sources take place, new business is started, running business is improved and production is increased. Rapid means of communications help in sending goods to the market and increase in income, affects social mobility.

4. Education and Social Awareness :
Such societies, where education is common and every individual has equal chances of getting education, there is a facility of moving from inferior position to superior position. C. Heller on the basis of his study has observed, that education is an important effective element in the inter over intragenerational mobility.
In addition, the level towards social progress and a consciousness of making life better is the important functions of social mobility and. increase the chances of vertical mobility.



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Define social class



Social Class

In agrarian societies, there were generally two social classes, small but wealthy class consisting of landlords and land owners, Big but poor class consisting of farmers and skilled persons. This classification was quite clear but in the industrial society, three or. more than three social classes came into existence and their division is not very strict. The important elements of division'of them is the level of income.
Economists and sociologists of modern time divide societies into three classes, upper class, middle class and lover class.


Definitions of Social Class 

1. Karl Marx : 
“Class, is the collection of people who have equal mode of wealth and have obviously same livelihood.”

2. CH. Persell :
“Class refers to persons who share similar social state and similar level of wealth and income.”

3. Barton and Hunt :
“A social class is a stratum of people of similar social position.”

A social class has characteristics of having a feeling of similar people of social position with equal benefits: Therefore, they should do common acts for the benefit of their class. Because of this class consciousness, there is a similarity in their behaviours and attitudes. Karl Max analyzed the social relation on the basis of economic ownership i.e., capitalism have divided the society into two classes. Bourgeoisie or capitalist class and proletariat or working class.
He believed that social structure is based on the ownership of economic resources. The class, that has the possession of these, is the ruling class and by using force is able to get the decision done in its favour and thus keeping its benefits secure.

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Define Kinship or Bradary and tells the functions of bradary



Kinship or Bradary

In the social life of the Sub-continent, especially Bradary system is in vogue. In this respect, many regions were specific for specific bradaries. In the ancient cities, different bradaries resided in different towns or mohullahs where there another bradary individual were thought alien and'there coming going was not approved.
This term has been taken from Persian word ‘Bradary’. Many families make Bradary and its individual claim to be the offspring of the same ancestors and thus are joined by blood relations. Therefore, of a same caste people live with special geographical limits. In the modern age, social mobility has made the individual of a Bradary to leave his specific geographic limits and because of exogamy, one’s Bradary relation is becoming weak.

Definition of Kinship or Bradary

It is the name of one’s caste, people living together and they share matters of social life by cooperating with each other.
Anthropologists have a word near to Bradary as kinship which they use. “In every society, ties by blood and marriage tend to be basis for building the more intimate and essential relations that is kinship.”
In addition, if an individual has an equal emotional attachment from paternal and maternal relation, anthropologists call him kindred. In Arabia and Africa, the tribes have this type of Bradary.
“Recognized members of a bilateral decent group are called collectively
kindred.”
For some tribes, anthropologists use the word class which consists of either paternal or maternal relations.

A more clear definition of class is :

Clan : “A clan system assigns a number of individuals in each generation to a common decent category which by unilateral principle, may be either patrilineal or matrilineal.”
OR
“The clan has been called a form of great family extending either in the male or the female line.”
This shape of Bradary or clan, was more popular in ancient societies when woman had lower status in the society. This form was made clearer by these two form. of marriages - Booty marriage and purchase marriages. In this case, Bradary consisted of by only paternal relatives. In the Sub-continent, Aryan
societies were in the form of clans. Whatever the manner of bradary or kinship, according to the sociologists,
its function are the same.


Functions of Bradary

I. Bradary is a group consisting of different families and it has a system of traditions, values and norms to keep control and uniformity in the group life. Whatever was learnt from elders of a Bradary was adopted in the social life.

2. Bradary creates a sense of security and we feelings and cooperates at the times of joy and grief, promoting mutual unity. There is no sense of social loneliness in the individuals and their social belongingness remains in tact.

3. Bradary has a system of specific norms and sanctions through reward and punishment keep the unity of the Bradary. Sometimes, Bradary expresses its serious hatred and disapproval for the deviants by showing its reactions in case of normative deviance. To keep traditions of Bradary Secure, such deviants are either murdered or excommunicated from Bradary which is a bitter lesson of shame and fear for others and they do not deviate from the norms of the society.

4. The important function of Bradary is to provide matrimonial facility. In some societies, especially in Africa and in India once or twice festivals are held for this in which individuals of specific age select matches for marriage but most of these matters are settled with the advice of elders of the Bradary and endogamy is discouraged.

5. A Bradary is holder of values, traditions and customs of a society and no change or amendment is liked by a Bradary. It is reacted, thinking its against the existence of culture. In spite of this effort, in the industrial societies Bradaries have failed to exist and in the post industrial Societies this system has vanished completely.


Changes in Bradary

Industrial revolution has affected the social life, the most of all bringing about changes in structure and functions and Bradary has been affected the most. Because of modernity and industrial progress, economic changes have occurred. The families have been obliged to go to distant places for employment and business and Bradary influence has lessened in terms of values and traditions and its structure has changed.

l. Mate-selection :
Previously, Bradary has arranged marriages in festivals and collective decisions for the individuals and because of no pressure of Bradary, families are doing this with their own will and endogamy is not compulsory, now an exogamy is not disliked.

2. Sanctity of Traditions : 
Agrarian especially tribal societies, the center of social life is considered the traditions and values of Bradary and abiding by these is an important characteristic of the social and cultural life. But in modern industrial societies, people adopt modern values and style of life instead of the values of Bradary and are careless about it and as a result of it, the importance of Bradary has decreased.

