Education is a social and purposive act that is a combination of various elements. These integrated elements make the process of education a purposeful activity. These elements depend on each other. The expected aims of the process of education cannot be achieved without the mutual coordination of these elements.
Various units of a. factory work jointly in the process of production. Likewise, various elements of education proceed to the process of education .for the acquisition of educational objectives. The educationists have pointed out the following basic elements of education :-
Objectives of education :
Chirp-fives of education refer to the justifications of the formulation of a system of education. These justifications are based on the national ideology of life and social needs. To me, social needs, aspirations, and expectations are the real objectives of education. Education derives its objectives form life ideology and society. Life ideology and society direct education that what it has to do, which objectives it has to achieve and what changes it has to bring about in the children. First of all objectives of education are determined in the process of education. Education seeks guidance from life ideology and society for the determination of objectives of education. Life ideology and social values are mirrored in the objectives of education.
A question arises following the determination of the objectives of education that is how to achieve these objectives. A formal procedure is adopted for the acquisition of the objectives of education. This formal procedure is a combination of various planned activities. These planned activities are called ‘curriculum’ in the field of ‘education’. Curriculum is. a course that enables a system of education to achieve its objectives. Curriculum is a sum total of activities, experiences and skills by which objectives of education are achieved. It is directly concerned with the objectives of education. There is a harmony between curriculum and objectives of education. The curricular activities cannot be decided without the guidance of the objectives of education. For instance, ‘development of civic sense in the individual’ is an important objective of every system of education of the world. This objective can only be achieved when civic sense is developed in the individuals through the process of education, 'To develop civic sense in the individuals, we will have to include such activities in the curriculum that help in developing civic sense in the individuals. These activities maybe in terms of the subjects like political science, sociology, theology, ethics, and civics etc.
Teacher is an essential element of the process of education that transmits the curricular content to the students. He/she guides the students in the selection of the ways of life. He also supervises the co-curricular activities. No system of education of the world can get the objectives of education without the active participation of the teacher in the educative process. Teacher is the person who transmits the curricular content and thereby causes positive changes in the character of the students. The instructional process cannot be conducted without the presence of a teacher. Teacher, content, methodology and the student should rightly understand their responsibilities for the successful conduct of the instructional process. The instructional process begins with the teacher and he himself evaluates the instructional process. The experts agree that a. teacher makes the instructional process meaningful and purposeful. As there is a gardener for the garden, a soldier for watching the border, a teacher is necessary for supervising the educating and
training process of the children.
Instruction is a process by which the curricular content is transmitted to the students. Information and skills are transmitted from one place or mind to another place or mind. Broadly speaking, all efforts of the teacher for the purpose of getting the objectives of education are called instruction. Instruction is a significant
activity of the educative process which aims at bringing about positive changes in then character of the children. It is necessary fer a teacher to keep in mind the cognitive and psychological needs of the students. In this Way, the expected objectives of instruction may be achieved. A teacher should adopt various methods of teaching for the instruction of various subjects.
Learning refers to a change in behavior due to experience, and observation. Generally, this change is permanent and is a part of an individual’s behavior. The changes occurred due to learning enable a person to lead a better social life. Our attitudes and habits are the results of learning. The educative process is, in fact, a learning process which aims at producing changes in the behavior of the students. For instance, a teacher delivered a lecture on ‘objectives of education”. This is an instructional process by means of which you came to know the ‘objectives of education’. You did not know the ‘objectives of education‘ before the delivery of the lecture. Now, there is a change in your behavior in terms of the acquaintance with the ‘objectives of education’. This clear understanding regarding the objectives of education is learning. This learning is almost durable and permanent.
Student is the most significant element of the process of education. A student is a person who has the desire to bring about changes in his behavior, attitudes, and skills. This is the person for whom the learning process is conducted. The instructional process cannot be held without the student; To me, he is the pivot and central focus of the educative process. The objective of all the educational activities is to produce changes in the behavior of the student. In the past, the student was regarded as the person'sitting in the classroom and listening to his teacher. Now, in the modem world, the concept of a student is absolutely changed. Now, a student is a person who learns through formal, non-formal, and informal methods of education. There are a lot of possibilities of learning before us. We learn from nature, mistakes, and experiences and also from teachers. Now, the responsibilities of the students have been increased. In spite of all these, formal education cannot survive without the presence of students.
Evaluation : Lexically speaking, evaluation means to assess a thing or idea. But in the field of education, evaluation refers to assess the educational performance of the Students within the specific academic period. The purpose of evaluation is to know the quality and quantity of the behavioral changes occurred due to, the instructions provided to the students. The concept of evaluation is found in all the education systems of the world. Examinations are the practical form of the concept of evaluation. The results of examination speak of the educational performance of the students. They indicate the effects of curricular and co-curricular activities on the behavior of the students. The process of evaluation is necessary if we wish to know to what extent the objectives of education have been achieved.
Every individual is born in a society. in this way, he is a part of a society. The educative process can only be conducted in a society. Education cannot be separated from society. Education cannot be carried out and organized in space. It requires a society to take birth. Society affects the individuals. Likewise, the role of
an- individual also affects the society. Social stability can only be ensured and maintained if there is a harmony between individual and society. If we wish to develop the abilities of the individuals, we will have to produce an appropriate social environment. This environment can only be produced through the establishment of the educative process. Education can never ignore the needs of the society. Society can never survive without the existence of education. If there is no society, there is no education. The existence of education and society is interlinked and inter-dependent.