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Wednesday, 31 December 2014

Discuss the role of Television (TV) in national progress of country



ROLE OF TV IN NATIONAL PROGRESS 

Media plays an important role in national development of a country. This force cannot be stopped. It has such a influence, if it is worked for constructive purpose, nation can attained progress and if it is used for destruction, generations can be spoiled by it. Ascension and decline of media and nation go together.

Sketch of TV Programmes :

Television programmes should be designed in such a manner that they should become popular among different individuals, nationals and organizations. People had taken keen interest when television was introduced. Govt. was shown it as a source of entertainment but it is planned to use it for national development. If we consider television as a source of entertainment only, this will be wrong. The other view
of picture is that it can be used for national development, social and economic welfare and betterment of an individual. This element is included in such a way that a viewer watches television for recreation purpose but unconsciously he reaches at the hidden meaning of that programme. Following are the points that should be kept in mind while creating a television programme :

1 Current Affairs Information :
A country can be strong when its natives are awared of current affairs. People should be kept well informed and fresh events should be told them. These information can be given through news, current affairs programmes or informative programmes. Such programmes will create public opinion in the interest of a country and it will be reserved as protector and keeper of national interests and ideologies.

2. Healthy Entertainment :
There should be element of healthy entertainment in TV programmes. A person who is engaged in his duties should enjoy to watch television. There should be some intention in the background of these programmes.

3. Educational Programmes :
Progress of a society depends on standard of education and number of educated persons. No country can attain progress until it has large number of educated people. TV can be proved an effective source of spreading education all over the country.

4. Agricultural Programmes :
Being an agricultural country, economy of country is based on cultivation. It is necessary to take steps for progress of agriculture to make our economy stronger. Special programmes are created to inform and educate farmers about plant diseases, usage of fertilizers, new kinds of seeds and new methods to sow the seeds. In addition to these information, it is told how to take agricultural loan from banks. These programmes are prepared in regional languages, so that uneducated people can also understand them.

5. Economic Development :
TV can be used for prosperity of a country. With the passage of time, it included in objectives of TV that labour-class will be awared through TV programmes. Economic problems faced by country like poverty, unequal distribution of wealth, food deficiency, technology crises, high rate of increasing population, agricultural backwardness and unemployment would be highlighted.

6. Religious Programmes :
Religion has basic importance in a human being’s life. It is necessary to know fundamentals of religion for social development. People can spend their lives according to principles of their religions. TV guides people about their religion through different programmes.

7. Projection of Patriotism :
Emotions of patriotism can be spread through TV. We should prefer interest of our country and nation on our individual interests. It can be done by showing the life histories of patriot citizens who had devoted their lives for country. National songs and quiz shows about country can also become helpful to gain this goal.

We can give progress to our country by using Television (TV) by following :
i. By trying to remove religious persecution.
ii. To eliminate the factor of prejudice on the basis of language, region and customs.
iii. To develop good relations with neighboring countries.
iv. To motivate people to invest their money in our own country.
v. To train people to have some skills.
vi. To remain alive the concept of ideology of Pakistan in the hearts of our young generation.
vii. To spend our leisure time in positive or constructive activities.

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Tuesday, 30 December 2014

Which sections are working to organize Television (TV)



SECTIONS OF TELEVISION (TV)
There are different sections to run a big organization such as TV. These sections are as follows:
i. Current Affairs Section
ii. News Section
iii. Finance Section
iv. Administrative Section
v. Engineering Section
vi. Programme Section
vii. Education Section
viii.  International Relations Section
ix. Television Academy
Now we see the important section of TV in detail, i.e., Programme Section.

Programme Section :
The duty of this section is to think and plan to create a new programme. Head of this section is a director and all TV programmes are included in its responsibilities.
Programme section supervise these all programmes from creation to production. Through this section, following programmes are produced :
i. Dialogue Type Programmes (Based on comments/analysis)
ii. Television Drama
iii. Documentary Programme

i. Dialogue Type Programmes :
We can divide such programmes into following types:
a. Conference/Discussion
b. Interview
c. Live Discussions

ii. Television Drama :
Television drama covers the different aspects of life. It is the most popular type of television programmes. Following types of plays are being telecast by TV :
a. Drama Serial
b. Humorous Drama
c. Drama Series

iii. Documentary Programmes :
Facts and figures are presented as it is in these programmes.
a. News and Current Affairs
b. Historical Events and Places
c. Social and Economic Problems
d. About Ideology
e. Prominent Personalities
Deparmental chart for a medium size television station.

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Monday, 29 December 2014

Critical note on cultural influence of TV programmes on our society



EFFECTS OF TV

Television plays a very important role in our society as it has become a member of our family and no one can be alone in the presence of television. Through television, culture of one country is transferred to another country. But when we talk about its influence, then we see that it has both effects-positive as well as negative upon its viewers, which are following :

1. Interest of People :
In the present age, interest of people in the television especially TV, is increasing day by day and people spend more and more time watching TV. That’s why their other social activities are decreasing as people do not take interest in outside activities.

2. The Increasing Interest of Children :
Children are also very much interested in TV. programmes, especially in the cartoon programmes and due to their interest in the television programmes they do not take interest in sports activities and outside games which are necessary for their physical health.

3. Trend of Crimes :
Now TV has changed its format of programmes especially in dramas, as crime- oriented stories are presented in a very attractive way and these programmes influence the people, mostly the immature and teenagers are inspired very much and they try to intimidate the characters of such programmes.

4. Information :
TV is an important source of information as we get the latest information through news bulletins telecast many times in a day in many languages, Urdu, English, Punjabi, Hindi like etc.

5. Current Affairs Programmes :
Different talk shows and seminars are arranged on current issues in which scholars and experts come and give their own views, suggestions related to the current issues. In simple words, we know the current affairs deeply through the current affair programmes of TV as these programmes are presented in an easy and simple language.

6. Awareness :
Information and current affairs programmes of TV create awareness among the people and make them aware of the current situation.

7. Visitation of Fashion :
TV progrmes mostly the dramas, the musical programmes promote the culture of fashion as different people, models, actors wear clothes and jewellery and use cosmetics of latest fashion. In this atmosphere, the negative aspects of the latest fashions are followed by our young generation.

8. Advertisement :
There is no law for advertisement’s ethics so every type of advertisement is running on the TV without any fear and this trend is developing fashion race and makes them (the viewers) materialistic, as people wish to achieve everything whatever they watch on TV.

9. Public Opinion :
Being a representative of the government and having great influence over people, TV is a powerful tool of mass communication by which public opinion can be formed in the people for its new policies or projects.

10. Education :
Television now has many channels through which people are educated in an easy and simple way. The people, while remaining at home, watch different courses of Different Universities and get knowledge and education without joining any educational institution.

11. Entertainment :
People are entertained through television even in their homes. As different interesting programmes like dramas, musical shows are telecast on TV.

12. Prestige of the Country :
The common objective of all these channels is to promote the culture of the nation and prestige of the
country, TV channels perform its role in this perspective very well; as it always highlights the characteristics of the nation.

13. Unity of the Nation :
TV has always intended to unite the nation, and the all provinces of the country without any difference. As TV telecasts programmes in a. all the languages English, Punjabi, Hindi and in Urdu. This is all done to develop and promote the unity of the provinces of Country.

By analyzing the effects of TV in our society, we can say that although it has many negative aspects but its negative aspects are overcome by its positive aspects as TV entertains us, educates us, informs us, and forms public opinion in the favour of government and makes us to come close to the government. In simple words, TV plays a positive role in our society.