3. Bradary as Identification :
A Bradary name was the identification of an individual of a society whereas in the modern social life, wealth and post determine the status of an individual in a society and ancestor-ship and Bradary is ignored ground. Superior or inferior status concept pertaining to Bradary is ending and an individual is recognized not by his Bradary but by his ability, experience, skill, post and popularity.

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Define caste and tell its characteristics



Caste

Caste is a socially ascribed status which is the name of those groups of individuals who have common ancestors and have same profession. Caste is a permanent social group and is a source of recognition of an individual.
In the Sub-continent, there has been a caste system since last three thousand years which was in the beginning, based on division of labour. Different castes had been allotted different jobs on permanent basis the objective of which was to produce stability in the structure and function of a society.
       On this basis, caste became a role which was assigned to him without his desire and an individual has no choice and power and he gets the role that of his parents. This system created many complications out of which the most important dislikes of marriage among individual of different castes. Endogamy is preferred
to avoid ritual pollution. Pakistan and India in the Sub-continent and in South Africa caste system has still an important place.

Definitions of Caste 

1. Ian Robertson :
A caste system is a closed form of social stratification in which status is determined by birth and is life long."

2. CH. Persell : 
Caste system is a closed system of social stratification in which prestige and social relationships are based hereditary position at birth."

3. RT. Schaefer :
Hereditary system of rank, that is relatively fixed and immobile is called a caste."

4. Rausek and Warren :
Caste means such a social group in which the membership of an individual is by birth and there is no capacity of mobility."


Characteristics of Caste System

Sociologists attend to the influence of caste for social stratification in different societies because in some of societies, especially in Pakistan. India and Sri Lanka this has got an important place socially which is based upon the following characteristics :

1. Caste determines the ascribed status of an. individual in a society and before his social interaction fixes the expectation and behaviour which afterwards plays an important part in the growth of the self-concept of an
individual, saving him from social adjustment and complications. If an individual is unaware of his caste, he faces serious reaction in social relation or if he adopts a behaviour contrary to his caste, even then the society rebels against him by demanding to adopt an expected behaviour.

2. Caste is a heredity and permanent group and consists of the same race of ancestors. Therefore, individuals of one caste become famous for special characteristics. Just as, beauty, bravery, cowardice, intelligence and
cleverness as hereditary characteristics whereas, these are due to close intensive family socialization. In the choice of mate in a marriage is considered in view of his caste as his personal characteristics. That is why,
marriages are held in the same family to avoid adaptability between the couple.

3. A caste consists of several families of specific groups and has equal economical traditional conditions and abiding by the caste is thought an attachment with the caste otherwise an individual faces social disapproval.

4. A caste makes its individual feel a sense of self-belongingness, attachment and nearness because of which irrespective of his status in the society, he feels a security and expects the help, cooperative and emotional
attachment from his caste people in a difficult time and that makes his relation strong with other individuals.

5. Caste is a source of recognition of an individual in a vast society. In the Sub-continent where caste from personal point of View is very important, there an individual needs not a lengthy introduction but telling caste is sufficient and people understand made about him and relate themselves with him. That is why, the guess of reaction of others about his caste plays an important part in developing his self-concept and this produces
uniformity in the behaviours of people and is a source of their recognition.

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Define Social Stratification and explain its determining elements or determinant



Social differentiation is a universal characteristic because the division of some functions is necessary in a society. Some of these are biological but most of these are socially fixed. in every society, individuals are different in terms of profession, material possession, honour, prestige, authority, beliefs and other characteristics. This difference of individuals provides a mechanism of dividing into different classes which is called stratification.
According to sociologists, this study is very important because it seriously affects the institutional relations and social interaction.
Stratification is the product of social inequality and is a relatively permanent position of the society, is transmitted from one race to another, limits the chances of progress. Its ways are different in different societies and are changeable with social changes and sometimes this stratification becomes a cause
of revolution.


Definitions of Social Stratification 

1. CH. Persell :
“Social stratification is the fairly permanent making of position in a society in terms of unequal power, prestige or privileges.”
He further says that "The unequal opportunities or rewards are for people in different social positions."

2. RT. Schaefer :
Stratification, a structure ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuate unequal economic rewards and powers in a society.

3. Ian Robertson :
Social stratification is the structured inequality of entire categories of people, who have different access to social rewards as a result of their status in social hierarchy."

4. Augburn and Nimkoff :
“Social stratification is a class division of society of permanent group position which is admitted by the superior or inferior individual of a society."

5. Gilbert :
Social stratification is group division of a society and there is difference of superiority or inferiority among the individual."

Determinants of Social Stratification

1. Wealth :
The presence of wealth is the element of stratification in the societies of the world. Wealth has two ingredients:

1. Ownership of land.
2. Sources of income (pay or profit).

The people who own economic resources of getting wealth, they have a superior status in the society. The concept of wealth is different in different societies. In agrarian society, land is important sources of wealth whereas industrial societies have sources of income. That is why, in the industrial societies some servants and some traders without any ownership have big wealth and have an important place in the society.

2. Power and Authority :
Power is that capability that makes others subordinate to a person. .The power can be legitimate authority or a traditional authority. In modern societies, political status is also a source of power and authority which is called political power. Especially in democratic system of govt, it has great importance. In all societies, the division of power is unequal, giving rise to social stratification. The more the legal, traditional or political power an individual or a group has in a society, the more the determination of the social stratification. Just as DIO or Deputy ‘or Member of National Assembly or leader of a political or religious party have great social position in the Pakistani society and have higher status in the social stratification.

