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Sunday, 30 November 2014

What is the meaning of Appeal. Explain the various authorities to whom appeal is made under the income tax ordinance



Appeal 

Sometime income taxpayer or income tax authority in not satisfied with an order passed under the income tax ordinance. In this situation law provides procedure to remove the grievances.
So when disputed opinion is brought before the Appellate Authorities is called appeal.
The taxpayer and income tax department both have a right to make appeal where the law has allowed.
Note :- Appeal against each and every order can not be made.

(1) Appeal is made to commissioner (Appeals) Against Commissioner or any other taxation officer:
If taxpayer is not satisfied with the orders issued by commissioner or taxation officer, he has
right to make first appeal with commissioner income tax (appeal).
The taxpayer can file appeal within 30 days with fee.

(2) Appeal to Appellate Tribunal Against Commissioner Appeals :
The commissioner Appeals decided the case but still taxpayer is not satisfied with decision then he can file the second appeal before the tribunal. Now this case income tax department is also allowed to file appeal. This appeal should be made within 60 days.

(3) Appeal to the High court Against the Appellate Tribunal
If tax payer or income tax department are not satisfied then cause is referred to high court by the Appellate Tribunal on the request of any one party. This appeal will be against the decision of the appellate tribunal.
It is the 3rd appeal which is made by the appellate.

(4) Appeal to the supreme court against the decision of high court :
It is the fourth and final appeal made by both parties allowed to file an appeal the appellant to supreme court if high court certifies that case'is fit to be taken before supreme court. The supreme court decision is considered final. Such cases are referred to supereme court that such decisions will be beneficial for other person also.

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Saturday, 29 November 2014

Write a not on Appeal to supreme court



Appeal to supreme court 

If high court certifies the the case is fit to be taken before supreme court then any party may file appeal in the supreme court.
In any case if high court feels that such decision will be beneficial not only for the two parties but also for all those persons who are facing the similar situation. The supreme court can also grant permission to refer the case to them. In all the cases the decision of the supreme court is final. 

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What is the procedure of filing an appeal in the High Court



Appeal Before High Court :

If taxpayer or commissioner is not satisfied with the decision of the Appellate tribunal then any one of them may request to the tribunal that case may be referred to the High court.
Appeal can be referred to the high court on a point of law. If appellate tribunal refuses then taxpayer or income taxed department may apply direct to high court.

Features :
Following are the important features of appeal made to hi h court :
1. Time for appeal :
Within 90 days from the date of receiving the decision of appellate tribunal taxpayer or commissioner may submit the application. If. tribunal refuses then direct application to the high court is made with in 120 days.

2. Appeal against tribunal :
The decision was made by the appellate tribunal so appeal will be submitted against the decision of the tribunal.

3. Any party can appeal :
if taxpayer is not satisfied he has sight to appeal and same sight is available to the income tax department.

4. Fee :
If appeal is being made by the department then these is no fee. in case of taxpayer Rs.100 should be aid as fee.

5. High court bench :
The appeal shall be heard by a bench consisting of a minimum two members.The judges will hear the case and decided the question of law raised in it.

6. Opportunity to bench parties :
The court will provide the equal opportunity to both the parties to explain their point of view. They can also send their representative in the court for this purpose.

7. Decision :
High court will hear the case and it will give its judgment, which will contain the grounds on the basis of which decision has been made.

8. Decision about appeal :
High court shall also decide that this case is fit for further appeal to supreme court or not. It will be also decided that who will bear the cost of appeal ?

9. Communicate the decision :
The high court will communicate its judgment and grounds of judgment about the point of law to the Appellate Tribunal.

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Discuss the legal provisions regarding the appeal to the Appellate Tribunal and How Tribunal disposes of the appeal or discusses the function of Tribunal




Appeal to the Appellate Tribunal

The assessee can make a second appeal to the Appellate Tribunal if the is not satisfied with the decision of commissioner income tax (appeal).The income department can also appeal to the Appellate Tribunal in such case.

FEATURES :
1. Period of appeal :
Within sixty days assessee or department may file an appeal. However appellate tribunal may extend the period.

2. Use of prescribed form :
For the appeal prescribed form should be filled and required documents should be attached with the form.

3. Fee :
Fee must be accompanied with the appeal otherwise it will be not acceptable.
Rate of Fee
i) If tax is Ia-vied then fee will be Rs. 2500 or 10% of the tax whichever is less.
ii) If tax is not levied then fee is Rs. 2000 for companies and Rs. 500 in case of other taxpayers.
Note:- If appeal is made by commissioner then fee is not payable.

4. Hearing opportunity :  
The appellate Tribunal gives the chances of hearing to both the parties.

5. Amount Limit :
Up to Rs. 75,000/= a single member of the tribunal hears the appeal. Important cases are heard by division bench and full bench.

6. Disposing of an appeal :
i) The Appellate Tribunal may reject increase, reduce and can cancel the assessment.
ii) May ask the l.T.O. for fresh assessment.
iii) May issue direction or change the orders.
iv) Ma change the penalty.

7. Period of decision :
The decision of appeal must be made within six months. If the assessee has presented the appeal. If the decision is not given within the period then it will be considered that relief is given.

8. Right of appeal :
income tax department and tax payer both have right to appeal with the Appeallet Tribunal. If any one party is not satisfied against the decision of commissioner income tax (appeal) it may file an appeal.

9. Extension in period :
Some times appellant fails to submit appeal with in due date. The appellate tribunal can extend the time period for appeal, if the reasons of delay are reasonable.

10. Payment of tax :
Before filing the appeal the taxpayer is required to pay the tax. In case of stay order taken from the Appeallate tribunal the payment of tax is not compulsory.

11. Fixation of date :
Date of hearing is fixed and it is intimated to appelant and concerned tax authorities.

12. Communications of orders :
Orders passed by appellate tribunal should be communicated to the following parties.
i) The concerned income tax commissioner.
ii) The appellant.

13. Final decision on point of fact :
There is no appeal against such decision which is made by Appellate Tribunal on a point of face.

14. Final decision on point of law :
No appeal can be made against the decision of appellate tribunal. It is a final decision but if the income tax department is not satisfied with the decision on a question involving a point of law then he may appeal to the high court.

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Wednesday, 26 November 2014

Explain the penalties regarding the following cases or Different penalties are imposed regarding the different offenses in the income tax law 1. Penalties for failure to furnish the return of total income 2. Failure to Furnish statement 3. Failure to maintain prescribed Accounts



(1) Penalty for failure to furnish Return of total income :
If any person fails to furnish the return of his total income in a' particular period without a reasonable cause. The income tax commissioner may impose a penalty on that person.

(2) Penalty for failure to furnish statements :
if any person obstructs any income tax authority in the discharge of his duty a penalty can be imposed on that person. Such penalty will be imposed by the commissioner income Tax. The amount of penalty should not exceed than Rs. ten thousand (10000) will be equal to one tenth (1/10) of one (1%) of total tax payable for each day of default. But the minimum amount of penalty must be Rs. 500 and 25% of taxable maximum.

Returns of income submitted
i) Annual return of income.
ii) Return required by commissioner by notice.
iii) Return required .by commissioner for additional assessment.
iv) Return of income in case of discontinued business.
v) Return in case of persons about to leave Country.

(3) Penalty for failure to furnish statements :
The commissioner income tax may impose penalty if any person fails to furnish the required statement with out any reasonable cause with in due time penalty.
i) Initial penalty Rs.2000.
ii) Further Rs. 200 /per day during which the default continues.

Following are the statements which are submitted.
i) Statement regrading salary, dividend, interest and rent.
ii) Statement regarding receipts to income tax authorities.
iii) Statement regarding certain properties.
iv) Statement regarding certain contracts.

(4) Penalty for non-payment of tax :
The commissioner income tax may impose penalty on such person who fails to pay the tax with in specified time.
Penalty.
i) 5% of tax for first default.
ii) 5% of the tax additional (dud) penalty for second default.
iii) 25% of the tax additional penalty for the 3rd default.
iv) 50% of the tax additional penalty for forth and subsequent default.

