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Wednesday, 14 January 2015

Beginning of journalism in the United Kingdom (UK)


Beginning of Journalism in Great Britain 

Journalism is the systematic and reliable dissemination of 'public information which was started after the invention of printing in the world.
In Great Britain, printing was started in 1476 by William Kakston who printed Religious literature” first time from his printing press on 13th December, 1476. With the passage of time, “News Books” were started being publishing which were the translation of Holland and Germany’s news pamphlets and those were mainly based on political news along-with interesting news. And the first publication of latest news was “The
General”, then “Holland at Trydent Councell” and “News Books”.

News Books :
“News Books” consisted the current news of people’s surroundings and about other countries including the parliament proceedings of their own country but later on publishing of parliamentary proceeding was prohibited by the government due to the development of anti-government sentiments in the newspapers. But certain newspapers did not stop the publication of parliament proceeding. At last, Government had banned
the publication of “News Books” which was continued till 1641 when government announced the permission of newspapers publication again. In 1838, government had allowed the newspapers to publish foreign news. By this permission, newspapers of that time got freedom to publish news freely.

Weekly Newspapers :
Newspapers of England were started through their weekly editions as they were published in the form of weekly newspapers. In 1641, when newspapers got freedom, then a weekly magazine of national news “Diurnals” was being started and the first edition of “Diurnals” was published on November 1641 with this heading of front page "The head of several proceedings in the present parliament” which had gain great
popularity amongst the people. But it was the supporter of the government.

First Newspaper :
In May 1643, the first weekly magazine with pictures was published in the Great Britain, named “Mercurius Civicus”. Then another weekly magazine with pictures was started named “Mercurius Academicus”. Afterwards, the trend of magazines with pictures was started, many new weekly newspapers came on the scene one after the other.

Newspaper Similar to Modern :
In 1665, “Oxford Gazette” appeared as the first regular newspaper: Later, it was named “London Gazette”. Its publishing looked like modern-day newspapers. Each page consisted of two columns. Before each news the place and date of the incident was written.

First Daily :
In 1702, “Daily Current” began the trend of dailies. It was consisted of one page only. It was published daily but due to the publication of national and international news, it became very popular in the short time period. By seeing its popularity amongst the people, many other daily newspapers Were being started. But government was afraid of the increasing number of dailies and weekly newspapers. Government put taxes in 1712, apparently to check the mud slinging.

WEEKLY REVIEW :
In 1704, a weekly “Review” was published by Daniel/Defoe. Daniel is known as the “Father of Journalism” in England, as he was the great writer and the professional journalist also. “Review” was started as a weekly newspaper but soon it was converted to a tri-weekly newspaper, published three times in a week.

Articles :
The articles of “Review” were concerned with socio-political and commercial issues. “Review” was known in the society as the Reformer because it published articles that were focused on the social problems of people with their solutions.

Literary Essays :
“Review” also comprised literary essays, as Daniel was the great writer himself, so he promoted the modern literature in his newspaper by writing the light essays. In fact. the trend of light essay was started through the “Review”.

The Policy :
The policy of “Review” was very balanced, i.e., Neutral, Fair and Unbiased policy.

Language :
Language of “Review” was simple, beautiful and easy to understand. In fact, “Review” was the paper of people.

TATTLER :
In 1709, after the five years of Review’s publication, another important newspaper was started named “Tattler”.
It was owned by Richard Steel, who was the great writer and wrote for the general people. “Tattler” was bi-weekly newspaper, published two times in a week. It was the combination of classical and modern literature. It was the one-page newspaper where all important articles were written in briefly. “Tattler” always promoted the social values and norms in the society and played the role of reformer.

SPECTATOR :
In 1711, Joseph Edison and Richard Steel started the newspaper, named “Spectator” on the daily basis. Joseph and Richard were the famous writers of the time. So we find literary touch in “Spectator” which became the most popular newspaper and its circulation went to 3,000 which was the largest circulation of newspaper amongst the other contemporary newspapers.

BRITISH NEWSPAPERS
(Seventeenth & Eighteenth Century)

1622   Weekly News (News Book)
1641   Diurnal Occurrences (Reporting of Parliament)
1643   London Intelligencer
1662   Printing Act formulated to control press
1665   Oxford Gazette (Changed as London Gazette in 1666.) World’s oldest surviving periodical.
1693   Ladies Mercury (The first women’s magazine).
1696   Lloyd’s News
1699   Edinburgh Gazette
1701   Norwich Post
1702   Daily Current (First daily paper)
1704   Weekly Review
1706   Evening Post (First evening newspaper)
1709   Copy Right Act
1709   Tattler by Steel
1710   Examiner
171 l   Spectator by Steel
1713   Stanford Mercury. (Second oldest serving newspaper)
1719   Daily Post-Defoe (Contributor)
1727   London Evening Post
1730   Daily Advertiser
1731   Gentleman’s Magazine
1737   Belfast Newsletter (Oldest daily newspaper)
1754   Leeder Intelligencer
1770   Morning Chronicle
1779   Sunday Monitor (First London sunday newspaper)
1780   Morning Herald
1785   Daily Universal Register
1791   Observer (Oldest surviving sunday newspaper)
1796   Bell’s Weekly Messenger

Nineteenth Century

1801   Weekly Dispatch
1804   Cambrian (Wales first newspaper)
1806   First illustrations were used by the Times (Nelson’s Funeral)
1814   Seren Gomer (Star of Gomer) (First Welsh language newspaper)
1817   Scotsman
1822   Sporting Chronicle (First sports were included in magazine)
1832   Weekly Messenger (Cartoon was started)
1841   The Punch
1841   Jewish Chronicle
1842   Illustrated London News (First fully illustrated magazine)
1843   Economist (Started campaign for free trade)
1846   Mitchel’s newspapers press directory (later it became Burnis media directory)
1846   Daily News, editor Charles Dickens
1851   Reuters News Agency was established
1855   “Coloured Newspaper” First coloured newspaper
1857   Daily Telegraph (Invented boxes for classified advertisement)
1861   Cambrian Daily Leader (First daily newspaper published from Wales)
1868   Press Association formed
1869   Newspapers deposited directly with British Museum by publishers
1880   Pall Mall Gazette (Introduced new journalism, e. g.. interview gossip column)
1881   Tit-Bits
1889   London News (Use of photographs)
1892   Morning Leader
1893   Financial Times (First use of pink paper)

Twentieth Century

1900   Daily Express (First national daily to put news on the front page)
1903   Daily Mirror (exclusively photograph)
1907   National Union of Journalists founded
1911   Daily Herald (First newspaper having circulation of two million)
1915   Daily Mail (First British comic strip in Teddy Tail)
1926   Most newspapers suspended
1931   Audit Bureau of Circulation was found
1934   Daily Mail (First photograph to be transmitted by beam radio)
1953   General Council of the Press
1962   Sunday Times
1964   Observer (Colour supplement launched)
1976   Evening Post (First newspaper to introduce direct input by journalist)
1979   Financial Times (international edition in Frankfurt)
1981   Sunday Express Magazine
1987   First women editors of national newspapers
i. News of the World Wendy Itenry
ii. Sunday Mirror Eve Pollard
1992   Dundee Courier (First daily paper put news not advertisement on its front page)
1998   Sport First (British’s first national sunday newspaper dedicated to sports)
1999   Metro (Daily newspaper distributed free to travelers on the London underground)
2000   Business (Daily newspaper in Scotland for 100 years)


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