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Sunday, 28 December 2014

Importance of Television



 IMPORTANCE OF TELEVISION

It is said, that “A picture is worth than thousand words.” That’s why television is considered the most effective medium of mass communication. It is due to the effectiveness of television that it became popular within the limited time period. In the present era, modern techniques and fast channels of mass communication have converted this vast world into a home, where each individual is aware that what is happening in the other comer of the world. We can know the effectiveness and importance of television by
the following characteristics :

1. Entertainment :
Television is an important source of entertainment where through T.V. dramas, musical programmes people are entertained in their homes without going outside and enjoy their time by watching TV.

2. Live Telecast :
The most important quality of television is that TV. telecasts live programmes without any interference. For example, there is live telecast of matches between different teams held all over the world including inside and outside the country.

3. Latest Information :
Through television, we get the latest information about current events, current affairs as, we find news with its full details in the news bulletin.

4. Educational Importance :
TV has its own educational importance as different debates, seminars are held under the television organization and telecast live on the TV.

5. Variety of Programmes :
Through television, we watch every type of programmes either these are educational programmes or entertainment programmes. We find all sorts of programmes in the television.

6. Awareness :
By informing through television news bulletins and programmes of current affairs, the level of knowledge and awareness of the masses is increased.

7. Source of Culture Promotion :
Television is an important source of communication as we know that programmes of TV are being watched all over the world through satellite. So culture of the country can easily be promoted by the TV. channels by presenting the culture-based programmes like programmes on our religious festivals.

8. Current Affairs Programmes :
There are programmes on current affairs like talk shows on current issues in which experts and scholars come and define issues with their possible solutions. By this way, they try to increase general knowledge of masses.

9. Representative of the Government :
Television is known as the most effective media of mass communication, so, in many countries the government takes over the charge of television channel.

10. Public Opinion :
Television is a representative of government on one side and of people on the other, so by presenting current issues with their possible solutions, television forms public opinion in the specific way. Usually it is used for positive way of public opinion.

11. Propaganda :
Television is a very important tool of propaganda by which any government can promote its policy, it can make its policy popular among the people and defame the policy of opposition or of any other country.

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Sunday, 21 December 2014

How Radio is playing an effective role in our economic development as a source of mass communication



ROLE OF RADIO IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Our country is an agricultural country. Most of its population lives in rural areas. Many NGOs and social welfare organizations are engaged to educate the rural population. Radio can be used to bring a change in these respects. Modern ideas can be provided to people through radio.

Regional Language : 
Most of the programmes are broadcast in regional language. It is easy to understand even for uneducated people. Instead of difficult economic terminology, it is used easy language to communicate large number of people.

Investment :
Radio has to play an important role to motivate people for Capital Accumulation. It is necessary to invest money for economic development of a country.

Stock Market News :
News of stock market are broadcast daily. Profit of shares and other benefits are told to encourage people for investment. In addition to these news, special programmes are prepared to stimulate people to invest their money in banks, profit schemes financial organizations. If all citizens pay their taxes, the economic condition of country can become better. People are realized through Radio that tax paying is their duty. These taxes are spent on welfare projects.

Training Programmes :
Many people who are engaged in agriculture, do work only in some specific time period of the year. Radio guides people how they can earn money by using their spare me.

Education :
Educational programmes have an important place in broadcasting. It is necessary for economic development to educate the people. The more the literate people are present in the society, the more this country will gain development.

Technology :
Radio is one of the fastest means of mass communication. Modern technology can be introduced by using radio. Special reports are being broadcast for modern equipment's for the interest of listeners.

Agriculture :
Radio has played an admirable role to give agricultural information and education to rural public. Radio programmes were thought to be very successful, so all other stations broadcast agricultural programmes.
These programmes are based on :
i.  Waterlogged land
ii.  Instruments related to cultivation
iii. Chemical fertilizers
iv. Quality of seeds
v. Diseases of plants

industrial Development :
Industries have played an important role in economic development of a country. is advantages are :
i.  Better opportunities of employment
ii. Strong economy
iii. Prosperous people
It was the policy of British Government not to install industries in the Sub-Continent. It used raw material for British industries. After Partition, different industries were encouraged. Radio did a lot of work in this respect. It incited people to. make industries. By doing this, cottage industry was also developed.
Industrial products were advertised and introduced to people through radio. The purpose was people used to buy local products and the industry become stronger. It is obvious that agricultural and industrial development is the backbone of economic development of country.

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Role of Radio in social development



ROLE OF RADIO IN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Radio is considered as the most important source of mass communication in. Radio has played a vital role in the social development of our society. Radio is a cheap source of communication and it provides not only national but also international news.
All people are thought to be equal. Promotion of religious values is done through radio. Some other important aspects of Radio are following:

1. Projection of Democracy :
Radio is projected democratic way of government. People are realized through Radio programmes that democratic way is the only solution to problems. Shortly it is projected that it is a better system.

2. Projection of Education :
Education is important for social development. No society can become developed until it has majority of educated people. Education enables people to be civilized. Radio has promoted eagerness to get education among public. It has told the equal importance of education for both males and females. Adult education and other educational programmes have made it possible to develop a zeal among villagers to be educated.

3. To Finish Harmful Rituals :
Rituals of a society have become the part of human nature. It can create hurdles the progress. Radio has made people repugnant for these effected rituals.

4. Pleasant Environment :
It is necessary for social development that people are satisfied and happy. There should be an atmosphere of peace, comfort and tranquility. Radio has gained attention of people. They started listening the plays, music and other entertainment programmes of radio. By doing so, Radio has replaced worries and tensions of people to light and refreshing mood.

5. Higher Living Standard :
Radio has awarded people to think about their environment. People had realized fat poverty is not their fate but they can also enjoy the comforts of life. There should be an element of struggle for betterment in life.

6. Information About Government Plans :
Radio informs about welfare plans of government, so that government becomes stronger and can complete its projects. Public feels satisfaction about development plans.

7. Projection of Moral Values : 
A big purpose of creation of country was to build a modern  Society. But it is a matter of sorrow that nobody has made a serious attempt for it. As a result of this non-seriousness, our society has declined. Radio has played an important role to remain ethical norms and values.

8. Excess of Population : 
Due to excess of population, there is a lack of basic facilities of life. Radio with the sponsor of Ministry of Family Planing, has told disadvantages of increase in population. It has also told about the advantages of small-sized family.

9. A Bridge Between Public and Government :
It is necessary for the development of society that there should be such source present between public and government which is worked to finish a gulf between the two. It should be a spokesman of government as well as of public at the same time. It is necessary to convey messages of government and the feedback of public to government officials.

10. Religious Equality :
Radio can be worked to spread religious principles. Radio has splendid need to provide equal opportunities without discrimination of religious. It has also projected the thinking that it is necessary for women to work shoulder to shoulder with men. It is the way to success and progress of society.

11. Prevention of Social Evils :
Negative trends and social evils are destroying the peace and satisfaction of society. Due to these cunningnesses, thinking ability of people is to be suppressed. A big drawback of such situation is that construction is replaced by destruction. Radio has tried to eliminate the society from these filth's.

12. Projection of Civilization :
Progress of a society is hidden in the projection of civilization. It is more beneficent for a society having more and more civilized population. All the programmes of Radio are the representatives of our specific civilization

13. Rural Development :
More than seventy percent of population is living in rural areas of our country. There are not basic facilities available in rural areas. Mostly rural population consists of laborers and farmers. Social development is impossible until the majority of population has a standard way of living. Radio is stressed to solve rural area problems.

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Saturday, 20 December 2014

Critically analyze the Drama and Feature of Radio



ANALYSIS OF RADIO DRAMA & FEATURE


Radio has gained attention of people not only for its news and current affair programmes but also for its Dramas and Features.