(5) Penalty for concealment of income :
If income tax authorities find during the course of proceeding that any taxpayer has concealed his income or furnished wrong particulars of such income a penalty may be imposed.
Penalty :
Income tax authority may impose penalty equal to the amount tax evaded by such person.

Ways of Concealment
i) Money not shown by the taxpayer.
ii) Investment made by the taxpayer not shown.
iii) Concealed the income chargeable to tax.
iv) Valuable articles not shown by the taxpayer.
v) Claiming any deduction for an expenditure not actually incurred.

(6) Penalty Failure to Maintain the Accounts :
The commissioner income tax may impose penalty on person who fails to maintain the record without any reasonable cause.
Penalty :
i) Rs. 2000 for first failure.
ii) Rs. 5000 for second Failure.
iii) Rs. 10000 for third failure.

(7) Penalty for non-compliance with notice :
If any person fails to comply the notice of the income tax commissioner without reasonable cause he can impose penalty.
i) Notice to produce wealth statement.
ii) Notice to produce Books of accounts.
Penalty :
i) Rs.2000 for first failure.
ii) Rs.5000 for second failure.
iii) Rs. 10000 for 3rd failure or subsequent.
Note : Penalty should be reduced by 75% if
tax is assessed less than Rs. Twenty thousands (20000. penalty.

(8) Failure to Give notice of Discontinuance of Business or Profession :
Some times one person discontinues the business but he does not issue the notice. It is necessary that he should inform the commissioner income tax in this regard at least 15 days before. The commissioner income tax may impose penalty which is equal to the tax payable for the income year in which the business is discontinued.

(9) Failure to give notice by liquidator :
It is the duty of the liquidator of the private company that he should inform about his appointment to the commissioner. If he fails to give notice then commissioner income tax can impose penalty not more then ten thousands rupees. 10000

(10) Penalty for obstruction :
If any person creates problem for any income tax authority in discharge of his function then a penalty can be imposed.The commissioner income tax can impose the penalty not more than Rs.10000.
Conditions For Penalty :
i) Penalty will. be imposed by‘the commissioner income tax.
ii) A reasonable opportunity should be given to the taxpayer to explain his position then penalty should be imposed.

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Explain the various modes of deduction of tax at source under income tax ordinance



Deduction of tax at Source
It is very important mode of collecting the It is necessary for certain persons to deduct the amount of tax at specific stages and deposit this amount with the fix department.

1. Salary :
While making the payment of taxable salary the employer should deduct the tax amount and deposit it every month with the commissioner.

2. Dividend :
While paying the dividend to any person all the-resident companies should deduct the tax.
Note:-
f dividend is exempt from tax then it should not be deducted.

Rates of tax.
The tax is deducted according the following rates.
(i)  When dividend is paid to public company 5% or insurance company.
(ii) When it is paid to any other company 10% or an individual or association of persons.

3. Profit on Debt :
Any person who pays the profit on debt should deduct the tax out of such amount according the following rate.
(i) Tax should be deducted at the rate of 10% on Defence Saving or National Saving certificate.
(ii) At the rate of 10% on deposits by bank and financial institution.
(iii) 20% of profit an securities issued by Federal provincial or local government.
(iv) 10% of profit on bond, certificate, debenture, security of financial institution, finance society and banking company.

Payment to Non-Resident :
According the following rates every person should deduct the tax from the amount paid to non-reside person.
(a) On prize dividend and property income tax should be deducted @ 30%.
(b) On royalty or fee for technical services tax should be deducted 15%.

5. Payment for Supply of Goods and Services :
While making the payment on account of supply of goods and services every person should deduct the tax.
(i) in case of supply of goods if payment exceeds to Rs. 25000 PA. then tax must be deducted.
(ii) In case of services if payment exceeds to Rs.1000 pa then tax must be deducted.
(iii) If payment is made on behalf of the govt. company, joint venture, foreign
contractor and association of persons then tax must be deducted.

Note:- If payment is made is made on behalf of the govt, of the individual then deduction of tax is not necessary.

6. Payment of Brokerage or Commission :
While making the payment of commission or brokerage every person should deduct 5% tax at source out of the payment. If payment is made on behalf of the govt. company, association of persons, foreign contractors or joint venture then deduction of tax is compulsory.
Note :- Tax amount deducted
will be treated advance tax on behalf of the person to whom a payment is made.

7. Deduction from Exports :
At the time of realization of foreign Exchange proceeds on account of export of goods by an exporter every authorized dealer in foreign exchange should deduct the tax.
(a) An authorized dealer should also deduct the tax at the time of realization on account of the commission due to an indenting commission agent.

8. Payment of Rent of House Property :
If any person pays the rent of the house the deduction of tax must be made keeping in view the following conditions.
(i) The rent is paid on behalf of the govt. a company, a non-profit organization, diplomatic mission or local authority.
(ii) Tax should be deducted if annual rent is more than 3 hundred thousand rupees.
(iii) The tax should be deducted at the rate of 5%.

9. Prize and Winning :
In case of prize on prize bonds tax will be deducted at the rate of 10%. Tax will be deducted at the rate of 20% on prize from lottery or puzzle etc. The tax deducted will be a final tax.

10. Petroleum Product :
Every person who is selling above product to a petrol pump operator should deduct tax from the amount of commission or discount allowed to operator.

Note :- The rate of tax will be @ 10% and it will be a final payment.

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Tuesday, 25 November 2014

What is Environmental Pollution and Discuss the forms of environmental pollution and give recommendations to reduce it



Being the greatest enemy of survival of humanity and having taken place in the twentieth century is the problem of environmental pollution that has a threat of time bomb of the twenty-first century. The spreading and damages of this problem know no bounds. The more the progress, the more the destruction by nature and the more the difficult for men to check it. The definition of pollution is as follows:
“All of the physical, biological and chemical elements because of human activities becoming part of these make it polluted. The negative environment changes because of these elements are called environmental pollution.”
The following are the forms of pollution that affect the natural atmosphere and human life:

Forms of Environmental Pollution

1. Air pollution :
The lst form of pollution is air pollution. Because of modern industrial and scientific progress, the smoke coming out of vehicles. engines and factories and poisonous gases are damaging human beings, animals and plantation. Natural fuel- oil, petrol, coal burning is seriously damaging the Ozone layer present as a belt of safety round the earth. The temperature of earth is increasing gradually that causes negative changes in the natural environment and this has given rise to so many problems including respiration and diseases of eyes and skin.

2. Water pollution :
Water is an invaluable bounty of nature without which human life cannot be imagined. The water used in industries includes different chemicals and poisons. Many industries let this water fall into streams and rivers that pollute the whole water of a river or a stream. It affects the marine life immediately. When this water enters the fields through canals, it pollutes land and also affects the crops that are being grown in the fields and when these are eaten by human beings their health is affected badly. This polluted water sinks into the lower layer of the earth and affects the under earth water accumulation. Diseases like Hepatitis (liver) Jaudice are becoming epidemic diseases in Imndia and Pakistan due to use of this water and non-presence of measures and no acquaintance of health principles, increasing the effects.

3. Land pollution :
Land is polluted by air and water polluting elements. Spare solid or semi-solid matter from industries; rubbish of houses in the cities pollutes land. In the modern industrial age, the use of non-decomposable articles has increased and this has become a big cause of land pollution. The cutting of forests and trees has affected the environment seriously. Rains are going to be less and land fertility is decreasing day by day and pollution is increasing gradually.

4. Noise Pollution :
Noise is the name of high pitched tones and disliked sounds. Human ear can adapt itself to a sound within a certain range and low or above that range it is a sound and is injurious to health, especially hearing sense. it affects mentally and physically in a negative way. There is a great noise in cities because of vehicles’ unnecessary horns, loud-speakers, working machines parts, airplanes. etc. The intensity of noise and its continuity affects human health and they fall a prey to disease of deafness and nerves.