3. Occupation :
Occupation attachment especially, in agrarian and traditional societies, plays a very important role in the stratification. A period extending over centuries in the social life has determined the social status through social interaction as to which of the profession is superior and which is inferior and societies determine their stratification on the basis of profession without considering the personal status of individuals. 
Dom Hoff says: “In traditional societies occupation determines the stratification whereas in modern industrial societies professions are of no low status and there are not looked upon with hatred and because of this,
profession does not become a cause of any distinction treatment." In Indian and Pakistani society, even today occupation is considered an important factor, in stratification. Blacksmiths, carpenters and pottery-makers are considered in village societies lower than agriculturists and in an urban society a motor mechanic is considered lower than a food inspector.

4. Caste :
Caste system is a closed and heredity system, having importance in certain societies for stratification because an individual’s honour, prestige and social relation depend on his caste. In the Sub-continent, the caste system of Hindus is thought as a determining factor in the stratification but in modern industrial society and in the post industrial society, caste is not considered, but in American society, colour and race has the same importance which is in the Sub-continent society of Hindus between Brahmin and Shoodur. In Pakistan, some castes are traditionally thought superior and inferior to stratification which is above.

5. Prestige and Popularity :
An eminent deed of an individual of a society becomes a cause of his honour and an increase of his regard in most of the population; This gives a superior status in the stratification whereas ignoring or unpopularity decreases the status in the society. In Pakistani society, cricket, hockey, squash, martyrs of armed forces and atomic scientists because of their eminent performance get a popularity, honour and love ‘in the heads of the people whereas people accepting bribe, politicians, dacoits and drug traffickers are considered hateful and inferior in the eyes of the people.

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Tuesday, 28 October 2014

What is Personality and define it and also discuss the formation of Personality





Personality

Personality is a purely human quality and is a very complicated instinctual organization. It is the thoughts and character, interests and behaviour even it is the philosophy of life of a person. There is nothing more interesting than personality topic. Husband wife, officer and subordinate and capitalists and labourers are all
on the way of finding the personality of one another.

Apparent and Literary meaning of personality :
It is derived from Latin word ‘persona’ meaning shape or form. Nowadays, this word is used in different social science - Sociology, Social Psychology and Psychology in very vast and different meanings to a large extent. Apparently, we say that an individual has a charming personality or has no personality. This is just on the basis of apparent features of a person i.e., nose, eyes, forehead, contours, dress etc. but the social scientist do not think apparent traits as the personality but according to them, personality is that building prepared fro. ‘ innate tendencies and interaction of environment which consists of habits, actions, beliefs and feelings.


Definitions of Personality 

l. Alpert :
Such a dynamic organization of psychological and functional system of an individual, that determines ideal adjustment with environment is called a personality."

2. Dr. Mun :
“The personality is the most characteristic integration of an individual’s structure, modes of behaviour, interests, attitude and capacities, especially when considered from the stand-point of adjustment in social situation.”

3. McDougall :
The complete organization of heredity features and natural tendencies is called personality."


Personality Formation

The growth of personality is growth of mind and physique which pertain to genes, called also physiological limit, influenced by environmental harmony because the adaptation with environment is not done, it affects the growth of personality.

Important Factors in Personality Formation :


l. Heredity :
There is a theory that "the personality of an individual resembles his parents is heredity factor." Intelligence of an individual, his tendency, physical built and innate tendencies and needs play an important part in building
personality.

2. Social Environment :
An individual is a biological unit at the time of its birth but to say that he is just a clot of blood is wrong but in the form of genes, there are numerous characteristics which brought it up' in a specific environment but it is a
complicated action. However, the personality building is done through mutual interaction of social environment and heredity. Heredity is out of our control but environment can be controlled and can affect the personality directly.
The institutions of education and training, build personality of specific characteristics by arranging a specific social environment which shows that a social environment plays a central role in personality building. For example, Army, medical college, engineering colleges and professional colleges are institutions, teaching different skills by part in building personality. Social environment includes family and school which do the same as other institutions.

i. Role of Family :
Family is directly related with the growth and building of personality and it affects the individual’s life socially and hereditary. A child is affected by his parent’s qualities and these qualities play an important role in his life. He imitates them, thinking them the best model and unconsciously or consciously adopts their actions. Children are necessarily like their parents because of other elements. According to the psychologists, family is the best workshop for children where people of a family work together, learn to live life and prepare themselves to cope with future challenges. Because of this close interaction, a child is deeply impressed by individual, psychologists have given great importance to the early years of a child with reference to the building of his personality.
Freud says:
“Early years are the period that determines the direction to which a child is to grow and flourish.”
The pleasant and self-belonging environment of home makes the child’s personality healthy and satisfied and quarrels, economic and family conflicts create frustration in a child and promote negative behaviour.

Sibling :
According to psychologists, the highest motive in the human personality is the achievement of superiority which is a reaction of inferiority complex. Older thinks that little children think themselves inferior to elders and to conceal this inferiority complex, they do things of many types. On this delicate occasion, if correct guidance in terms of giving importance, giving responsibility, doing uniform treatment to end inferiority complex, etc. is not given, the child’s personality growth may be affected. Similarly, such position affects the child’s personality and the child alone is affected.

ii. School Role in Personality Development :
After family, school plays an important part in the growth of the personality of a child which is deep and durable nostalgia of pleasant recollections of the period. In the school, a child passes a period of ten to twelve years. This is the place, from where he promotes his habits, intelligence and abilities and his aim is determined. His behaviour and tendency to take a specific direction. A close study of school life of a child can foretell about the future of the child. The impression of school environment, teacher’s behaviours and relations with school fellows are long. If all of these conditions are encouraging, the personality of the child becomes pleasant and converse conditions do the reverse.