Interest of Listeners :
Radio plays and features are prepared to keep in view the interest of listeners. Its purpose is entertainment as well as to guide and to educate people. Any event or issue whether it is national, regional, social or economic, is taken and a story revolves around this issue.

Topics :
There is no restriction about topic of the play. It can be religious or social. Usually a writer is picked the idea about a play from original life and then he/she starts writing including some fictitious events.

Presentation :
Events are presented in an interesting way. All aspects of issue are covered through dialogues. Dramatic element is presented through audio effects, so the interest of listener is remained. On the other hand, radio feature is presented by one person. In feature report, a brief background of the issue is formed by its introductory sentences. In the middle of a radio feature, a message of well known personality or opinion about the issue is given to maintain the interest of a listener.
The purpose of drama and feature is the same, only the style of presentation is different. Radio has a successful collection of drama as well as features.

Qualities of Drama and Feature : 
Social and economic issues are the major topics of drama and features broadcast by Radio. It has an impressive way of presentation."A basic element which makes them successful is the language. Its writing is simple, flawless and cheerful.
Fictitious events are created, which not only entertain‘the listeners but also give information about an issue. A listener does not feel boredom.

Needs of Present Age :
As time is passed, our national interests are being changed. Our problems are becoming complicated. It is responsibility of Radio to changes and modify itself according to demands of present age. Every topic should be covered by feature and dramas of Radio.

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Role and Importance of Radio



ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF RADIO

In the present age, “Radio” is known as an effective and important medium of mass communication. Radio is more effective than Press and TV. We can understand the role and importance of Radio by knowing its characteristics and qualities which are as under:

1. Easy Usage :
As we know, Radio is the only mass media which can reach everywhere either it is rural area or an urban area, its transmission can be listened everywhere, on the other side, it is portable, easy to carry where we are going, for example, a farmer can carry his transmitter to the farm and listens Radio programmes in his fields also.

2. Source of Information :
Radio is the fastest medium of mass communication by which information is disseminated all over the world within seconds, even in those areas where TV. and press cannot reach.

3. Religious Information :
Through Radio, we get every type of information. Radio broadcasts many religious programmes in which different scholars come and discuss the problems of our everyday life with the reference of our religion so, we come to know the role of religion and its implications in different fields of our life.

4. News Bulletin :
The main quality of Radio is that it broadcasts news bulletin in all the languages where all types of news are included in the news bulletin, for example, news bulletin is based on regional, local, national and international news and topic wise it may be political, religious, social, cultural, showbiz, weather, sports, etc. So we get all types of information through the news bulletin of Radio.

5. Entertainment :
Besides the informative role, Radio plays another important role which is to entertain the listeners and Radio performs its duty by broadcasting dramas, musical programmes, liked by the listeners'and they take a lot of interest in these programmes.

6. Programmes of Science :
Programmes on science are also an important part of Radio programmes by which we get the knowledge about science. In these programmes, scientific terms are explained in the simple language for listeners’ understanding.

7. Political Awareness :
Radio programmes related to the government, different political leaders and their parties besides their parties moto and slogan create political awareness among the listeners and we come to know about the political condition of the country, On the other side, this type of programmes bring political awareness among the people in this sense that they become aware of their political rights.

8. Propaganda :
Radio is an important tool of government by which government propagates its policies and makes the mind of people in the favour of government. While propaganda against other nations or political parties by government is done also through the Radio, that's why government keeps the hold of Radio in its own hands.

9. The Cheapest Source of Mass Communication :
Once we buy'the radio set, then it goes on year to year without any cost and we can receive the radio transmission free of cost.

10. A Link between the Government and the People :
Radio plays a role of bridge between the government and the people as Radio conveys the message of government to’the people and thoughts, views of people to the government. That’s why it is known as a link between the government and the people.

11. 24-Hour Service :
Radio provides 24 hours services to its listeners as Radio programmes including news bulletin broadcast 24 hours a day without any break.

12. Variety of Languages :
We find variety of languages in the Radio programmes, as, programmes of almost all languages, especially languages like Punjabi, Hindi and Urdu also are presented on radio.

13. Historical Programmes :
Programmes about the history of also presented on Radio to increase the knowledge of history among people, and let them be aware of their historical background of their country, nation and religion also.

14. Publicity :
Radio is also used for the purpose of publicity. As different companies, organizations buy time of the Radio for their advertisements. And these advertisements run on the particular time, bought by the company. While it is also used for the publicity purpose by the government.

15. Public Opinion :
Radio forms the public opinion by informing them about current events. And talk shows, forums are presented to make public opinion in the specific way. So public opinion can be moulded into a particular way through radio.

16. To Promote International Relations :
Radio promotes international relations by presenting programmes based on good opinion, about other nations and promotes friendly relations of our country with other countries.

17. Criticism :
Through Radio programmes, criticism of people and the factors involved in the problems oriented issues are also discussed in the programmes of Radio and news bulletin of Radio also.

18. Social Welfare :
Social welfare means the welfare of society where different programmes of social welfare are broadcast on the Radio including educational, agricultural programmes, cultural programmes etc.

19. Promotion of Ethical Values :
Through radio, ethical values are promoted among the people, the teachings of religion about ethics, are also presented and promoted.

20. Guidance :
Radio is an important source of guidance for the people without any difference of rich and poor and provides them a proper guide line by informing them about current issues, current situation and also present solution of these problems.

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Write a comprehensive note on the evolution of Radio 



RADIO

Radio is considered to be the most powerful and effective medium as compared to others. Radio can reach where print media or television cannot. Radio is the most beneficial of all other media. The whole of country is not electrified, hence it is not possible for T.V. to reach everywhere. Literacy rate is too low, hence, all the people are unable to read newspapers.

Beginning of Radio :

The first programme was broadcast by USA in 1905 when “HA Eussenden” broadcast the first message from his experimental station at Brant Rock on the Christmas Eve. Then different experts came in this field to make the Radio an informative and entertaining medium. In this respect, a successful effort was made by “Le De Forest” in 1908, who conducted a successful effort by using apparatus set up in Eiffel Tower in Paris. In 1915, David Samoff, conducted experiment in the music field and proposed a scheme for a Radio music box which could be manufactured and sold for home reception of music and educational broadcasting. In 1922, a concert was broadcast. And after this programme, a proper broadcasting of programmes was started including the educational, musical and informative programmes along with the daily news bulletin.

Establishment of BBC :
By 1922, in Great Britain, a private British company (British Broadcasting Company) started programme broadcasting in which people took great interest. But very soon the British government due to the increasing interest of people in the Radio programmes felt fear that it can be dangerous for the government if it starts propaganda against the government. So due to this reason, the British government took over the charge of broadcasting company and the British Broadcasting Company was replaced by the British Broadcasting Corporation. This corporation started external programmes as well as internal. In the present age, it is known as a most reliable source of information in all over the world as it broadcasts “News Bulletin” 24 hours a day.

Radio in the Sub-Continent :
On 16th May, 1924, the first Radio Club of the Sub-Continent was established in Madras and after that it was started in Bombay and Kolkatta but its coverage of area was very limited and its programmes could be listened only in the particular areas. At last, in 1926, India Broadcasting Corporation came into being after getting the license from the Government of India. This corporation started many Radio stations in the Sub-Continent. The first Radio station under this corporation was established on 23rd July, 1927 and was inaugurated by Viceroy Lord Irwin in Bombay. Likewise, Radio broadcasting started in many areas of Indo-Pak Sub-Continent. In 1928, a small and short Radio transmitter was installed in Y.M.C.A building in Lahore. At that time, Lahore was the centre of all the cultural, religious, political and social activities, that’s why it was selected first but the range of established transmitter of Lahore was less than eight miles. It was closed in 1930 due to the bankruptcy of the company. In 193 7, a small Radio station was installed with
the collaboration of Marconi Company which was the trading company. This station was regional and transmitted medium-waves.
In 1936, Marconi Company established a Radio station in Peshawar which was handed over to the government in 1936.