Other Elements of Environmental Pollution

Despite above elements, there are other elements also responsible for the causing the environmental pollution:

i. Radiation or Radioactive Matter :
The use of atomic energy is increasing day by day, nuclear plants and atomic electricity generation houses are producing radioactive, which are injurious for human beings, and the environment is also polluted from even
atomic blasts.

ii. Overpopulation :
Overpopulation increases load on economic and natural resources with the result of decrease in food production and adulteration in it and the rubbish of cities increases the pollution of environment.

iii. Use of Fertilizers and Insecticides :
To increase agricultural production, the unchecked and enormous use of manure in the form of fertilizers and use of insecticides to kill insects harming the crops has polluted the land and crops as well. A poisonous effect is being seen in vegetables and fruit and land and water is also being polluted.

Recommendations to Reduce Environmental Pollution

The following suggestions may prove useful for the reduction of environment pollution.
1. First of all, awareness about the dangers of pollution should be brought into the notice of the public or individuals of a society about the nature of pollution and the dangers in the near future, if this is not controlled
effectively. It is necessary to include some information in the curriculum of the elementary education. Mass media should play its pant effectively.

2. A legislation should enhance to check the elements responsible for spreading pollution and to reduce it sufficiently.

3. Scientific information and means should be adopted to reduce pollution, especially the smoke of the vehicles should be made free of poisonous gases by some instruments filled in the vehicle.

4. Industrial waste matters should be de-polluted by certain scientific methods to reduce land and water pollution.

5. The polluted water should be treated to be made clear of pollution. The polluted water should not be allowed to fall in rivers without being treated of pollution. A ,better sewerage system in cities be introduced and unpolluted water be supplied to the people from drinking.

6. Forests are a factory to reduce air pollution, therefore, tree-cutting should be avoided and managed properly. Forests should be grown on waste and less fertile land to keep the environment free because forests help to clean the environment by certain chemical reactions that take place in changing carbon dioxide into oxygen and thus they purify the environment.

7. Noise pollution is a great problem of cities. The vehicles should use good sirens'to reduce noise, the factories should use noise silence devices to reduce noise and unnecessary use c-f horns be banned'by law in the cities. Noise affects human mental health.
Despite the above measures, polythene bags should be avoided for packing, less use of insecticides, pressure horns should be banned, people should be directed to take notice of cleanliness measures and an awareness should be given earnestly.
If this is not done, the future generation will be affected and if we destroy the environment, we shall destroy our own civilization from this earth.

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Write down the solution of Crime and Deviancy



Steps to Restrict Deviancy and Crime

All cultures and sub-culture of a society try their pest to check deviancy and crime to restore the norms of the society.
According to R.T. Schafer,
“Strategies to maintain positive social behaviour in society is called social control.”
“The term social control refers to the techniques and strategies for regulating human behaviour in any society.”
No society can fully be free from deviation and crimes, however, a society can be saved from the maximum damages due to deviancy and crimes as it is necessary for smooth development of the society. The following proposals are given for getting useful resultsc:

1. Internal Forces :
Internal forces play an important part in keeping the society safe from crimes by directing the behaviour of the individual to keep away from crime in the absence of some external pressure.

Aronson states policies of internal forces :
i. Indoctrination
ii. Imitation
iii. Habituation
i. Indoctrination :
It is necessary to check the deviation and crime that the individual of a society should be aware of the values and beliefs and should have a strong belief in the correctness of these beliefs. If an individual does not accept a belief; one cannot make one's attitude change. For example, if a Muslim does not believe in the Day of Resurrection then all actions of his life free from fear of God and accountability and he may adopt a deviant behaviour. When the beliefs of the individuals are strong, these show their effect and they act according to the norms of a society. Thus these internal forces act as a restraint and an effective system.

ii. Imitation :
A man is a great imitator. All animals except monkey and parrot, act according to their genetic characteristics and cannot imitate but man learns from imitation by seeing others doing something. Customs, values, tradition and arts are imitative social actions and are a source of collective behaviour. When we observe certain actions, then seeing their popularity we are impressed and imitate these actions and this brings uniformity and harmony in the social behaviour. When a person carelessly ignores the red signal and passes it, other people also follow him. Thus an attitude of deviancy is produced. This is a negative side of imitation. If a person gets a high post through his labour, then other people do labour to get that high position. This is a positive type of imitation. If the individual of a society adopts positive social behaviour, their imitation creates positive behaviour which discourages deviancy and crime.

iii. Habituation :
A habit is a second nature and it plays a role in modifying the behaviours of individuals of a society. Habit is an integral part of culture and is a continuous process adopted for a long time. The continuous action of imitation of belief and values results in the formation of habits and when positive behaviour becomes part of our habit these become automatic and are in harmony with the social system. To greet is a custom learnt from elders and we see this action operative in the society then we start doing this also and this habit becomes automatic. Habituation prevents us from going against norms set up by the society of formal and informal nature. This checks the individuals against deviancy and crimes.

2. External Forces :
internal forces create a strong and durable social control but because of overpopulation, social complications and strangeness has rapid change in values makes this control weak. Social disorder demands external forces to enforce this control in a better way.

These are the external forces :
i. Socialization
ii. Social Sanctions
iii. Organizational Power and Authority
i. Socialization :
Socialization as an external force plays a vital role in preventing deviancy and crime because all sources of control can be effective only in harmony with the socialization. Its circle is vast enough to cover the whole life. It is continuous in its effects even afterwards. In childhood, the family, at the age of six years, the peer 2 id school interaction, in college playmates and in youth office workers and gossiping with them play an important part as agents of socialization and all of these prevent an individual from formal and informal norms deviation and crimes. Family teaches an individual the norms of eating, speaking, meeting and-sleeping; school teaches him punctuality respect for discipline and teachers and in case of deviancy the fear of punishment and thus is a source of control of norms. Informal control is learnt in games by abiding by rules and regulation and any deviancy from the rules is a cause of ridicule on the part of others and thus serves a social control. In the office, formal environment of office social interaction and regulatory ways of working, doing of duty and abiding by rules act as socialization of an individual. All of these sources of socialization act as external forces.

ii. Social Sanctions :
Social sanctions provide a mechanism of both formal and informal ways of controlling deviancy and crime in abiding by social traditions, values and norms through rewards in the form of praise, prize or encouragement by certificates, cash prizes, medals, etc. Similarly, such acts as injurious for the society are prevented by certain social sanctions in the form of ridicule, warning, line, imprisonment and to the extent of death sentence and these acts as a check from deviancy and crimes. In this way, social sanctions play a role in preventing
deviancy and crimes.

iii. Organizational Power and Authority :
This is certainly a most effective external force to check deviancy and crimes.

“The authority is viewed as larger and more important than individual, consequently, the obedient individual shifts responsibility for his or her behaviour to the authority.” (Milgram’s Study of Obedience 1978)
It means that when authority gets vastness in the society then an individual thinks all of these responsibilities are shifted to the authority for his safety and his property in case of theft and arrest of thieves by police. He thinks the responsibility of the state power and authority to do all for him. Thus there is a power to check deviancy and crimes. Every individual finds safety from any excess or cruelty and is sure of justice to safeguard his rights and also provides an environment for doing his duties freely and fearlessly.
Organizational power and authority can be operative in any department or all sphere of life of a society and is such an effective force which by its very structure and function reminds every individual of its presence and the more the effective, powerful versatile the feeling, the more the useful control. This is such an external power that not only does prevent the acts of disorder, dispersion and deviation in terms of catching the culprits, getting them punished from courts and putting them in jail and thus providing individual of a society safety from them but also to take steps in preventing and finishing deviation by providing necessities of daily life, by ensuring the speedy justice, by reforming the criminals to make them useful citizen, by checking drug use to prevent the moral and social evils, by providing shelter to the orphans to save them from sense of insecurity and to make them useful individuals of the society and by providing facilities for games and recreations to the citizens to check and prevent them from falling into ditch of criminal evils.
The organizational power and authority acts in two ways for keeping power and order in a society:
i. By curative measures :
Including catching of deviants, arresting'them to present in the court and getting them punished, putting them in jail (imprisonment) to reform them and to save the society from their negative effects.

 ii. By preventive measures :
Include prevention of motivation for deviancy like use of drugs, provision of shelter for orphans and their care to check them from social evils.