3. Influence of Culture on Personality Development :
From the very birth of a child, he is under the influence of culture. The traditions and customs of family or tribe influence his life from the very first day. Every child is born in a specific sub-culture and afier a few years, he comes to know that he is to live in a culture and to lead a successful life. Therefore, he has to adopt the aims, thoughts, views, dealing and viewpoint of the culture, according to its social values and his personality becomes a representative of the culture.
Anthropologists and psychologists did many researches to study the influences of culture on personality. Some of these are given below :

i. When culture was ancient, rate of flexibility was less and there was no deviation from norms, traditions and customs and as a result there were no incidents of mental disorder whereas in modern urban societies, rate of flexibility is high and as such there is more deviation from traditions and more mental disorder as has been observed in a tribe Zulu whose life was village life with no industry and no urban facility. There is unity and harmony in the society and no deviation because Zulu tribe culture was similar to ancient civilization. In the societies of France, Italy and Sweden, urban life was at its height. There was a high rate of competition because of industrialization and mental disorder rate was high as compared to Zulu tribe. (Margaret Mead).

ii. The culture of Italy and Ireland were studied comparatively. In Ire Land society and culture matter was very strict regarding sexual behaviour of children with a punishing attitude and wanted her children to be controlled regarding emotions whereas Italian culture gives freedom for expression of emotions. In this cultural environment, the personality of Irish people seems submissive, obedient, constructor and law-abiding with no incidents of deviation whereas in Italian culture individuals are of aggressive, of competitive nature and of innovators personality. They are sociopathic to deviation. (Opter)

iii. In Formosa, the influence of culture on personality was checked by a research study. It was observed that extended family system is still favoured and is in vogue. People of family live with love and interest and cooperate with each other and because of this there are no diseases like psycho-neurotic and rate of suicide is less than that of European countries where there is simple family with alienation among children and elders.

Unique Experience and Personality Development :

A unique experience sometimes plays an important role in the growth of personality and gives a new direction to it. It affects personality in two ways:

i. Because of heredity complex, a child comes with so many heredity characteristics which is the base of his genetic make up. For example, beauty, colors and contours of the face, all of them play an important part in the growth of self-concept of an individual because he gets a positive response in the society which creates a
confidence, pride and self-liking passions in his personality. Conversely, the absence of them promotes non-confidence, anger and hatred passion in the personality of an individual and he has to face bitter experiences, making his self-growth negatively.

ii. The analysis of an expected experience is also called unique experience just like, a dreadful dream, terrible situation, confrontation with a terrible supernatural being, some incident with thieves, dacoits or some pleasing smile, etc. change the whole chemistry of an individual with deep and durable effects, influencing the whole life and gives anew direction to personality being formed by influence of heredity, social environment and cultural effects just as, a law obedient and of a constructive mind person becomes aggressive and cruel having fallen a prey to some cruelty.
However, to say that anyone the above elements has more importance, is wrong. All of these elements affect the personality in a combined and complex manner for its growth. That is why, siblings having many elements common, are of different personalities.

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Concept of self in socialization



Concept of Self

All of us have our different emotions, feelings and beliefs that who are we? What do we like? How do we develop? The answer of these questions are not related with our birth or later learning and training by social interaction and reactions and making a concept of our self. We have consciousness in contrast to animals to determine our aims. Self-concept is an undefined thing but we cannot separate this from ourselves because it is a consequence of social interaction, response to that action.

The Emergence of Self-Concept

1. Theory of George Herbert Mead (1965-1931) :
In the opinion of Mead, the result of socialization appears from others expectation from us and our behaviour towards them. This capability, according to him, is of role taking, of imitating and of fulfilling the expectations of others. This basic evaluation gives the concept of self to us.
Mead states that hows child grows himself and brings up his self-concept in three stages and how he develops his self-concept in the social life.

i. Imitation :
At the age of less than three years, a child has no sense of self and feels difficulty in knowing his role so he starts imitation of others by observing their manner. This is not a role playing stage but it is a preparation stage.

ii. Play :
After the age of three years, he takes the role of others. In a play, he does the role of a shopkeeper, in a game of dolls; there is a role of parents. In school and games, role of a teacher and student is played. Thus, a child learns the environment around him by doing other’s roles and try to understand the concept of them in imagination and observe the others for such roles.

iii. Games :
In the beginning years of school, children are prepared to play games of life in an organized manner where their roles are real. They have to face the expectations of others and reaction also. They are not only aware of their status and role but also have attention towards the role of others. Thus, a mutual guidance is available. He tries to fulfil social norms and expectations and tries to adopt himself according to those. Thus, he can differentiate between (I) the spontaneous, impulsive and unsocialization of self. and (me) the socialized self that is conscious of social norms, values and expectations and realizes that other people have their own self-concept and have their own ideas and needs which are different from those of ours and from here emergence of the self starts that his or her own self is an identity separate from all others.


Self- The Looking Glass

The Theory of Charles Harton Cooley (1864-1929) :
He was basically an economist who later became a professor of Social Psychology. He offered a theory of self under the heading (The Looking Glass Self) “Self-concept is derived from a social mirror in which we can observe how others react to us." Whatever others express as a reaction about us, we try to conclude for that reflection about ourselves. According to Cooley. self is developed in following three steps :

i. Imagining our own appearance :
First of all, we imagine how we are presenting ourselves before others, especially significant others whose opinion has an importance about us like individuals of a family, bosom friends or teachers, etc. It is our concept that we are pleasing, sympathetic, intelligent and smart.

ii. Interpreting other’s reactions :
We interpret other’s reaction about ourselves, our personality and our presentation with answers to the questions put or conceived by others, what others are thinking about us whether they like it or not it.