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Friday, 19 December 2014

What is the importance of Letters to the Editor and on what criteria a sub-editor selects them or Describe the principles of editing the letters



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

An important column of editorial page is “Letters to the Editor” column. This column gives the reader an opportunity to reply to editorials or columns of news situation. A few newspapers publish this column on the editorial page while others neglect this column. This column is fixed for readers. Unlike editorials, letters frequently comment on the issues that are not present in the news column. Usually most newspapers receive more letters than they have the space to print.
Letter to the editor is a way by which the editor knows the response of his readers. Letter to the editor is known as a fourth component of newspaper.”

IMPORTANCE

Letters to the editor play a very important role in our society. Because through letters, the people express their ideas and views on‘ any current issue and by this way, they inform the editor on one hand and the government on the other.

1. Letters are Barrier to Corruption :
Through letters, the readers inform the newspaper’s editor and government also about the corruption and the corrupted officers, misusing the post of government and taking extra advantages from the people.

2. Official Complaints :
Readers in their letters also complaint against the government offices which are not performing their duties well. The basic purpose of such type of letter is to inform the government about its different departments’ performances.

3. Educational System :
Under-developing country where many people are living below the poor standard of their lives and suffering a lot of hardships in different fields of life. And one field of these is education. We need further improvements in our educational system. So in this respect, people tell the government that what type of improvements are required in our educational system and this is done through letters to the editor.

4. Complaints against Education Board :
People complaint against the education board and universities inform the government and the newspapers
about their performance.

5. Criticism on Political and Non-Political Organizations :
Letters to the editors are the main source of criticism on political and non-political organizations. Because people express their feelings, views and suggestions openly and freely in their letters. So they openly criticize the political parties, their organizations and the activities of non-political organizations.

6. Criticism on the Government :
The Government is being criticized itself by the readers of newspapers in their letters.

7. A Bridge between the Government and the People :
Letters to the editor play a role of a bridge between the government and the people because in the letters people express their views, suggestions to the government sometimes. These letters present the solutions of the current problems facing by the government currently.

8. Awareness :
Letters to the editor create great awareness among the readers as their letters show that they are well informed on one side and while on the other these letters sometimes present the solutions of the people’s problems.

9. To Serve the Democracy :
In the letters of the readers, people-cum-readers express their feelings, and show that they are fully aware of their political rights. As it is their political right to run the government themselves. By this way, they are actually trying to make others realize that “democracy” is their basic need for which they are ready to do anything.

10. Training and Guidance :
Letters to the editor develop the habit of writing among the readers to express themselves freely and contribute in the government’s affairs without any hesitation. While by presenting the solutions of the problems, people guide the government that what it should do? And which step it should take for solving their problems? And which step it should take for solving their problems?


PRINCIPLES OF EDITING THE LETTERS

The editor of the newspaper is bound to edit the letters before their publication, while during the letters editing, he has to follow certain principles, which are following:

1. Short Letters :
Editing means final selection of letters. In this prospective, editor’s first preference is short letter. He selects short letters first and while editing he tries to make the letters more shorter.

2. Letters of Unique Nature :
The letters which are unusually interesting are selected first by the editor. Because these letters attract the reader’s attention quickly. So letters of interesting event or interesting narration of current problems are selected first than the other letters.

3. Letters of Important Personalities :
When any important person writes letter about any current issue then editor selects and publishes it as it is. For example, a letter of Lallo Parshad on any political issue.

4. Unknown Letters :
The letters written by unknown writers, are not selected because information given in these letters is not reliable sometimes. So editor does not take the risk to publish

5. Easy and Simple :
While editing, the editor selects the letters which are written in easy and simple language. Because mostly, people can understand only simple language. That is why letters with simple and easy language are selected.

6. Letters and the Policy of Newspapers :
The editor of the newspaper does not select the letters which are against the policy of newspaper because these letters can confuse the people about the newspaper’s policy towards any current issue.

7. Off the Record Information :
If writer of the letter advises the editor not to publish his name due to certain personal reasons then it is the duty of the editor to abstain from disclosing the source of information in any particular issue.

8. Investigation :
The editor does not publish the letters in which information of any sensitive issue is given without investigation because it can be harmful for the prestige of the country and for the newspaper also.

9. Propaganda and Publicity :
Letters which contain elements of propaganda and publicity are not included in the publication. By this we mean that editor excludes the elements of propaganda and publicity from the letter before publication. Because the basic purpose of letters to the editor is to inform the government and the general public. It is not for the publicity and propaganda. So such types of letters are not published.

10. Prestige of the Country :
Any letter which is against the prestige of the country is not published.
And the editor of a newspaper does not select such types of letters because newspapers and letters to the editor are for the people’s and government’s encouragement and not for discouragement.

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Thursday, 18 December 2014

Difference between feature and a column or Differentiate editorial and feature, column and feature, news and feature



EDITORIAL AND FEATURE

1. Editorial is a writing printed on a specific place of the paper with a daily routine and it carries views, analysis and comments. Feature is neither printed on daily basis nor it has any specific place.
2. Editorial is the policy of the newspaper while feature is not.
3. Editorial has no name while feature usually carries the name of the writer.
4. Feature carries pictures but editorial does not.

NEWS AND FEATURE

1. Feature is similar to a news story that it gives facts to a reader in an interesting form and is adapted to rapid reading. But it goes beyond those facts by amplifying them with study, research and interviews.
2. The news story is Written to inform the readers but the feature not only informs but also instructs, guides or entertains.
3. News story presents bare facts-the feature dramatizes and supplements them by giving in detailed information that will appeal to the reader’s imagination.
4. The reporter writes what he sees, but the feature writer relates not only what he sees but also the causes or background of the story.
5. The news story is hurriedly written while feature writing has no hard dead lines.
6. Features are usually evolved from news while news are evolved from happenings of daily life.

COLUMNS AND FEATURES

1. Column is usually a writing printed under the same topic while features have always different topics.
2. Features do not have a specific place (except in Magazines), while columns are printed on a specific place.
3. Columns have a word count of 500 words to 1000 words while features usually have 500 words to 3000 words.
4. Columns are not as colorful as features are.
5. Columns usually have one photograph while features have a large number of photographs.
6. Column has one headline or highlight but feature has many.
7. Columns can be written in first person but features are written in objective form rather than subjective form. 