3. Reformation and punishment of crimes :
Punishment aims at reformation of crimes to set up peace in society. The second aim of punishment is to revenge the criminal to reform him in a way. Imprisonment aims at providing a relief to the society from the evil acts of a criminal for sometimes and trying at his reformation in the mean time. Moreover, when a criminal is imprisoned for some time, he begins to recognize the value of freedom and punishment is also a source of social stability. It is a common opinion that the more severe the punishment, the more the help in checking the crimes and in reforming the criminal. There is another school of thought holding the view that a criminal guesses the joys and grief of his crime before committing it and these conjectures are the base of their evil actions, therefore, a criminal is made to realize that there is more pain than joy in a crime. The speedy and immediate punishment law has positive effects to help people to get a lesson from it. Whether a punishment is serious or less serious, if it does not prevent the criminal from committing a crime, its object is lost. The punishment should be determined in view of the seriousness of a crime. If the criminal has committed a crime for the first time or have committed it under some emergent condition, he deserves some sympathy and mitigation in punishment to save him from becoming a permanent criminal but if a criminal is a habitual off order, he must be punished. Even if he does not leave criminal activities, then according to a school of thought he should be deprived of some of his body part like cutting one hand or one leg not allowing him to commit a crime. This type of punishment does two things. The prevention of’ crime by making the criminal invalid physically and by teaching others a bitter lesson is example. It has been seen that
the countries having this system of justice, have got good results in reducing crimes from the society. In Saudi Arabia, the punishment of theft is cutting of left hand and there is no concept of theft in that country. Since society is the real cause of crime, therefore, individuals cannot be held responsible for a crime individually. On the basis of thought, society has no right to punish a criminal so a society should try to reform the criminal instead of punishing him to make him useful citizen of a society with no hatred for him policy. For effective and better results of a punishment, immediate and speedy steps be adopted to punish the deviants without indulging in long legal points and discussions. The appropriate punishment will discourage crime and prevent these not to be committed again.

Islamic Point of View about Punishment and Crime :

The complete enforcement of Islamic system of justice is necessary to check crimes and to reform criminals, because only Islamic system of justice can be check and remove injustice from the society and punishment should also be enforced in the true spirit of law to reduce the crime to the minimum limit. According to the English Criminal Code introduced still and practised in Pakistan, crime is against state that does not injure the individual’s right but Islam takes care of individual’s right. For example, an individual has right of getting
monetary benefit or some other because of murderer of one’s relation and the family of the murdered has a financial relief and the murdered gets the chance of supporting and touching after his family because of not being murdered or imprisoned. Punishment in Islam is a sacrifice and not a cruelty that a society gives to keep its moral sanctity. It is also a ‘Kuffara’ for a Muslim society and both of there are an example of highest moral values. When a society makes a law for punishment, in fact, it is a readiness to bear a loss for its welfare.

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Monday, 24 November 2014

Crime and deviancy are serious problems in our society and Write down the causes of this problem



Crime :

What is a crime? The question is simple but its answer is complicated because this is such an action of human beings by assigning any meaning to social values, cultural norms, state criminal procedures are to be considered. Criminologist of modern age Sui Titus Reid has given its comprehensive definition in these words:
“Crime is an intentional act or omission in violation of criminal law, committed without defense of justification and sanctioned by the state as a felony or misdemeanor” in common words, it means that act that‘is punishable according to the laws of a state. Any deviation from mores norms as a social action is not a crime till the state does not fix a punishment for such an action. For example, in a marriage party feast is a mores that if state makes it a law then it will be a crime. Divorcing wife is against mores but not a crime, according to state law with no punishment. Similarly, it is not crime to beat, injure or murder a thief or a dacoit for self-defense.

Social Deviation or Deviancy :

No society of the world has ever been able to have such a social environment to make its individuals to lead a life according to social norms. So social deviation is continuous and an individual may fail to comply with social norms that lead to a deviation. Social deviation is a normative behaviour at one place but another place this may be thought a deviation. Therefore, the study of deviation demands culture, time and place. A famous sociologist Wickman, says about deviation, “Deviation is that behaviour which is against the expectations and norms of a society.”

Theoretical causes of deviancy and crime :

Deviation and crime are such acts the reasons there of have been under investigation since long time by the specialists of different departments of knowledge and disciplines and as such have different views about its occurrences a brief detail is given which is helpful in knowing the real reasons thereof.

1. Biological factors and crime :
i. According to Aristotle, the very physical build of human being determines its being criminal and having such behaviour. In his own words, “Criminal behaviour is determined by the shape of the skull.”

ii. Lombroso believed in the fact that criminals are different physically than non-criminal. Moreover, they are inferior. He claimed to have found such biological properties that distinguish them from non-criminals.

iii. Sheldon says that body type helps in determining the crime. He divided body type into three kinds:
   a. The Ectomorph, is tall, skinny body.
   b. The Endomorph, the short fat body.
   c. The Mesomorph, the athletic body.
He conducted his research over 500 criminals and 500 non-criminals and concluded that mesomorphic body was criminal professionally.

iv. According to Chromosomal Abnormality, man has xy chromosomes and women have xx chromosomes. In 1961, Scotch researchers conducted a research on men having xyy chromosomes. They proved that men with xyy chromosonal had introvert and negative social tendency and. are inclined to aggressive behaviour.

2. Psychological factors and crime :
i. Segmend Freud thinks that “human beings have mental conflicts, because the desires and power repressed in their unconscious are not allowed to be expressed because of social morality and indirect ways to express these are adopted learnt by socialization and create a capability to control these and the people who do not have or lack this capacity they adopt criminal behaviour.”

ii. James says that there is a constant and clear relation between crime and less intelligence. In other words, low intelligence causes crimes.

3. Social factors and crime :
i. The change in social structure and environment is a cause of crimes. The city characteristics in terms of overpopulation and strangeness and division of citizens on economic, cultural, religion and social basis and
their behaviour help in understanding crime.

ii. According to Durkheim's theory of Anomic normlessness is caused due to decreased homogeneity congenial to crime and antisocial activities.

iii. Robert. K. Merton says that “There is a deep relation between goals and means. When people keep the aim in view and give no importance to norms to the extent of normlessness, then crimes become serious.”

iv. According to the theory of ‘Family structure and crime’, there is deep relation between family structure and crime-structure, size and broken family. This theory explains that “the more the importance to an individual in a society, the more one remains away from criminal activities.”

v. According to routine activity approach, three positions become cause of crimes:
a. Individual inclined to crimes.
b. Suitable target-precious things to be stolen easily.
c. Non-existence of able supervision (non-presence of individual capable of preventing the theft).

vi. Learning theory explains that “There is a physiological mechanism in the individual that compels them to adopt aggressive behaviour which is a learned one.” This theory explains that the completion of learning is by
making someone as model and we are inclined to that model which is a biological or mental ability that may be more or less.

Theory of learning is affected in three ways.
a. External reinforcement like articles, wealth, social status and punishment etc. likely to become a cause of preventing or inclining a behaviour.
b. Thrilling person persuades the other individual holding higher status and affecting the others in thrilling manners.
c. That system of self-regulatory mechanism of an individual that inclines one to adopt such a behaviour, being responsible for one's reward and punishment.
We learn from socialization about the suitability and unsuitability of an action in term of reward a punishment. During the process, we make models unconsciously and then adopt the same behaviour without thinking that the behaviour is against state laws with the result of punishment. An individual does not find about his wrong behaviour and one thinks it correct and according to society and environment and has reasons about the correctness of one's .behaviour just as self-control like bribery, a reason of bad economic position.