iii. Development of self-concept :
On the third step, we make a feeling about ourselves, explaining the opinion of others by ourselves. If this reflection in the social looking glass is favourable, this will promote self-concept and in case of its being unfavourable, our own concept will vanish and we shall try to change our behaviour.
But generally individuals misjudge the opinion of other people and we explain wrong about ourselves. Some people habitually misjudge the opinion of others and thus, make an unreal superior or inferior self-concept. Whether our study is wrong or right in social looking glass, it will be that we explain about ourselves. Without a society, the concept of self is difficult and self is that comes into existence as a responsive reaction of others.
For instance, our personality’s self-concept is that we are intelligent, beautiful and sympathetic 'whereas, reaction of others may be to think us intelligent but of no impressive beauty and not according to the expectation of sympathy. We shall a picture of self, from this we guess that we are intelligent of acceptable beauty and sympathy... to some extent but our guess may be exaggerated or be humiliated. In both cases, we shall form an unreal superior or inferior concept of ourselves which will affect our attitude negatively. As a result, to avoid from public reaction, our social interaction will become limited or selective. Social interaction will limit our activities to have the self-guessed and self-concept remain safe.

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Define socialization and throw the light on agencies for socialization




Socialization : 

A human child is helpless at birth Despite other animals, it cannot live for a few hours without other’s help but it can learn to become a complete human being and he learns everything from a society. This process of learning, which is complicated, is called socialization, which occurs through social interaction with near people including family members and relations, playmates and teachers. Social training is a process that continues from birth to death and there is a link between an individual and society without which no individual can live.

Definitions :

1. RT. Schaefer :
“Socialization is the process whereby people learn the attitude, values and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture,”

2. Robertson Jan :
“Socialization is the process of social interaction through which people acquire personality and learn the way of life of their society”,

3. CH. Persell :
“Socialization refers to the preparation of newcomers to become members of an existing group and to think, feel and act in ways the group considers appropriate.”

4. Augburn and Nimkoff :
“Socialization is a process through which individual learns obedience of group norms.”
A society wants individuals to do what is expected by it. Just as language, manners and behaviour. If an individual or a group comes up to the expectations of a society then society shows a joy for him and he is thought to be rightly trained. That is why, social psychologists think an individual as the product of social training.


Agencies for Socialization :

Socialization covering whole life is affected by several social forces. In all the societies of the world, family is considered as the most important institution which is the most effective in socialization, especially in childhood. In addition, other elements like group of companions, school, communication and professions have importance for personality and socialization.

1. Family :
The most effective and deep relation is of family in the process of socialization by imprinting at intense and deep effects on an individual. It is the family that takes care of a child, his birth and provides sense of self, teaches to walk, to talk, to memories and provides a sense of 'society. By making the child learn different behaviours according to different situations and reactions to those, his personality is developed but it has its base in the family. It is the family that provides a sense of gender and gender role interaction having long-lasting affects.
The part of culture that learnt in family, dominates the individual’s life and that is why family is said to be a center for socialization of an individual and these effects are very deep in Pakistani culture.
Melvin, in his research, has described three reasons because of which family effects are deeper :

i. The first institution with which an individual is introduced, is family and an emotional relation is all encompassing him all the life without any relation with the outer world.

ii. A family socializes a child consciously but this interaction makes the personality strong through unintended behaviours.

iii. A specific importance in the structure of a family makes its effects more long-lasting because the position and ascribed status of an individual is with reference to his family and the interaction is also in the background of a family making family religion, race, class, values and tradition are more important.

2. Schools :
In providing formal socialization, schools and other institutions are included. A school is an institution to teach knowledge and skills according to rules and regulations in a formal manner. Before industrial societies, institutions were not present in formal position and in the post industrial societies, their need and importance has increased very much. They have decreased the family effects and their benefits because they have attained the status of total institutions.
This institution along with teacher, students and environment teaches the social norms, traditions, beliefs and values and ensures their fast effects on the minds of the individual to fulfill the social expectations of the society. That is why, the social training of the school has deep effects on the minds of the individuals and their personality.

3. Peer Group :
As soon an individual grows up, he establishes his relations with his peer group. As these relations grow more, family importance becomes less because of his own type people, freedom from role status and his liking of, and his liking instead of compulsion. A sense of selection is evoked in him and them gives freedom of making decisions with confidence, thus learning new social roles. For instance, different roles and responsibilities in a game or play establish a balance between peer group and school and provide a traditional stage to the socialization, adopting in the practical life. Informal ways in family and formal ways in school are tried among peers and keeping its social reaction in view makes them as part of our personality and in practical life we behave according to it.

4. Mass Media :
Mass media is a wonderful invention of the twentieth century and this has got an important place in socialization of individuals. Before this development, stories and songs were part of social life of the individual but today the effects of TV and internet start to effect even in the early life of school and peer group. TV provides the practical training of role play and imitation and plays a part in the mental and personality growth of an individual. All means of communications give awareness about the environment to the individual and provide social information providing him with more alternatives in the selection of role,
behaviour and thoughts. It makes one understand one’s culture more and gives a facility to compare it with other cultures and increases one’s ability of amendment to re-mobilize himself.

5. Occupation :
In the secondary stage of socialization, profession is an important source. A profession gives an edge to ways of life, thought affecting the intelligence and becomes a total institution for the socialization of an individual. “Total institution refers to institution, which regulates all aspects of a person’s life under a single
authority.”

A profession affects in the following manner :

i. All activities of life become an axis of professional activities.

ii. All of these activities are associated with his professional fellows.

iii. These activities require all attention, skill and effort for the achievement of aims of that profession.

In these situations, the social interaction and communication become limited as specific and external factors affect his personality less and profession becomes a source of his personality development wholly, thus giving a recognition to his personality just as, a doctor engineer, professor and teacher are recognized with reference to their profession.