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Feature about Basant takes life



Basant Takes Life :

Basant has always been a joyous occasion, for Ahmed’s family. But last year, the whole scene was changed in a moment when fourteen years old Ahmed, flying kites with a metal wire came in contact with high power transmission cable. Ahmed, the only son in the family was burnt more than 50%.
Another sad event took place when eight years old Amjad lost his life while catching a stray kite on a roadside at Hanjarwal when a tractor crushed him. Shumaila became the victim of a stray bullet, fired on Basant.
The girl has lost sight and according to news report Basant 2005 claimed nineteen lives besides leaving hundreds of other  injured. The Basant night celebration had already claimed the lives of at least four
children while three hundred other were wounded.
Lahories flouted all bans and continued to fire shots in the air like kites. No less than forty people were severely injured as a result of air firing. Open display and usage of semi-automatic and automatic weapons was witnessed in different areas. As many as forty people were admitted at the Mayo Hospital.
The record clearly exposed the police claims of having checked and nabbed people involving in air firing. The same hospital’s children ward received eighty children patients on Basant. One hundred and forty were admitted to Sir Ganga Ram Hospital while twenty were brought to Shaikh Zayed Hospital. Twenty patients were brought to Lahore General Hospital. Many wounded were admitted to other private hospitals. Two
boys of age fourteen and twenty-five were admitted to the hospital due to severe head injuries. Both fell from their roofiops while running after their kites.
Strings were lubricated with different chemicals commonly known as manjha. This increases the strength of strings. Bashir, a Mason, was engaged in his duty at second flour a week before Basant. Suddenly he felt that something was hurting his neck, he called his companions to help him. They saw him lying on the floor, he lost his life because of overflow of blood. LESCO has suffered a loss of Rs. 60 million caused by
power losses and fluctuations that hit the city’s electricity transmission system on Basant night.
Rich families celebrate the festival lavishly. They fly high quality kites and strings without thinking what havoc they can create. Children do not listen to their parents and indulge in dangerous activities. Basant should be carefully celebrated. Competitions should be arranged in gardens and grounds instead of rooftops. Metal wires, air firing, fireworks, loud music, drum beating in residential area should be avoided.

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Write a note on writing a feature or Write and draw feature writing with structure



HOW TO WRITE A FEATURE

In writing a feature, you will draw upon different skills.

Structure of a Feature :
A feature is seldom written in the traditional inverted-pyramid pattern. The main point, always in the lead of a news story, may be withheld until the end as a climax. Or the feature may be written in a narrative fashion, much like a good joke or anecdote.

(A) Organize Carefully :
First decide what the theme is. Then carefully outline the sub-points so they will support the theme. The good feature requires as much organization as the straight news story, for the feature has to flow smoothly. News stories can be out without severely damaging the sense, but generally all the parts of a feature story must be kept intact if it is to succeed. A good test is to cut paragraphs from the body of a feature. If the story doesn't suffer from the cut, then the paragraphs probably aren't necessary. In the well-planned story, every paragraph-every sentence-should add to the total effect.

(B) Lead :
The lead must attract immediate attention and pull the reader into the story. Lead can vary in style and content. You can use description, narration, dialogue, questions, unusual statements, call to action, comparison, contrast.

(C) Transition : 
No matter how good the lead is, you need a solid transition into the body of the feature. If you think of the lead as a lure to attract the audience, then the transition sets the hook. It makes the reader want to continue. And it promises some kind of satisfaction.

(D) Body : 
Sound knowledge of the Subject, coupled with good writing skills, will take the readers through a variety of experiences. For this purpose, the usage of standard writing devices of script, dialogue, document-able but vivid fact and detailed careful observation, suspense and if appropriate plot is necessary.

(E) Conclusion : 
The conclusion should give the reader a sense of satisfaction. So we should tie the conclusion to the lead for showing the unity of the story. It is done through a short, tight summary, occasionally we can conclude with an anecdote or a quote that sums up the substance of the story. With narrative approach then draw a conclusion.

Length of a Feature :
Feature stories can be of any length. The fact is, editors and news directors want this variety. In the case of a newspaper, it may be that a hole in the page requires a short item. The same is true on Radio or TV. A hole in the newscast can be plugged with a short feature-almost a filler.
Short feature fillers that have a light touch (sometimes called briles) a bit of humour, something heartwarming are particularly welcome in the newsroom.
With today’s typesetting technology of total pagination and automatic calculation of story length, the need to fill holes on a news page is not as common. Even so, the brief filler-feature is popular, for it gives the reader a break from the more serious straight news that dominates the page, and it helps and adds visual variety to a page.
Longer features are equally popular. In newspapers, they may be accompanied by photographs or artwork. As you work on a feature, think about possible illustrations or photographs to complement the story; For T.V. features, the visuals generally tell most of the story.

Structure of a Feature :
The difference between the structure of the news story and the feature is that news story is written in an inverted pyramid form.
But feature is written in a "pyramid form"

EP = Editorial Policy
PI= Presumable Interest
R1 = Readers Interest
These three rings are necessary for the feature writing and feature writer has to follow all these three rings while writing the feature.

Dramatic Structure :

In the dramatic structure of the feature, introduction comes first in which the subject is briefly introduced, then rising action comes and the subject goes on from introduction to rising action, then climax of event is described. Then, climax comes down towards the falling action and then finally the conclusion comes at the end of the feature where the conclusion of the story is drawn at last. Features are written very often in the
dramatic structure and the purpose behind this is to attract the reader’s attention towards the feature.

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Importance and objectives of features



OBJECTIVES AND IMPORTANCE OF FEATURE

1. Entertainment :
Feature is the only writing of the newspaper which explains the events happenings in an interesting way with the pictures while column and editorial do not have this element.

2. Explanation :
Feature explains the event, things with its fill description and analyses its facts and figures and presents the issue with the reference of background past, present and future.

3. Guidance :
It guides the people by informing about the current issues or any new information related with important personality, event, historical monument etc. and describes the facts with their pictures.

4. Individuality :
Feature discusses the problems of our everyday life including national and international issues but the main quality of feature is that it lies emphasis on individual problems also. Problems of individual also become the subject of feature with their solutions as in the end of the feature. Feature writer draws conclusion in which he
presents the solution of the problem.

5. Criticism :
In the feature, elements or different factors of problems, either these are problems of any individual, national or international level are pointed out. Feature writer points out the factors involved in the background of our everyday life and tries to draw the attention of the people towards these factors.

6. Fictional Touch :
Feature is the only writing of the newspaper in which we find fictional colour as things and events are described in an interesting way. Different aspects of life are presented in story-like style.

7. Pictures and Illustrations :
Pictures, illustrations, sketches are very important component of the feature. Without these, components or elements feature is to be considered incomplete. But the important thing is that pictures, illustrations and sketches should be related to the topic of the feature. Because these elements are used in the feature for increasing its beauty. So it should be selected carefully according to the subject and format of the feature.

8. Graphs and Tables : 
In the feature writing, we also include the graphs and tables for making the. information concerned with the topic, reliable and understandable for the people.

9. Creativity :
Feature is a creation of a feature writer in‘which writer organizes his creativeness with the facts and aspects of life.

10. Accountability :
Through feature writing, a newspaper keeps the check on the activities of government, on one hand and upon the people on the other. Because feature can be Written on any issue with its detailed description including pictures, graphs and tables of facts and figures.

1 l. A Link between the Government and the People :
Feature is a link between the government and the people as it informs both of Sam about each other’s problems. And let them to come near each other.

12. Human Interest :
Feature is the writing, written for the general people so the first preference of the feature writer is human interest element. He tries to write a feature on the topic in which more people are interested. While serious and dry topics are also presented in an interesting way.

13. Awareness :
Feature informs us about reality and brings to us the hidden aspects of the particular issue with the analysis of its facts and figures and presents in the form of tables, graphs and pictures also. So the basic purpose is to make us well informed and develop the sense of awareness among us.

14. Politeness :
In a feature, we often find the element of politeness as things and events are presented in an interesting way with little bit of politeness.

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Wednesday, 17 December 2014

Define feature and explain its type or How the structure of a feature is different from a column



FEATURE

In French language, the word feature is used for fashion or in the meaning of construction of anything. In Latin language, Factura, Facere and Factum are expressed in the same meaning. In English language, “Feature” means part of face or characteristic. But in journalism, feature article is similar to a news story which gives fact in an increasing form and gives the impression of a drama, short story or other form of good
literature to the readers while reading it.