Practical Causes of Deviancy and Crimes :

Functionalists say that deviancy and crimes are an integral parts of social life and we learn these just like other functions in terms of knowledge, norms, beliefs and games. Therefore, the causes of crimes are hidden in our bad tendencies, social behaviours from which sometimes we avoid consciously or unconsciously and this problem able to be solved by individual efforts becomes complicated not to be solvable at the social level. Practically, the causes of deviancy and crimes are the following :

1. Different Associations :
Edvin H. Sutherland says that “Mostly we learn this deviancy and crime from those with whom we have relation of common type. For example, the meetings in which we are interested whatever solution or explanation these do, we accept these being impressed by them and adopt our behaviour accordingly. If these proposals are against norms or tradition then our behaviour will be deviative.” There are two important sources of different relations according to Sutherland:
a. Family.
b. Neighborhood or sub-culture and friends.
According to sociologist, the second important reason of deviancy is peer group, neighbourhood or sub culture of School, College or mohallah. An individual is much affected by one's peers and takes part willingly in their activities. He is unconsciously affected by deviancy or crimes. The relations with neighbour also affect the interaction of suffering from deviancy. An individual falls a prey to activities of other follows fall of deviancy and crime and he becomes a member of the group. Group pressure measure and tendency force these individual to take part in criminal activities. If a student of a college joins a group being the habit of being absent, of standing or copying, then he also falls a prey to such activities of crimes and deviancy.

2. Broken Homes :
In social life, family is the institution that affects basically the personality of an individual and helps the individual to keep his social tendency, norms and expectation creating to the society but since all individuals of a society do not have equal social chances. Sometimes a home falls a prey to some accident causing death of one or both. economic strain, quarrels or divorce or separation. In all of the above cases, children become deprived of love, attention and hear taunts of relations affecting their personality badly. Being depressed and restless they are forced to adopt deviancy and crimes including running from homes, steadying and sexual aggression etc.

3. Economic Deprivation :
“Such societies where a few people possess all economic sources and most of the people feel themselves powerless and are unable to meet their daily needs. There is restless and dissatisfaction in the society making lower class people to deviancy and crimes.” (Walten and Young 1973)

4. Mal-Socialization :
Socialization of an individual restores norms and values of a society but sometimes mal-socialization does the reverse and becomes a cause of deviancy and crimes as shown below:
a. Socialization fails to keep control system preaching an aggression and selfish behaviour giving rise to opposite activities like deviancy and crimes.
b. Psychological theory : Lack of socialization creates in an individual some psychological and social needs completion like love, friendship and make him aggressive and dispersive and to control these he has nothing suitable behaviour or way with him and as a result he adopts deviancy and crime.
c. According to Frustration aggression theory, some individual observe others being honoured with good words who are actually deviants and criminals. Then they make this as role model and become deviants and criminals. For example, with bribery an individual gets a socio-economic status and the society honours him, so other people also'adopt such behaviour.

5. Rat Race :
Defective enforcement of norms in developing society creates many defects in the social control system. Some people succeed in getting a large amount of wealth by bribery, fraud, embezzlement, adulteracy etc. creating a social imbalance in the society. Robert Merton has explained this situation in his theory ‘Anomic’ from the social stage named as innovators.
According to his theory,
“Innovators, are people who accept the good of the society but use illegitimate means to achieve them. Drug dealers, for instance, accept the good of achieving wealth but reject the legitimate means for doing so.” (R.K. Merton 1968)

6. Misuse of Political Authority :
Democratic programme of societies that, after dictatorship or kingship to democratic system, are passing from its preliminary stages and where untrained political individuals hold power and authority with no proper working of organs, they start to pressurize the executive, judiciary and legislature by making wrong use of their power and authority including unfair use of economic sources, threatening attitude towards opponents, loans, permits, licenses, commission and the accountability bureaucracy can not do so restricting action against them. Other individuals are persuaded to do such like things and there is deviation towards crimes.

7. Use of Drugs :
The overpopulation increased strangeness. The neighbourhood relations became weak and the young are not under the control of elders, in such conditions the young people are inclined towards use of drugs and cause a deviation. If the govt. laws are not effective, then drug traffic is encouraged and involves more people in use of drugs. Robert Merton Theory ‘Anomie’ starts here with the fourth stage and according to it, some individuals reject cultural goals and institutionalization means and are called Retreatists. From Pakistan’s point of reference, Sadhus are extremely depressed people. These people disconnect themselves with social activities and social goals have no meaning for them. Thus they turn towards crimes and affect the society seriously.
According to Merton,
“People who choose the deviant path retreatism, reject both cultural goals and institutionalized means of achieving them. Such people do not even try to appear as though they share the goals of their society. Drug addicts and alcohol users etc. typically portray as retreatists.”

8. Social Change and Cultural Conflict :
Such societies where there is strong and popular cultural life, social norms have the position of a common heritage and there is harmony and uniformity in the values, norms and socialization. When such societies fall a prey to social change and its prevention is different or impossible the youth become active to change the values in an angry and serious manner. Thus society is divided into two groups. The old want to preserve the culture whereas the young want to change the values, tradition and accept these rapidly and reject previous values. This causes a social conflict and there is an atmosphere of confusion causing to give rise to deviancy and crimes consciously or unconsciously.

9. Conflict in Families : 
Pakistani societies because of many quarrels are involved in deviations and crimes.
a. In our culture mate selection is considered the right of parents and because of this sometimes deprivation from love enmity causes a rebellious attitude leading to serious quarrels and crimes.
b. The greed for dowry causes conflict between a bride and the mother of the husband affecting the family seriously. Hearth bursting incidents are deviating behaviour in the society.

10. Religious Disregards :
Traditional societies are under the influence of norms, religious values and religious norms keep a control over deviation but in urban industrial societies these lose their force and the business of individual is a cause of fartherness from religion and religious norms became weak and deviated and crimes are less
feared.

According to Durkheim’s social solidarity theory,
“Religious institution works as “Binding force” in the society and provides a strong informal mechanism for preventing the society from indiscipline and disorder. Religious disregardness enhances the deviance.”

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Give some proposals for solution of illiteracy in Pakistan or Recommendation for the Eradication of Illiteracy




Recommendation for the Eradication of Illiteracy

The progress and welfare of a country depends upon rate of literacy. The rate of literacy in advanced countries like Japan, America, 'Britain, Russia and a majority of European countries have high literacy rate up to 96% whereas the literacy rate of Pakistan is much less even than these of developing countries. It is about 40% according to the census of 1998. It means that there will be 90 million people illiterate in 2005 in the total population of Pakistan which is an alarming situation.
To come out of this dire problem, the literacy problem should be solved to make the speed of progress fast. The following suggestions if attended to in earnest may go a long way in solving this problem rapidly to enable the country to cope with the speed of world progress in this future :

1. Increase in number of primary schools :
This number should be increased in urban and rural societies though in urban areas, many private schools have been set up to impart education but these are expensive and poor people cannot afford fees and other expenses. It is necessary, therefore, to open such schools in public sector. As a proposal in this regard is to subsidize the private sector with restrictions not to charge high fees and instead of opening new schools in public sector, private sector be associated by giving grants for staff salary and maintenance in a proper proportion to lessen the burden on private sector to enable it to restore normal fees. Actually this was the practice prior to nationalization of schools when grants were given to private schools to enable them to keep the standard and of education and to charge the fee from students as prescribed by the grant sanction authority of the education department. This Was a good via media of association of privately managed schools with govt. sector schools to keep the standard of education as better like as that of good schools.

2. Betterment in schools’ infrastructure :
In rural areas, schools are without buildings and furniture and other furniture necessary to continue education by the students in schools. Even some urban schools also fall under this category. Necessary facilities are to be provided if better results of primary education are to be achieved by the Govt. of Pakistan.

3. Free and compulsory education :
Provision of free basic education along with free books is a good step but lack of teachers has failed this facility that has been started with a large expenditure. At present, 35% posts of teachers are lying vacant. Urban and until teachers are not provided and posted where needed, free education and free books will not yield any fruitful results.

