Beginning of Journalism in Great BritainJournalism is the systematic and reliable dissemination of 'public information which was started after the invention of printing in the world.
In Great Britain, printing was started in 1476 by William Kakston who printed Religious literature” first time from his printing press on 13th December, 1476. With the passage of time, “News Books” were started being publishing which were the translation of Holland and Germany’s news pamphlets and those were mainly based on political news along-with interesting news. And the first publication of latest news was “The
General”, then “Holland at Trydent Councell” and “News Books”.
News Books :
“News Books” consisted the current news of people’s surroundings and about other countries including the parliament proceedings of their own country but later on publishing of parliamentary proceeding was prohibited by the government due to the development of anti-government sentiments in the newspapers. But certain newspapers did not stop the publication of parliament proceeding. At last, Government had banned
the publication of “News Books” which was continued till 1641 when government announced the permission of newspapers publication again. In 1838, government had allowed the newspapers to publish foreign news. By this permission, newspapers of that time got freedom to publish news freely.
Weekly Newspapers :
Newspapers of England were started through their weekly editions as they were published in the form of weekly newspapers. In 1641, when newspapers got freedom, then a weekly magazine of national news “Diurnals” was being started and the first edition of “Diurnals” was published on November 1641 with this heading of front page "The head of several proceedings in the present parliament” which had gain great
popularity amongst the people. But it was the supporter of the government.
First Newspaper :
In May 1643, the first weekly magazine with pictures was published in the Great Britain, named “Mercurius Civicus”. Then another weekly magazine with pictures was started named “Mercurius Academicus”. Afterwards, the trend of magazines with pictures was started, many new weekly newspapers came on the scene one after the other.
Newspaper Similar to Modern :
In 1665, “Oxford Gazette” appeared as the first regular newspaper: Later, it was named “London Gazette”. Its publishing looked like modern-day newspapers. Each page consisted of two columns. Before each news the place and date of the incident was written.
First Daily :
In 1702, “Daily Current” began the trend of dailies. It was consisted of one page only. It was published daily but due to the publication of national and international news, it became very popular in the short time period. By seeing its popularity amongst the people, many other daily newspapers Were being started. But government was afraid of the increasing number of dailies and weekly newspapers. Government put taxes in 1712, apparently to check the mud slinging.
WEEKLY REVIEW :
In 1704, a weekly “Review” was published by Daniel/Defoe. Daniel is known as the “Father of Journalism” in England, as he was the great writer and the professional journalist also. “Review” was started as a weekly newspaper but soon it was converted to a tri-weekly newspaper, published three times in a week.
The articles of “Review” were concerned with socio-political and commercial issues. “Review” was known in the society as the Reformer because it published articles that were focused on the social problems of people with their solutions.
Literary Essays :
“Review” also comprised literary essays, as Daniel was the great writer himself, so he promoted the modern literature in his newspaper by writing the light essays. In fact. the trend of light essay was started through the “Review”.
The Policy :
The policy of “Review” was very balanced, i.e., Neutral, Fair and Unbiased policy.
Language of “Review” was simple, beautiful and easy to understand. In fact, “Review” was the paper of people.
In 1709, after the five years of Review’s publication, another important newspaper was started named “Tattler”.
It was owned by Richard Steel, who was the great writer and wrote for the general people. “Tattler” was bi-weekly newspaper, published two times in a week. It was the combination of classical and modern literature. It was the one-page newspaper where all important articles were written in briefly. “Tattler” always promoted the social values and norms in the society and played the role of reformer.
In 1711, Joseph Edison and Richard Steel started the newspaper, named “Spectator” on the daily basis. Joseph and Richard were the famous writers of the time. So we find literary touch in “Spectator” which became the most popular newspaper and its circulation went to 3,000 which was the largest circulation of newspaper amongst the other contemporary newspapers.
1622 Weekly News (News Book)
(Seventeenth & Eighteenth Century)
1641 Diurnal Occurrences (Reporting of Parliament)
1643 London Intelligencer
1662 Printing Act formulated to control press
1665 Oxford Gazette (Changed as London Gazette in 1666.) World’s oldest surviving periodical.
1693 Ladies Mercury (The first women’s magazine).
1696 Lloyd’s News
1699 Edinburgh Gazette
1701 Norwich Post
1702 Daily Current (First daily paper)
1704 Weekly Review
1706 Evening Post (First evening newspaper)
1709 Copy Right Act
1709 Tattler by Steel
171 l Spectator by Steel
1713 Stanford Mercury. (Second oldest serving newspaper)
1719 Daily Post-Defoe (Contributor)
1727 London Evening Post
1730 Daily Advertiser
1731 Gentleman’s Magazine
1737 Belfast Newsletter (Oldest daily newspaper)
1754 Leeder Intelligencer
1770 Morning Chronicle
1779 Sunday Monitor (First London sunday newspaper)
1780 Morning Herald
1785 Daily Universal Register
1791 Observer (Oldest surviving sunday newspaper)
1796 Bell’s Weekly Messenger
Nineteenth Century1801 Weekly Dispatch
1804 Cambrian (Wales first newspaper)
1806 First illustrations were used by the Times (Nelson’s Funeral)
1814 Seren Gomer (Star of Gomer) (First Welsh language newspaper)
1822 Sporting Chronicle (First sports were included in magazine)
1832 Weekly Messenger (Cartoon was started)
1841 The Punch
1841 Jewish Chronicle
1842 Illustrated London News (First fully illustrated magazine)
1843 Economist (Started campaign for free trade)
1846 Mitchel’s newspapers press directory (later it became Burnis media directory)
1846 Daily News, editor Charles Dickens
1851 Reuters News Agency was established
1855 “Coloured Newspaper” First coloured newspaper
1857 Daily Telegraph (Invented boxes for classified advertisement)
1861 Cambrian Daily Leader (First daily newspaper published from Wales)
1868 Press Association formed
1869 Newspapers deposited directly with British Museum by publishers
1880 Pall Mall Gazette (Introduced new journalism, e. g.. interview gossip column)
1889 London News (Use of photographs)
1892 Morning Leader
1893 Financial Times (First use of pink paper)
Twentieth Century1900 Daily Express (First national daily to put news on the front page)
1903 Daily Mirror (exclusively photograph)
1907 National Union of Journalists founded
1911 Daily Herald (First newspaper having circulation of two million)
1915 Daily Mail (First British comic strip in Teddy Tail)
1926 Most newspapers suspended
1931 Audit Bureau of Circulation was found
1934 Daily Mail (First photograph to be transmitted by beam radio)
1953 General Council of the Press
1962 Sunday Times
1964 Observer (Colour supplement launched)
1976 Evening Post (First newspaper to introduce direct input by journalist)
1979 Financial Times (international edition in Frankfurt)
1981 Sunday Express Magazine
1987 First women editors of national newspapers
i. News of the World Wendy Itenry
ii. Sunday Mirror Eve Pollard
1992 Dundee Courier (First daily paper put news not advertisement on its front page)
1998 Sport First (British’s first national sunday newspaper dedicated to sports)
1999 Metro (Daily newspaper distributed free to travelers on the London underground)
2000 Business (Daily newspaper in Scotland for 100 years)