What is a Feature?

Feature stories may be news stories. Features can be investigative. Features can be in depth. Features can be for fun. The subject can be anything, place, a community, a farm, a business, topics-education, science, the economy, religion, philosophy, events-parades, programmes, concerts, people well-known or unknown,
animals-unusual or ordinary, objects-art or products. In other words, features can be about anything one wants to write about.

Definitions of Feature

R.E. Wolsely :
RE. Wolsely in “Exploring Journalism” has defined feature as :
“Feature is the entertainment element in the news. Feature is the salad or dessert of Journalism-diet. This is little extra titbit (enjoyable part of the for-joke). It is to make heavier parts of the meal more
portable.”

Helen M. Patterson :
He defines feature in his book “Writing And Selling Special Feature Articles” as :
“Feature like a news story informs the reader. Feature instructs, guides or entertains the reader along with informing him. The news story presents only facts, feature dramatizes and supplements them by giving
detailed information that will appeal to reader’s imagination.”

Edward J. Friedlander :
According to Edward, “A feature story is typically both original and descriptive. Some features are geared towards entertainment with little information. Other features inform but entertain little. The best feature combines both aspects.”

Manual of Journalism :
Manual of Journalism defines feature as :
“Feature provides more information than the news story. The news story answers ‘What’ and “How” while feature answers ‘Why’.”

“News Writing”
The book “News Writing” defines feature as follows :
“Feature is a new technique through which journalists make less important news more interesting" and attractive.”

Alexis McKinney :
Alexis defines feature as :
“A newspaper feature is an article which finds its impacts outside or beyond the realm of the straight news story’s basic and unvarnished who-what-where-when-why and how.”
Explanation : 
The justification, strength and very identity of the feature lies in its presentation of the imagination-mot however, in departing from or stretching the truth, but in piercing the peculiar and particular truths that strike people’s curiosity, sympathy, skepticism, humour, consternation or amazement.

Helen M. Patterson :
“The special feature article is similar to a news story in that it gives the readers in an interesting form and is adapted to rapid reading. But it does beyond those facts by multiplying them with study, research and interviews to instruct, guide and entertain readers who know about the subject as well as those who do not know."

Types of Feature

Though there is no limit to the number of ideas for features, there is a finite set of categories of them. These categories are not rigid, they are only labels to help one describe a story.

1. News Feature :
Most common is the news feature, generally developed around a timely event-something with immediacy and significance to the audience. The news feature can be more personal than a straight news story. Considerably more human interest is brought to the story-through direct quotes, description and perhaps emotion. At the core, though, is news. Often such features are written as sidebars to straight news stories. Colour stories capture the favour of an event.

2. Personality, Sketch or Profile :
The biographical feature is published at the death or the anniversary of the birth of some person. The personality feature may appear at any time and have no noticeable excuse for appearing, although publicity is often the motive even if the reader is not aware of it. Another distinction is that the biographical type attempts to give a bird’s eye view of the subject’s life whereas the personality type simply tries to present the subject s
present day appearance and characteristics.

3. Informative Feature :
These are on the little-known, the odd or unusual aspects of the story subject. While the emphasis is on informing or educating the audience, the information presented is not necessarily timely or immediate. Such stories are popular, for they provide the audience with information to tuck away for future reference. Like the news feature, informative features are often packaged with a main news story.

4. Historical Features :
The commonest news topics for the historical feature are anniversaries, holidays and discoveries of new material or the truth about old events. Such features must be based either on new information or on an original manner of restating the old news and views. For example, here is a familiar newspaper story at Eid-ul-Azha time. The writer attempted in the lead only to be timely and to localize. He was not specially specific
about what residents of Chicago planned to do, but simply drew on encyclopedia knowledge of national customs in celebrating Eid.

5. Personal Experience :
Many personal-experience features recount the accomplishments of an individual or group. The disabled Vietnam veteran who rolls across the state in wheelchair to raise funds for charity, the junior high school student who spells prestidigitator correctly and wins the country spelling bee and the chance to go on to the state competition-these are examples of stories which, though not timely, capture audience interest.

6. Descriptive Feature :
Descriptive features centre on places the public can visit and events they can take part in or enjoy as spectators. Almost every community has tourist spots, historic buildings or sites, recreational areas, pageants, festivals, unusual restaurants.
Such stories are cyclic. They can be written and rewritten almost every year, for there’s always a new audience looking for places to go and things to do or a vicarious experience if they can’t go and do. The purpose of these features is to provide specific facts: about the weather casts, special events and the like. They’re usually found in the travel and entertainment sections of newspapers and magazines and in the feature segments of Radio and TV. programmes.

7. How-to-do it Features :
These are popular because people have more leisure time, want to save money, and want to experience the thrill of creative work. Subjects such as flower arranging, building patio furniture, improving your golf or tennis game, buying at discount stores, using home computers, installing solar systems-all have appeal. You are limited in how-to articles only by your own limitations in understanding the subject, and there are usually authorities around who can provide the technical expertise.
The secret to a successful how-to feature is in its reward for the audience. A project or a suggestion that’s too complicated, too expensive or too time-consuming is likely to lose the audience.

8. Enterprise Features :
For lack of a better generic label, stories that don’t fit any specific category are called enterprise features. “This and that” stories can be written about the everyday occurrences in our lives. You look at a fairly common situation but ask “Why?” and a story results. As you cool: breakfast you may wonder why some people call the utensil a skillet and others refer to it as a frying pan. You’re on the way to a feature about regional slang. Ideas can develop from something you read or heard on Radio or TV, or picked up in classes or casual conversations. The list is as long as your curiosity. A classmate might mention having “math phobia.” Is that real? When you find something people are talking about and would like to know more about you have a feature. Then its a matter of finding sources who can talk with some knowledge about the subject.

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Tuesday, 16 December 2014

Explain shortly qualities of a good column and express the style of the column



STYLE OF THE COLUMN

In writing the column, there are five general styles which can be employed. In each case, of course, the columnist chooses the one which best suits his material and his personality.

1. The Unified Style :
When the columnist wants to speak on a single subject, throughout pointing everything towards convincing the reader of his central idea or thesis, he employs the unified style. The column is really an essay, formal or informal, according to the topic and the approach. The unified style is employed by the political columnist, who discusses a single subject each day, and others who feel a need for a column to dwell upon one main idea.

2. The Anecdotal Style :
The term “anecdotal style” explains itself. It is used by the columnist who wants to tell a series of little unrelated stories or make several observations which have no bearing on each other. The writer usually has between six and ten of such anecdotes of observations in a column, and he generally separates them from each other by asterisks.

3. The Departmental Style :
When the columnist has material that is easily separable into “department”, he often employs the departmental style. The departments may be given such names as “In the Mailbag”, “Lest We Forget”, “Things to Remember”, and “Passing Parade” or they may simply be separated by asterisks or some other typographical devices. The departmental style is especially effective for random observations, little-known in format on and provocative bits of news of general interest. Departmental style columns are highly popular with readers because of the ease with which they can interest they often hold. Consequently, most newspapers have at least one such column.

4. The Question and Answer Style :
The reason for the term “question and answer” is immediately apparent. The columnist gives a question and then answers it. This style is employed in all columns answering questions for readers and in columns where the author posed question is to be seen in the bridge columns, where the writer answers the questions which he believes are most often asked.

5. The Unrelated Facts Style :
When the object of the column is to present a mass of facts which have little or no bearing on each other, the unrelated facts style is generally the best approach. This style enables the columnist to present his facts with one or more periods, depending on the light of pause desired, the writer on the copy reader may use an occasional subhead.
The success of the unrelated facts style column springs from its author’s ability to sustain interest by variety, surprise, or other devices whatever may be suitable.