4. Encouragement of private sector :
According to the economic condition of Pakistan, there is a great potential if encouragement to private sector is provided in terms of grants for lessening of fees and increasing the infrastructure requirements of schools subject to the restriction to be followed by the private sector and strict vigilance on the part of the education department for any deviation. This will be accepted by the private sector in its own interest and the interest of the country.

5. Special emphasis on female education :
Female education is a requisite for fighting with illiteracy from the very care that may lessen illiteracy perhaps never so possible but to have it with the female education. The reason is that it is the mother who affects the early training of the child to give him sense of right a wrong and this is only possible with the education of females. The female education holds a bright future for the eradication of illiteracy because of being the first step to eradicate this problem. Women prove best teachers for children as being another form of mother behaviour available to the children instead of behaviour of male teachers with the children. Co-education at the primary level saves the double expenses on boys and girls schools. This has further advantage of lessening the tendency of children for leaving the schools and thus literacy rate will improve.

6. Encouragement of intelligent students and diligent teachers :
In view of the philosophy of reward and punishment, intelligent students and diligent teachers are to be awarded in the form of cash and certificate awards to promote a feeling of hard work and competition among students and teachers as well. This is especially necessary in the environment and circumstances of
Pakistan where apart to professional ethics is going to take root just because of non-recognition of quality work and rather discouragement for such quality works. Psychologically teachers being‘part of the society have been degraded in the respect and regard on the part of the society whereas players of games artists are awarded large sums and other valuable gifts just to appreciate their efforts.

7. Effective promotion of distance education :
With the advancement of mass media, communication facilities have been increased to an unimaginative limit to the extent of making this world a global village, especially in the field of mass media. Internet and TV and special audio visual means of hearing and seeing all what happens all over the world just as village people know about the incidents of their village. This facility has opened a field for rapid, effective and highly professional arts and skills to bring to the threshold of almost every door in the whole world. A highly professional and experienced professor can give lecture on TV and Internet his valuable life-long research results to the world in no time without any cost or with small cost as compared to acquisition of that knowledge in a formal way.
It has afforded chances of rapid reach of education of almost all levels to the people having the need of it with less expense and less trouble. Distance learning or education has opened a field for all countries, especially for Pakistan if the govt. wants to make it effective, well-organized, supervised and result-oriented. Even primary education programmes can be supplemented with the help of educationists by asking them to address and present some effective lessons like correct writing Urdu alphabets pronunciation of words at the grass root level of this stage combined with the cooperation and assistance of less trained and experienced teachers sitting in the schools of rural areas at fixed times with their classes. Hundred of ways can be devised to implement the spirit of scheme effectively and positively. There is no death of experts but the difficulty lies with proper and effective planning on the part of the authorities concerned and association with these schools.

8. Social campaign against illiteracy :
Whatever the detail has been given above is just to fight illiteracy well and with organized efforts by removing the cases that hinder this campaign.
There is no doubt that no campaign in the social field yields good results unless the people of society do not cooperate and to achieve this cooperative part of a society, a motivation and a stimulation is required. In this age of mass media, the efforts can be effective through films, dramas and other debating forums to
make the people aware of the importance of literacy by making fun of illiterate persons in a constructive way as to create willingness for literacy. Even the lowest services like driving licenses should be conditioned with at least some literacy on one point of a driver.

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Define Illiteracy and Discuss illiteracy in Pakistan and also describe its causes


Illiteracy

Definition :
It is often defined negatively, because it has always been measured comparing with literacy rate data.
"In ability of the .people of the society to read a statement written in any language.” (Population Census Organization Govt. of Pakistan, July 1998)
The meaning of illiteracy is different in different societies even it can be  different in the censuses of the same country.

Present Situation

Pakistan consists of the most illiterate societies of the world in spite of its so many seminars, high flown speeches and claims and of specific budget allocations. It is the only country in the world where adult education programme was started twice but failed in desired results. In 1964, a large sum was spent on
adult education but the programme failed due to lack of people’s interest in the programme. In 1973, a large sum was spent but it remained only paper work and a lip-service. In 1985, a project in the name of LAMEC was started as a pilot project which was started in Pakistan in the name of “Nai Roshni” with cost of billions of rupees but 1988 evaluation of the project showed no satisfactory results with the closure of the project but upcoming governments kept it alive in files in the name of literacy but with zero contribution. It is estimated that the amount spent on the promotion of adult education would have changed the rate of literacy,
had it been spent on the promotion of regular education.
As far regular education, its condition is not much better than other such programmes. The efforts of promotion of education in Pakistan are in a way laughable. For example, in 1960-65, 18,000 schools were opened but no building for a school was built. For 1970-79, no planning for education was done and private schools were nationalized and quality education door was closed and the end of competition between private and Govt. school was to drag the standard to lowest level. In 1980-90, 36,000 schools were opened and out of 72,000 schools only 29,000 schools were without any building. 16,000 schools had one room,
19,000 had two rooms whereas 8,000 schools were with more than two rooms but there was none of the schools where proper furniture for students and teachers was available. This condition has remained the same for the last fifteen years including the year 2005.
The permission to open private schools has made education expensive. In govt. schools, there has been no betterment in provision of furniture and other facilities but lack of teachers in these schools is affecting the efficiency of the schools. A report-primary education in Pakistan-UNESCO-sponsored World Bank 2000: Present situation as given below:
“Despite the bombast emanating from the education ministry, bureaucracy and politicians in Islamabad and the provincial capitals, teaching remains a low salary, low status occupation that is now the last refuge of the unemployed and the incompetent, No wonder than that the quality of education that is provided never very high is falling steadily year after year.”

Causes of Illiteracy

Illiteracy was a problem even before Pakistan came into existence but its intensity went on increasing whereas most developed and some developing countries have got rid of this problem in a well-planned manner, we are being sunk in this marsh more and more. There are countries like Sri Lanka, Singapore,
Malaysia, Brazil and Chile that have achieved the double of the rate of literacy than that of Pakistan. Let us have a survey of the condition responsible as a hindrance in this work in this modern world.

1. Low Priority Assigned by the Govt :
After getting freedom, Pakistan has never given preference to proper attention to the education department with no long-term policy to "promote literacy. Short-term schemes were always started and left unfinished, unless this policy is not changed, the end of illiteracy will remain a farce. “Govt. of Pakistan is spending 2% of its GNP on education whereas UNESCO suggests at least 3% of GNP but for Pakistan this is 6% for next ten years which has never been acted upon."
(Daily The Muslim September 27, 1988)

2. Role of Rural Education Institutions :
Rural institutions play an important part in lessening illiteracy.
A. Shortage of schools in rural area :
Pakistan with reference to education always ignored the rural sector. Till 2000, out of 54,000 villages 10,000 villages were without a school for boys or girls. In 16,000 villages, Schools were present but without a building.
B. Lack of facilities :
87% schools of the villages have no proper furniture and building even without a better place. Weather'changes and change the position of school and primary education is not less. then an adventure.
C. Unpleasant environment of schools :
The dilapidated schools in villages present a scene in making the environment uninteresting enough and along with punitive attitude of teachers make it more horrible. This can be guessed by the school learning rate from first to fifth class is 35%. In 1988, 3 million students took admission in Class I and only one million students reached Class five.
(Report, working Group for the 7th Five Year Plan 1988-93)

3. Traditional and Obliterated Ideas :
‘The general concept of rural people about education is against literacy. Most of the parents do not think education necessary for their children, especially for girls and oppose the women education thinking it against their traditions. The following data shows this attitude. The school-going girl student is half that of the boys in Pakistani and it is 1/3 in rural areas. In khyber pakhtunkhwa this proportion is 4:1 and in Baluchistan 5:1. (Economic Survey 1978-88 for the 7th Five Years Plan)

4. Old Style Forming :
The dependence of economy of the rural society of Pakistan is agriculture, sheep, goat grazing and fishery. Agriculture and fishery profession are old and based upon oldest method and require more manpower. Therefore, parents prefer to take their children to their profession instead of sending them to schools. The following data explains this fact that rural society has half of the rate of literacy than that of the urban society which has the parents traditional attitude and need on the reason thereof it causes illiteracy.