Other Agencies :

Some other agencies also do the work of socialization.
i. Neighborhood :
Neighborhood plays an important part in our socialization with reference to social interaction. If it is a part of group life, an individual’s early social life is affected. In Village and agrarian societies, neighborhood has depth and nearness and its effects resemble those of a family. But in modern urban societies, there is
distinctness and coldness about neighbor, thus having no effect on personality.

ii. Religious Institutions :
These affect an individual socially in two ways:
a. Religious trend in family diverts the individual to masjid where masjid has secondary effects of increasing or decreasing his tendency and ‘as a result of this an individual is either attached to religion or avoids religion matter because of his disliking the religion.

b. The position of mosque as a pleasant environment or a total institution influence the personality of an individual to the extent of totally making his every movement an expression of his attachment with religion.

iii. State :
Sociologists are accepting the fact that in the modern age, state is becoming more important at every stage with reference to socialization. Before industrial society, there was a distance between an individual and the state but i now this case is reversed totally and it has begun to affect our family decisions. Especially, in Socialist societies, the number of children, choice of profession and age for marriage is determined by the state and not by the family. Family’s economic security is the responsibility of State. Provision of medical aid and recreation are the responsibilities of a state and secondary dependence of an individual's personality is on the behaviour and facilities provided by the state which can be observed by the structure of personality and the difference of state action." (Mayer 1989)’

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Saturday, 25 October 2014

Define Ethnocentrism and explain its merits and demerits



Ethnocentrism 

The common and daily used sayings of the individuals of a society that their culture, armed forces, intelligence bravery are the best of all others and that others are backward, underdeveloped and primitive people is a sign of ethnocentrism. McCurdy (1980) states an example that explains ethnocentrism :
What ‘we’ believe in is a religion? What they believe is superstition and
mythology.”


Definition of Ethnocentrism

1. William Graham Summer :
“The tendency to assume that one’s culture and way of life is superior to all others.”

2. Cuber :
“The tendency of persons to judge other cultures by the standards of judgment prevailing in their own.”

3. Getteyes :
Ethnocentrism is an emotional role in which individuals think their group, race thoughts and religion superior to those of other societies which express the inferiority of others."

4. Ibn-e-Khaldun :
That common desire of a group and their emotions of uniformity in individuals which should keep them united and play a powerful force in an action is called ethnocentrism."

5. RT. Schacfer :
“The tendency to see one’s own culture as superior to all others is called ethnocentrism.”

Merits of Ethnocentrism 

1. Group Solidarity :
Functionalists note that ethnocentrism serves to maintain a sense of solidarity by promoting people’s pride." Since ethnocentrism is the name of thinking one’s own culture better and superior to others so a pride and superiority feeling is created which in turn creates a unity and group solidarity. This concept of ethnocentrism was first given by the founder of sociology, Ibn-e-Khaldun in a his famous theory, Alasbiata. He says: “Ethnocentrism passion is a cause of unity among people of a nation. When this decreases, the nation begins to suffer a downfall because of disorder and dispersion.

2. Effective Defence :
Ethnocentrism creates a sense of group security which makes the individuals an effective force for defence of their culture and even sacrifices their lives and this makes a collective defence against external aggression or danger. Pakistan being less in population and area, takes pride in her bravery and unity based on ethnocentrism and remained successful for effective defence in war.

3. Promotion of Integrity : 
Functionalists view that ethnocentrism increases uniformity within the society which promotes the cultural integrity."

Ethnocentrism creates uniformity and love with arts, beliefs and cultural values in the individuals of a society. By promoting mutual connections, creates self-belongingness and commerce pride which results in cultural and national unity. In Pakistan, people because of their common language, dress, religion, cultural values and customs have deep cultural unity and attachment with each others.

4. Preservation of Culture :

The greatest merit of ethnocentrism is solidarity of culture. These emotions promote a sense of favour and love with culture. When individuals of a society show hatred towards other cultures,. actually they show love and attachment with their own culture and take pride in acting upon the principles of their culture and this pride provides a mechanism to save the culture. Other culture’s diffusion becomes less and cultural change meets a serious opposition and external interference comes to an end. i

Demerits of Ethnocentrism

1. Promotion of Groups :
Ethnocentrism creates an intense self-belongingness in specific and minority groups and big societies are divided into small groups, creating a danger to unity. It is also likely to involve in quarrels by providing superiority and social pride and thus, linguist social riots create disorder and dispersion.

2. Hurdle in Social Development : 
Ethnocentrism creates a hesitation among individuals to adopt new values, traditions which prevents the way to progress. Summer’s supposition that, “More intense loyalty and patriotism, more difficult the cooperation between cultures and leads to more hurdles in social development."

3. Complications in Social Problems :
Ethnocentrism provides security to culture but when ruling powers try to use new invention and views, many changes are produced in culture, creating problems of disharmony and unconcern on the part of  Individuals,
having specific interests lose their importance by making the problems more serious and resulting in the‘ form of disorder and dispersion and material non-cooperation and a solution of one problem gives rise to many other ones.

4. Hindrance in Assimilation :
Ethnocentrism stabilizes cooperation and sympathy in a group but inter-group relations become a source of hatred are non-cooperation and injustice because of distinctive treatment and non-attention resulting in a hindrance of  assimilation of cultural characteristics of each other. Small groups merging into big groups for big culture, suffer a negative effort. In America, the distinctive treatment between black and white men based on ethnocentrism results in riots. In India, the cultural superiority of Hindus creates a behaviour of injustice and hatred against Sikhs by making fun of their beliefs and by keeping them repressed and this creates restlessness in Sikhs of India.