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What are the main qualities and duties of a columnist



QUALITIES OF A COLUMNIST

Keeping in view the fact that a columnist enjoys a prominent position in the society and that he may exercise his influence on public opinion, most of the sub-editors and reporters chuckle a desire to become a columnist. Column writing, however, is not an easy task. A number of journalists look forward towards becoming columnists. They wish that they should be allotted a permanent space in the newspaper where they should have the freedom to express their views.

According to an American journalist, it is meaningless to procure a column in the newspaper for a writer when he does not have the ability to form ideas in his mind and reduce them into writing. Yet column writing is not so difficult that one cannot make any strides towards writing it. If one has the ability and determination to write, one can achieve the desired proficiency in this field.

1. Awareness :
By educating the readers, by informing them and by their training, column writer makes them to be aware of current situation of the country and their problems.

2. Educating and Training :
Every word of the newspaper keeps some specific objective and importance like wise column writing also has certain objectives and importance, from which the first and foremost important objective is to educate the people and train them. For example, a column writer tries to explain the problem or any specific issue in his column with complete in depth research in an easy and simple way for informing the people, make them well informed and let them to decide the right way for the solution of the problem.

3. Frankness or Informality :
A column writer tries to follow the informal pattern while writing. The columnist so, by creating the friendly atmosphere in his column, develops friendly and frank relationship with his readers.

4. Personal Expressions :
In column writing, columnists present their own views, thoughts, ideas, feelings, expressions on any topic or current domestic, national or international issues. So we find personal expressions of the column writer in the column many times. Column is the only piece of writing of newspaper in which column writer expresses his personal views and feelings.

5. To Promote the Supreme Values :
In the column, the columnist tries to promote the supreme values of the society and makes them to follow the supreme ethical values, and become the civilized citizen of the country.

6. Entertainment :
Entertainment is the element which is very much found in the columns of our everyday life. Especially in the humorous columns, element of entertainment is very prominent.

7. Identification of the Newspapers :
Columns usually become the identification of the newspapers as many newspapers are recognized by their columns or column writers. So sometimes columns become the identity of the newspaper. And readers buy that particular newspaper for its columns.

8. Variety of Topics :
Columns cover the full stretch of journalistic activity, sports, society, finance, business, economics, politics and just explain personalities. In each division, there are as many sub-divisions as there are columnists.

9. Literary Touch :
Column writing is the only writing of the newspaper which has literary touch while others like news, editorial, features do not consist this element.

10. Promotion of Democratic Values :
Column is an important source of democratic values promotion because it provides the political platform to the people and let them know their political rights as it is their political right to live in a democratic society and run their state themselves and become the part of their government.

11. Public Opinion :
Through column writing, a columnist informs the people, develops the sense of responsibility among the citizens of the nation and makes them to think about their current national, political and social problems and find collectively the solutions of these problems. By this way, columns make the public opinion in a specific way.

12. Representative of the People :
Many times columnists discuss the general problems of the people including their social, educational, religious and political problems. On the other side, they discuss the people’s attitude towards government’s new projects or programmes and inform the government‘ about the people’s views and thoughts.

13. Analysis :
In the columns, columnists analyse the current national or international issues with the full details of facts and figures and then finally draw the conclusion.

14. Accountability :
By analyzing the issue and discussing the current national problems, in fact a columnist is performing his duty to point. out the factors, persons and the conditions which can be harmful for the government on one side and for the people on the other, either these factors belong to the government or to the people.

15. Solutions of the Problems :
A columnist presents the solutions of the problems which are being discussed in his column. On the other side he provides the proper guide line to people for the solutions of their problems.

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Discuss different types of columns or Explain characteristics of a good column



COLUMN

The meaning of column is a supporting arch, vertical division of a page for figures etc, or to reduce length of lines in newspapers. In journalism, columns are writings devoted to special subjects.
The word column is also used .for the purpose of headlines, e.g., single column headline, double column headline or seven column lead story, etc.

Walter Limpman :
An American columnist says about column: “I began my career as an editorial writer. I always think that columnist is one who writes editorial with his name.”

Community Journalism :
In “Community Journalism” column is defined as:
“Column cannot be exemplified by a single writing. Different columns are written in different styles. Moreover, they are also different insofar as their topics and subject-matters are concerned.”

Z.A. Sulehri :
“Column is a piece of writing of any well-informed person who has something to say can write.”

Diet E. Sergeant :
“Columns are those pieces of writing which appear on the editorial page and which carry reviews, cements and illustrations.”

Characteristics of Columns :

Columns offer an opportunity for variety in content that no feature or editorial can approach. Columns can range from the philosophical to the whimsical.
The column always carries the writer’s byline and in some cases, the writer’s photograph. Columns appear at regular intervals and usually in the same location in the publication, so loyal readers will know where to find them. Columns may be subject-oriented, such as those on hobbies or crafts. Or the columns can be a reflection of the writer’s personality, offering humour, opinion, anecdotes.

Variety of Writings :
Columns give readers a variety of writing styles rarely found in features and editorials. Columnists can and do use the language any way they want to. Sometimes, in fact, the unconventional style they use becomes a signature, an identifying characteristic.

Timely Topics :
Columnists are not intended to be “news” in the traditional sense. Political columnists do write about finely topics, but they are generally read for their personal presentation, rather than for the factual content.

Types of Columns :
There are as many types of columns as there are different aspects of life, so, we can’t classify the column into any particular type. The approach of one columnist towards writing a column differs from the other columnists. But in general, we can classify the column writing into the following categories:
1. City Letters
2. Humorous Column
3. Personal Column-like Editorial
4. Specialized Column
Among the different types of columns humorous columns are considered to be the most popular type. But it is difficult to write humorous columns. Unless the writer has the command over the language and he knows the art of playing with the jugglery of words. It is also essential to provide interesting and entertaining material in these columns.

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Monday, 15 December 2014

Write a note on the types of editorial or Explain the kinds of editorial with reference to purpose, content and composition



TYPES OR KINDS OF EDITORIAL WITH PURPOSE

With reference to purpose, editorials can be classified into three groups. Those that inform, those that influence and those that entertain. Now we will see these types of editorials one by one.

1. Informing Editorial :
Informing editorial defines and explains different information to the readers as this type of editorials define terms and issues by providing the details of geographical and social backgrounds. Thus readers are being well informed through editorials which give them the complete details of any event, happening etc.

2. Influencing Editorial :
One has a right to have his opinion but at the same time one also have a right to convince others of its merit. The informative editorial defines and explains a problem and to influence the readers a course of action is suggested.

3. Entertaining Editorial :
Entertaining editorial is like a dish of intellectual dessert. They evoke a smile, a chuckle, a laugh, and often have a point gently or subtly suggested.

Content-wise Editorials

Content-wise Editorials can be divided into :
1. News Editorials
2. Policy Editorials
3. Social Editorials
4. Special Editorials

1. News Editorials :
News editorials are those which are based on important news. Normally, lead story attracts the editorial writer. Majority of editorials are based on news.

2. Policy Editorials :
Policy editorials reflect the specific policy or trends of a newspaper. Editorials of different newspapers represent the policy of these papers.

3. Social Editorials :
Editorials comprising social or civic problems are called social editorials. All newspapers comment on important social issues in their editorials and editorial notes.

4. Special Editorials :
Editorials on special events are called special editorials. This type also includes obituary editorials. For example, editorials on 25th Dec, etc.