5. Unemployment of Educated Persons:
Because of unemployment of educated persons, the promotion measures of remaining fighting literacy rural areas have been badly affected and these have suffered a set back. People think that there is not advantage of education when they are not finding employment. They think it better if they had joined their children with them to work by hand instead of sending them to schools. Even in urban society, the situation is also more or less the same but it is more teasing for urban society. There is a report of national press to explain the situation.

According to half-yearly data of 2005, out of 150 million, 48 million people live in cities. 15 million population is able to do employment but only 1.4 million have the job, 4.8 million do part-time jobs and out of remaining 9 million, 6 million are self-employed or being women are confined to homes whereas 3 million are in search of employment who are a terrible underground bomb for urban environment.

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Sunday, 16 November 2014

Suggest the Measures to Solve the Problems of Overpopulation



Measures to Solve the Problems of Overpopulation

The decrease in rate of growth of population has to be done to protect from the dismal and overcrowded future and to give a good life to the people of Pakistan. Some steps in earnest are to be taken which are detected below :

Population control strategies : 
A sociologist Ian Rebertson presented a tri-directional policy with reference to Tien & Alba in 1983 that can be helpful in reducing the rate of growth of population in general. And developed and developing countries has got benefit from this. This policy stresses need of family planning with all force in education and economic fields also:

1. Family planning : 
Family planning is such a policy that does not prevent reproduction process but archives a balance of childbirth according to the resources of the people who have to provide facilities of education and health to their children. The following steps in this regard may be useful and effective to control the population :

A. Proper Awareness of family planning :
This scheme can only be effective and useful when the individuals of a society are fully aware of its benefits. To produce awareness among people, the means of communication like radio, T.V, newspaper to inform the families about the problems of a big family should be used. Benefits of small family be briefed and a sense of family planning be produced so that they could adopt this scheme. it is of utmost importance in this regard that sensitive values of people be not affected to avoid their negative reaction.

B. Provision of better facilities of family planning :
The purpose of family planning is to bring the thinking of parents to a stage to make them think about their available sources of income and to make them feel the need of small family by telling them the problems of big family with no economic sources. An under stress and mishandling of the problem may give rise to a negative reaction. As a second step of this scheme should be that the willing parents are given useful suggestion and facilities to set up on specific but not distant places but there should a part of hospitals, child welfare centers and public health services to facilitate the approach of the common people.

C. Offering incentives :
The people who welcome the family planning should be facilitated in a number of ways available in the country. After World War Second, Japan adopted a policy to check growth rate of population and gave facilities for free education of two children family and it succeeded in ten years to bring rate of growth from
14 to 34%, which is a world record. Similarly, .China is another example when award of facilities was also associated with fear of punishment under govt. control. It was allowed in the policy for two children and with one child only, the government was bound to provide everything to have necessity to a family with financial help and preference in employment. These measures worked well and within thirty years the rate of growth fell to 0.9% in 2000 as compared to the rate of ‘2.8% in 1971 and this target was achieved by America in fifty yours to‘ 0.6% in 2000.

2. Promotion of Education :
The second big step in controlling the overpopulation is promotion of education. It has rightly been said that the more the education, the less the population and this is true for Pakistan especially. All efforts done to control the overpopulation have failed so far mainly due to lack of education in country and these efforts are less likely to bear fruits in future also until the promotion of education is not given more priority to all of the available efforts and policies in connection with control of population. Despite going into the reasons of lack of promotion of education, it is to be noted that in spite of so many steps in terms of adult education programmes and other programmes, the literacy rate could not have been achieved so far. The reason is mainly the overpopulation that eats away all the benefits given for and by education and this has been the case with all such countries that have not controlled overpopulation except those having extraordinary reasons. China by 88%, Sri Lanka 85% and Singapore by 92% in 1991 became successful in getting the above literacy rate because at the same time these continues tried and succeeded in controlling population. Especially women education plays an important part in family planning. The relationship of education and control of population has been described in an interested way by the researchers in the field.
i. Education gives answers to betterment of the society.
ii. It promotes a tendency towards better standard of'life.
iii. It gives help to make the life standard better.
iv. It motivates and promotes social mobility.
v. It directs women to participate in other activities rather than to act as child-bearing machines.
vi. It promotes daringness and incentive in women to use family planning for the betterment of their life.
vii. It is the only way that prepares people to live a better life without asking them to have birth control (Report by Hernandez 1974, Ehrlich 1979)

3. Economic Improvement :
Demographic Transition Theory has proved that the relationship between overpopulation and economic situation is very deep. Though economic progress is a cause of overpopulation in the beginning but after all it becomes a source of control of population. Since this development makes the standard of life better,
therefore, results in a sense of control of population. Economic reforms have shown tendency towards less rate of growth of population. The consideration in terms of better living, having better facilities of education, health protection, availability of articles to all people of the society and their surety of remaining available in future, persuades to remain in limited families, family planning failed in many (including Pakistan) countries because rate of growth could not be controlled because the sources of these countries were in the possession of tiny elite class to enjoy life better than those of the poor fallen a prey to extreme poverty and this class is continuing to produce manpower and this is what is possible for this to do only. (Report Abba 1980) Control of overpopulation is need of the time, because only from 1950 to 2000, 350 million people have been born which is more than double. If the world population were to increase by 1.45% it would reach to 1200 million in 2050 but if Pakistan were to continue its rate of growth at the present speed, it would have exceeded to 300 million in 2032 and it will scale from sixth to fifth largest overpopulated country.
Keeping in view all these data, we have to adopt a strict policy of controlling the overgrowth so that the coming generation should remain safe from its problems.

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Describe the effects of overpopulation in Pakistan



Effects of Overpopulation

Overpopulation is an unsolvable problem of the twentieth century which has been named as Global Social Problem, because it affects social situation in a multi-direction way. These are the effects of this global problem :

1. Increase in Dearness :
Thomas Malthus in his essay on, “The Principles of Population” has pointed out the growth of population in geometric progress and increase in production in the arithmetic progression. It means simply that population increase in 2 to 4 to 8 times whereas increase in food production is from 1 to 2 to 3 times respectively. This is due to fact that of food results in the increasing of its price according to principles'of economic and thus dearness is increased. Pakistan faces the same situation. In 1951, its population was 34 million and wheat was surplus but its production has not been increased to feed a population of 2000 which has increased to 140 million and this has given to increase in dearness.

2. Less Educational Facilities :
There has been a world record increase in population in Pakistan during 1971 to 1981 as 3.9%. A newly-born country with problems of rehabilitation of refugees and war with more powerful enemy had difficult in providing educational facilities because of its limited sources and the increase in population made it more difficult. The institutions are less than the required number of admission and many children remain uneducated and this increases the illiteracy rate. Poor people cannot afford education and making the problem in progress of the country more oblique.

3. Shortage in Health Facilities :
Overpopulation requires rapid provision of facilities but the lack of sources has made it difficult to provide facilities in the field of health rapidly in Pakistan. There is rush of patients in hospital, the prices of medicine increased and health facility has gone out of a poor man’s reach. Family planning which was to improve health facility became a means of fun. The standard of health is falling down day by day. Now medical science and medicine have stopped deaths but have served as a source for increasing the population of the country but ultimately the decrease in health facility and polluted water will become a source of more death thereby decreasing the population.

4. Decrease in Number of Houses :
Residential facilities for families are decreasing day by day due to increase in population and overcrowding is taking place in population. Multi-storied building are increasing in cities. On one hand, fertile land around cities is being used for housing schemes thereby decreasing green belt, and on the other hand, price of land increased most of all other household articles. The government has failed to provide this facility and private enterprises have made lot of money. People have been obliged to adopt common family concept and the size of house for 6.7 persons in 1981 was shrunken to 6.6'in 1998, which shows that the problem has existed for the last twenty-five years and overpopulation is a great hindrance in solving this problem.