Cultural Relativism 

It is not always correct to think one’s own culture as the best one. Cultural relationship helps in understanding any culture and its characteristics because:
“Cultural Relativism is opposite to ethnocentrism and according to it no belief, action or behaviour is either bad or good but that depends upon the way that a society considers it. In other simple words, “Nothing is good and bad but thinking makes it so.”
For example, in some societies simple family is liked while in others extended family system is liked. In Indian culture, cow is sacred whereas in Pakistani culture cow is slayed and its meat is eaten and sacrificed on the occasion of Bid. So culture is a relative term so far its beliefs, traditions, values, customs and style of life is concerned. Every culture is concerned with the betterment of life of its individuals of a society. 

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Explain cultural uniformity and cultural variability with examples



Cultural Uniformities

All societies of the world have uniformity in many cultural characteristics i but there is a dramatic difference in the manners. This universality of the cultural characteristics is called Uniformity. Murdock studied 220 societies and edited a list of uniform characteristics which was popular in all cultures and he has expressed his wonder that societies having no relation or contact with other cultures had the same characteristics. Among these is language, dress, family, religion (system of beliefs), education, customs, social norms, festivals, literature, social activities, games and political system, etc.


1. Language : 
“Language, a system'of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another.”

Man is the only creation of the earth that has language for contact and social interaction with a system of reading and writing to preserve its culture and to convey it from one to the other and new generation with all the experiences and f observations. It is also a source of contact with the past, the bad way to convey 1 the thought to others that is why, there is language in all societies of the world to convey the social interaction for the expression of thoughts and keep the continuity of culture. In most of the societies, there are more than one languages and symbol system, known as multi-lingual societies.

2. Dress :
Dress is used in all societies of the world to save from the physical and weather conditions of coldness and heat. Dress is also a show of beauty on festivals. In some societies, this is symbdl of cultural status. For instance, heads of tribes, religious leaders, married women and unmarried women have specific dress. In addition, the specific way of dress and colours are a source of cultural recognition.

3. Family System :
Human life started from family. From cultural uniformity point of view, family is the necessary part of all the cultures of the world. Human race survival and continuity is due to family. Since it is a necessary part of society, that is why no culture can exist without it.

4. Religion :
Religion is a system of beliefs and is source of knowing and contacting the supernatural forces. There are certain incidents in social life, the explanation of which is beyond from human observation. The question not to know about these natural phenomena but for spiritual peace, the system of beliefs and sacred things is the need of every society and religion institution is a necessity for every culture.

5. Socialization : 
Socialization is responsible for the transmission of culture and its survival because language and treasure of knowledge not only makes the individual of a society learn values and tradition but also it does the work of making culture fine in the minds of the individual. Thus, socialization transmits cultural pattern to next generation.

6. Customs : 
There are certain specific ways and reactions which a culture has for specific occasion of social life which create uniform behaviours in the normal life of culture, these are called customs. Whether cultures are interlinked or delinked, there is an intense uniformity in the human behaviour.
“Linton, a sociologist, expresses in his book, “The Study of Societies” that i custom are influenced by diffusion but their existence is part of culture and in ancient societies, the individuals got guidance from customs in their social lives.”

7. Social Norms :
All cultures have a system of norms to keep control in a society for its stability and unity. Norms not only give a security cultural life but also keeps it current in a pleasant manner. Norms are an important source of keeping the continuity of culture.

8. Rituals and Ceremonies :
Every culture arranges festivals and fairs to harmonies with the religion and culture and to provide mental relaxation to the individuals of a society which not only keep cultural environment pleasant but also transfer values and traditions the next generation which becomes a source of recognition of harmony and unity in a thrilling manner with the culture.

9. Literature and Arts :
Literature and arts are recognized as a source of safety and promotion of culture. Such societies where there is no art to write a language, even stories, spies and poetry and language are transmitted through verbal sources. The individual of that society takes pride and think it a part of his culture. Similarly,
cultural arts and skills like music, designing, poetry and handicrafts are included art. No culture can claim to be a culture without art and literature.

10. Recreations :
All cultures arrange recreation for the mental and physical growth and health of the individual of a society that not only keeps the social environment pleasant but also provides training for taking responsibilities of social life and social'life remains safe from boredom and inactivity.

11. Economic Activities :
Economic life of individuals depends upon the fulfillment of their life who need food, abode and dress as basic needs to live. All cultural activities control socio-economic activities and from Hunting and Gathering societies to the Post Industrial societies, economic activities have been a compulsory part of culture, depending upon the social physical environment and natural and human resources.

12. Political System : 
Unless a political system to keep the individuals of a culture safe from dispersion and disorder exists, no culture can keep its existence. This system may be formal or informal that stabilities and harmonies the social system. Linto, a sociologist, reached a conclusion after the researching cultures that in ancient cultures, the political system was informal and loose because of lack of social interaction, there was no diffusion and no danger to cultures but in a modern age, cultural diffusion has taken the form of an invasion, therefore, to provide safe and security from other cultures political system has become formal an organized and covers all the aspects of social life.


Cultural Variabilities 


There are a number of differences in cultural life in spite of general uniformity in cultures. An‘ecological viewpoint is studied to understand the reality of these differences.
Ecological view :
Another Anthropologist, Marvin Harris, explains this, “The Ecological view suggests that climate, food and water supplies; and the presence or absence threatening enemies influence the evolution of various cultural practices that help people adapt to the environment. Marvin Harris says, how people produce food and other necessaries explains the origin and development of cultural practices."