Composition-wise Editorials

Editorials can also be divided into their form of composition. And these types are :
l. Narrative
2. Descriptive
3. Expository
4. Argumentative
Now we will explain these types of editorials :

1. Narrative :
In this type of editorials, orderly account of events is narrated just like a story or a tale.

2. Descriptive :
Descriptive editorial is based on lots of descriptions. More emphasis is laid on description of an event, occurrence or happening including the description of people’s related problems. For example, their social, political, religious and economical problems are described in the editorial.

3. Expository :
This type of editorial explains and interprets the problem with the full details and with all its facts and figures while sometimes problems are explained through table and graph. In this type of editorial, dry and difficult topic or problem is presented in an easy and simplest way for people’s understanding.

4. Argumentative :
In this type of editorial, problem is presented by giving the arguments and shows the both views of picture and then leaves it upon the reader to decide himself the right way and draw the conclusion. Through this type of editorial, public opinion is formed according to the editorial’s arguments.

Appeal-wise Editorial :
In the context of appeal, we mean how an editorial appeals to the reader. Appeal-wise editorial has two types:
a. Intellectual Editorial
b. Emotional Editorial

a. Intellectual Editorial :
In the intellectual editorial, subject is presented intellectually with proper facts and figures and with no emotional touch.

b. Emotional Editorial : 
Emotion editorial is written for the general people. Facts are presented with emotional touch.

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Explain content-wise editorials and throw light on their importance or objectives and importance of editorials



EDITORIAL

Earlier newspapers and journals were mainly consisted of essays, columns, views and poetry, news contents were scare. But with the growth of journalism, basic requirement of newspaper came forth. News style of newspapers changed according to international level. Pages were specified for news and editorial, columns and features.
Editorials are considered opinions and soul of the newspaper as represented by the publisher or editor. No newspaper is considered complete without editorial page which should be topical, lively, vigorous and full of thoughts. They appear on the editorial page to differentiate them from news stories. In Urdu newspapers, editorial appears at right side of editorial page, whereas in English newspapers, at left side. Editorial comments on material previously presented fairly or objectively in the news columns, weighing and presenting various arguments. An editorial reaches a conclusion and makes a recommendation regarding an issue.
Editorials are vital for a newspaper and community it serves. Editorials reflect and influence decision making and can direct positively or negatively, actions by readers. It is a fact that editorial pages do not have the proportionality high readership enjoyed by the news, sports or other special pages, but they do command the attention of the population and of those who make decisions.
R.E. Wolsely defines editorial as under :
“Editorial may be defined as a journalistic essay which comments on the news, its purpose being to inform, influence or entertain.”

In simple words, we can say that editorial is a writing printed on a specific place of the paper with daily routine and it carries views, analysis and comments. Editorial is usually a comment on the latest happenings and often used to enlighten the people.
Editorial is the policy of a newspaper. It has no writers name while a feature and a column usually carries the name of a writer.

Importance and Objectives of Editorial

1. Soul of the Newspaper :
Editorial is considered to be the soul of the newspaper because it gives life, colour and recognition to the newspaper. As we know our body is nothing without the soul, soul is a symbol of life. Without soul, our body is considered dead. Likewise, without editorial, newspaper is considered dead because editorial represents the newspaper in the specific way by giving argument on any current and domestic issue.
2. Comments on News :
Editorial is the only type of writing in which a newspaper can give its comments. As we have already discussed that editorial is representative of the newspaper’s policy by giving the arguments on any current domestic, national or international issue.

3. Public Opinion :
Editorial is a very powerful writing of newspaper which has a strong ability to mould and form the public opinion by presenting the issue with the solution and sometimes, the editor presents both sides of the picture and then leaves it to the readers to decide themselves. By adopting such, pattern, editorials can easily form the public opinion. That’s why it is said that “Pen is mighter than the sword.”

4. Reflects the Society :
Editorial reflects the society as editorial is always based on the topic concerned with the general people, so the problems of general people are described in the editorial and then the solutions of these problems are presented. Educational policy of government and unawareness of people. In the editorial, the editor explains the educational policy and motivates the people to participate in the new launching project of government. On the other side, through editorial, the government comes to know about the problems of the people. While the editor also promotes the culture of the country through editorials.

Objectives of Editorials

Editorial is a writing of the newspaper which has four basic objectives, first is to inform, second is to influence, third is to entertain and fourth is_ to guide the people. Although it has many other objectives also.

1. To Guide the People :
Editorial guides the readers by providing the true picture of the problem and by showing them both sides of the picture, influences them to choose the right path for the solution of their problem. So, editorials try their best to guide the people.

2. To Inform :
The main purpose of the editorial is to inform the people. As we know editorials are based on current issues. Any current national or international issue is discussed in the editorial. By discussing the current national and international issues, the editorial informs the readers about the latest global issues.

3. To Influence :
By giving the arguments on current issues, an editorial influences the people by tentatively defining and explaining a problem or an issue. Then it suggests a solution and put it before'the readers to decide themselves.

4. To Entertain :
Editorial defines the difficult issues in a very light manner but sometimes the editorial presents any issue with a light touch of humour and makes it interesting for the general readers and also fulfils the objective of entertainment.

5. Awareness :
Awareness means to be aware of the facts of life, reality and understanding of current problems and awareness of the solutions of these problems. Editorial performs this role very successfully than any other writing of the newspaper. As it provides the guidance by informing the readers about the current affairs and makes them to be aware with the current situation.

6. Source of Social Welfare :
In editorial, the editor always discusses the problems of general people, including social, political, economical and religious problems. In this way, the editor informs the government about the problems of general people and then the government takes steps to solve the problem of the people. By knowing all this, we can say that editorial is an important source of social welfare by which problems of the people are solved.

7. Accountability :
Editorial performs this role also by taking the notice of government department’s activities, government officials and their way of performing duties. The editor discusses the problems oriented factors which can be proved harmful for the government on one hand and for the people on the other. Accountability of the government and the society is also another important objective of the editorial.

8. Editorial Page :
Editorial is the most important piece of writing. Newspaper shows its opinion through the editorial. Newspaper’s policy is followed by the editorial. Editorial is the only writing, written by the editor or sometimes by the owner of the newspaper. By fulfilling the main objectives, to inform, to influence, to entertain and to guide the people, editorial becomes the most important piece of writing in the newspaper and it is due to the importance of editorial that one page of all the newspapers is known as an “editorial page”. In the present age, no newspaper is considered complete without the editorial page. So this is all due to the importance of editorial for accomplishing its main four objectives.

9. Leadership :
Leadership means to lead the people, to guide the people, to show them the right path. And this all is done by the editorial because it has an ability to form the public opinion according to the will of the newspaper. As editorial is considered the soul and show window of the newspaper’s policy, so whatever a newspaper wants to convey, it conveys through editorial to the people and thus moulds the public opinion a new way.
That’s why editorial is called “The leader” in the newspaper by providing the leadership to the people.

10. Analysis :
Editorial presents the problems, different issues and problems oriented factors after the research work. In this research, editor and the editorial board analyse the problem with facts and figures and then draw the conclusion of the issue which should be based on solution of the problem.

11. Judgment :
Sometimes editorial plays the role of a judge and pass its own personal judgment on any current, national or international issue. In this way, editorial informs the readers about the event, incident or situation and tells them the right way-that what they should do in the present situation and how they should behave otherwise, what will be the drawbacks of the problem. In simple words, role of a judge is successfully played by the
editorial.

12. Tool of Democracy :
“Democracy is the government of the people, by the people and for the people.“ And people’s opinion rely very much upon the editorial. Editorial makes people to think about the democratic government-that they should have their own government and it is their political right to run the state offices themselves. And this motivation is led by the editorial.

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