5. Lack of Better Standard of Life :
Overpopulation decreased income per capita and increased dearness making difficult in getting basic needs of life. According to survey in 2006, in Pakistan, the income of per capita was 847 dollars per year which is less than that of developed countries. For example, in Turkey, it is 2270 dollars. According to above survey, 33% population of Pakistan is under the poverty line whereas 40% population is obliged to eat non-standard edibles and to drink pollute water. The standard of life as a whole is falling because of overpopulation with the following manifest effects :

A. Increase in unemployment : 
Overpopulation is inversely proportional to chances of employment. The more the population, the less the employment chances. This has been the consequence of lack of. investment in the local private sectors, lack of new activities in the department of trade and agriculture.

B. Increase in social evils and crimes : 
When socially approved sources do not meet the need of making the life standard better, when employment chances become limited, then the individuals Mum to social evils and crimes including thefts embezzlement adulteration, bribery and corruption. Pakistan being an overpopulation country is facing this problem and people have indulged in social evils to make their standard of life better.

C. Increase in Pollution : 
Overpopulation has increased rush on social. Road crossing has become difficult in big cities and fumes from vehicles have become a cause of pollution. The defective system of sewerage, heaps of rubbish here and there are lack of knowledge of health case has increased pollution very much.

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Causes of Overpopulation in Pakistan



Causes of Overpopulation

1. Social and Cultural System :
Social and cultural needs of Pakistan demand big homes, because it is accustomed to extended family system which has patriarchy family system as its motive and it harmonizes the social system also. In other words, economy of collective activities demands more power and, therefore, a big family is a source of pride and economic condition demand more manpower. Thus increase in population becomes a social and cultural need.

2. Early Marriage :
A strong family system is a. characteristic of a Pakistani society where sacredness of relations is a cultural norm. Parents desire to marry a daughter as soon as possible and it is considered a good luck from a cultural and religious point of view but it courses early marriages and thus reproductive period of a woman (15-49) increases which increases population at a fast rate.

3. Cultural Traditions :
There are certain cultural and religious traditions in Pakistan which increases rate of growth rapidly.
A. Desire for Male Child :
Our society is basically male dominant and man has superiority in every matter. If daughters remain to be born, reproduction action lasts till the birth of male child. Thus unwanted children of this type increases population.
B. Polygamy :
Islam allows polygamy because of wealth. Many men do marry with more than one woman taking benefit of religious sanction and this augments the increase in population.
C. Manliness Show :
A man becomes of male dominant society takes pride of his manliness in having more children consciously or unconsciously to make his manpower admitted by the wife to prove it before the family. More male individuals add to the domination and power of a family, especially in our rural society this is a population cultural tradition that is increased if the family is well to do but it increases population.

4. Control over Infants Mortality Rate :
Medical science and medicine production have produced position effects in a Pakistani society by controlling the infant mortality rate and by saving them from fatal diseases in the infancy period whereas they died in the very first year of their infancy preventive injection, vaccination, antibiotic medicine have decreased the rate death thereby increasing the population growth.

5. Illiteracy and Ignorance :
Literacy rate in Pakistan is 40% according to the census of 1998, especially women rate of literacy is less than 28% and in rural areas, it is less than 12%. Though it is said that Pakistan did well in increasing the rate of literacy, because in 1961 it was 17% which increased to 40% in 1998.


In spite of rate of growth of literacy, the number of illiterate person is increasing day by day that was 22 million in 1961 as against 55 million in 1998 and its effects are increasing in the'form of increasing population.
A. Contentious Grouping of Rural Society :
Because of illiteracy and ignorance, quarrels and contenting incidents are becoming a cause of grouping. Since for such quarrels and contention more people are required, therefore, a big family is considered effective and useful. Therefore, children birth is stressed for having more power show.

6. Backward Farming System :
In the Pakistan social society, there is an old and obsolete farming system. Because of illiteracy and ignorance, farmers are not able to use modern agricultural implements. Most of the farming is done through tilling with bulls, cows, wooden plough. This requires more manpower and there are birth of children for this economic need. Because of low income, they cannot educate their children which add to the illiteracy and unskilled persons with increasing the population of the country. These illiterate people increase the incidents of quarrels, murders, thefts and kidnapping. Being unsuccessful in getting employment. .they indulge in unlawful activities like terrorism making the situation of law worse than before. There is a sphere of terror in people and they want more children consciously. Some urban society people also become a cause
of increasing population and want more children because of their insecurity sense of feelings.

7. Opposition to Family Planning :
Religious people and scholars do not believe in family planning and think this against Islam and all Islamic beliefs. Because of ignorance and illiteracy, this is thought against Islam. The advertisement of this scheme was started without taking into confidence. The cultural and religious traditions and a common person felt dissatisfaction. Thus the opposition of family planning became a cause of increase in rate of growth.

Culturally, Pakistani society feels proud of having more child birth and elders of the family allow early age marriage just increase the number of children and to their old age leisure, they use children as a source of recreation and in rural area the elder people make a fun of this scheme and oppose it. Thus this scheme failed to achieve its objective.

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What do you mean by Social Problem and Discuss the elements of social problem



Social Problem :

Social problems have always been part of social environment. The history of human effort is full of attempts for controlling social problems because all human progress lies in the solution of social problems. It is by solving these problems that man has reached the zenith of progress. At the same time, social
problems have been most powerful variation in the social and also motivating to keep man active.
It is such a social condition in a society that affects negatively on majority of a society and the society wants to get rid of the social situation because of being painful and disturbing. Indian and Pakistani society is facing problems which are complicated and embarrassing including increase in population, illiteracy, deviation and crimes and environmental pollution are capable of more attention.

Definition of Social Problem :

1. Fair Child :
“Such a disliked social originated by social environment and conditions where use of social forces and sources is necessary to change that condition.”

2. Gorden Child :
“The teasing and disliked social conditions of population where there is a collective desire to change that, is called a social problem.”

3. Augburn and Nimkoff :
“When the harmony and balance in the different institutions of a society becomes bad then the social system begins to disperse, this dispersion is called social devastation, if this increases, there is a social vacuum and if this social vacuum increases then it becomes a social problem.”

Elements of Social Problem

The following elements point out a social problem in a society :
1. Any social situation increases to the extraordinary extent and being way painful and a case of worry like overpopulation with less sources, deviation and crimes, rate of increase of crimes.

2. Such thinking on the part of an individual of a society that individual will cannot change the situation just like increase in population and crimes and pollution.

3. Collective efforts Individuals of a society can only relieve them from painful social conditions otherwise these will be injurious and dangerous‘ for the whole society as is the worrying social condition of the society
because of illiteracy in the modern times and if this is not changed into literacy, it will damaging to the society.
Important, Social Problems

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Thursday, 13 November 2014

State stages of analysis of data



Analysis of Data

Statistics is compulsory need in scientific research. Its use is increasing in social sciences also.
The analysis of data is that stage in a research where a researcher is able to give answers that what has he found. Analysis is the name of molding the data into a standard form and to apply analytical techniques on it to get trustworthy and useful results.

Stages of Data Analysis :
There are four stages.
i. Coding :
Verbal or written answers are changed into arithmetic numbers to deal with them in a better way. For example, in social interaction measurement research, the question may be in the form.

Question : How many times in a day do you meet your friend?
Ans: A- one B-twice C-several times:

In coding system we use these answers some numbers like A-l, B-2, C-3. In this way, in the end the total of all numbers represents the magnitude position of social interaction.

ii. Data Entry :
After coding the answers of respondent in the form of coding are registered in a computer or special register or on a card. This enables re-checking the data.

iii. Cross Tabulation : 
Two or more variables relation is tested. The total score of dependent is compared with the total score of independent variables.

iv. Testing Relationship :
The last stage of analysis is to test the relationship between variables for which index and scales are used. Before writing a report, all works are completed.

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