The cultural differences and their elements are explained below:
1. Language : 
Anthropologists wonder about the different manners and symbols through social interaction in spite of being Homo sapiens. Arabic is spoken in Arabia Sanskrit in India and there is great difference between their alphabets. Similar Chinese language in China and English in England has quite strong alphabets and it is difficult to think that the users of these languages spoke one language in any age. Times play a wonderful role in the change of social demands and social interaction of people, speaking different languages. For instance, in Indian Pakistan, Hindi or Urdu is spoken but one thousand years back, there was no concept of this
language present here.

2. Dress : 
To save individuals from physical environment and weather conditions, the use of dress is made in all cultures. Since, different cultures have been living in different weather conditions and physical environment, therefore, there is a difference of dress. In addition, customs and religious beliefs also affect the style of dress in terms of colour and design, In India Pakistan, because of hot weather and Islamic beliefs, light and cotton dress, covering the whole body, is used. Shalwar and shirt for men, Shalwar suit with head cover cloth (Dopatto) is used by women whereas in Switzerland because of very cold weather, people wear heavy woollen clothes consisting of coat, pantaloons, and hat or woollen cap.

3. Family System :
According to Anthropologists, family structure is dependent on the economic sources like food and other biological needs availability. The more the sources, the more the size of family. For example, ancient nomadic tribe, societies and agrarian societies had an element of extended family as a part of culture, whereas in modern urban and industrial societies simple family culture is the popular family system. In addition, polygamy customs are different in different cultures. In India Pakistan, nikah and marriage feast are cultural traits, whereas in India, Bride and bridegroom take round around the fire and bojun distribution are customs.

4. Religion :
Religion is an integral part of culture because the support of supernatural forces to decrease the danger natural calamities has an integral part of human nature. The religion is, to get a spiritual relief by setting up, a connection with the real creator (God) and living in bring a revolution in a culture or to some culture and its transmission. That is why, that different culture has religions and beliefs. For instance, in Pakistan, with reference to Islam religion, individual of the society believes in Oneness of God and Prophethood of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) as the last. In India, several gods and idols are worshipped.
Ram is thought as the apostle of God. In Japan, Muhatama Budhha is thought the redemption of humanity and is invoked for help and guidance.

5. Socialization : 
All cultures change through education to convey the culture to next generation and to harmonize the individuals of the society with the manner of culture but this manner is different in different cultures.
According to Mead: “Cultural training teaches the individuals aggression or submission or competition and accommodation.”
The variety of knowledge, experience and observation play an important role in making the effects different.

6. Customs :
Every culture because of his individual festivals and beliefs has a manner or way of celebrating religious rites, effected by weather and society just as with the people of the Sub-continent, marriage is an important source of recreation and is a collection of many customs whereas in proposal or engagement, mehndi, barat, nikah, departure, marriage party and brides visit to parents after marriage are included. Drum beating, singing songs and such like recreations are also included. In Europe, a special dress for marriage, acceptance of bride and
bridegroom for each other and invitation to a few friends at the occasion and expression of sorrow, coffin, burial or burning ways and arranging feast for people coming at the occasion and a collective prayer etc. are observed.

7. Social Norms :
Social norms are bound by values, traditions and beliefs of a culture and their way is different because of different structures and expectations of different cultures. To say Salam is a Pakistani social norm, whereas there is used good morning to convey the same sense in European culture. Similarly, in Pakistani society, not drinking wine is a mores whereas in European culture this is not a mores. Left hand driving is lawful but in Saudi Arabia it is unlawful.

8. Rituals and Ceremonies :
Rituals and ceremonies are an important source of transmission of culture and providing relief to the society because the passion of participating in them impresses on the minds, the effects of culture. There are different rites because of belief about nature and natural phenomena just as, in Pakistan, because of Islamic attachment; Eids, Miraj-an-Nabi and Mellad Sharif rites are observed. Under social views, celebrations for, Pakistan Day and Quaid-i-Azam Day are held as rites. In India, Holly, Dewali, Basant and Independence Day while in England ‘Good Friday’, Christmas and Easter are celebrated as rituals.

9. Literature and Arts :
Literature and Arts is an important source of keeping remembered the epic and romantic incidents, occurring in a culture and also to transmit them to next generation. Art is an expression of pride and skill of individuals of a society but every culture has different experiences and observations. That is why, the manner and way is different in every culture. Just as, in Pakistani culture, Heer Ranja, Sussi Punnu; in Iranian culture, Sheren Farhad; in Arabian culture, Lailu Majnon etc. are topics of arts and poetry. Bungra, Luddi and Dance are part of Pakistani culture and Brake Dance and Pop Songs are part of European culture.

10. Sports and Recreations : 
Sports and recreations keep the individuals a society healthy and full of thrills and are a part of culture. However, because of this tendency of the individuals of a society and difference of environment, different cultures have i different plays, games and sports. In Pakistan, besides Kabaddi, Football, Volley ball, Cricket and Fairs, Urs, Circus, Cinema, Television and Theater are popular sports. In Arabian culture, Horse race, Camel race and Shooting arrows are popular whereas in European culture, there are Football, Car rallies, Motor sports, Clubs and Cinema are popular sports and recreations.

11. Economic Activities :
Economic sources and natural environment determine the economic activities of a culture of a society. The activities of-the individuals are according to economy of the society. A society depending upon agriculture economy is called an agrarian society. A society depending upon industrial economy is called an industrial society. Pakistan is an agricultural country with fertile land and with canal system with plenty of water whereas Japan is an industrial country with no land for agriculture but with industry chances.

12. Political System :
Wherever man has been (from nomadic society to industrial society), political system has been a part of its culture. They fought fights and died for it. However, the political system while going through stages of evolution has been different in structure in different cultures. In Saudi Arabic. Monarchy; in Libya, a dictatorship, in Britain, democracy; and in America democratic president-ship is current. 

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