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Thursday, 19 March 2015

Define professional education and give an account of its types



Professional education involves the training programs by which individuals are equipped with various skills so as to adopt various professions. Professional education refers to those formal programs Which enables the individuals to participate in the lawful and productive economic activities. Professional education is a sum total of those activities which develop the psychomotor abilities of the individuals. In the present days, following are the significant types of professional education :-

Medicine education : 

Medicine education is concerned with keeping the people healthy and treating the diseases. This education is necessary for maintaining healthy and hygienic environment and society. The significance of medicine education is explained in the following lines:-
  • This education takes steps to keep the individuals of the society healthy.
  • This education prepares the individuals who play their role in maintaining hygienic environment.
  • Medicine education takes practical measures to prevent the members of society from diseases. 

Business education : 

Business education is concerned with the acquaintance of business techniques, administrative strategies and business promotion. There is a  significant role of business education in the economic development. The advantages of business education are listed below :-
  • Business education produces such individuals who bring about commercial activities.
  • Business education helps in controlling unemployment in the country.

Engineering education : 

Engineering education is concerned with equipping the individuals with those practical skills which enable to conform to the demands of life. According to some other experts, industrial development oriented education is engineering education such as electrical engineering education, civil engineering education and mechanical engineering education. Engineering education is significant due to the following resources :-
  • Engineering education plays an important role in economic and industrial development. 
  • Engineering education produces competent and skilled individuals.
  • This education can shape an individual according to the fashion and needs of the environment.

Agriculture education : 

Agriculture education is concerned with agricultural development and production of agriculture experts. This education is, especially, significant for those countries whose economy is agri-based. Agriculture education is
ranged in agriculture colleges and agriculture universities. This education is important due to the following reasons :-
  • It increases the agricultural development of the country.
  • It increases the agriculture production. 
  • It provides agri awareness in the farmers. 
  • It minimizes the agricultural losses due to research in the agriculture field.

Law education : 

Law education is concerned with the knowledge of those laws which are devised for social peace and state administration. The terms like advocate, law expert and solicitor are used for the law graduate individuals. The significance of the education can be described in the following points :-
  • This education makes the individual aware of state and civil laws.
  • It promote the sense of civil rights and duties.
  • It enables an individual to speak for the rights of others.

Home economics education : 

Home economics education refers to produce such skills in women which enable them performing the affairs of household, children upbringing, interior decoration and home budget. This education is significant due to the following reason :-
  • It develops the social and economic vision of the women.
  • It enables the women to play their social role.
  • It enables the women to bring up the new generation in a better way.

Teacher education : 

Teacher education is concerned with the training of teachers so that they may learn the requirements and various foundations of the learning and instructional process. It is necessary that the teacher must be professionally trained and this training should be conducted in the formally established institutions. Teacher
education is significant due to the following reasons :-
  • It enables the teachers to know the fundamentals of the educative process.
  • It makes the teachers professionally trained. 
  • A teacher can demonstrate all of his abilities only if he/she is acquainted with the components of teacher education. 

Information education : 

Information education ranges from organization of data to the provision of information. Computer is the most significance source of information education. Computer is playing an important role in the communication of information, composing, designing and diagnose of diseases. The internet has turned the world into a global village. The role of information education can be explained in the following headings :-
  • It is a great access to the information.
  • It has minimized the distances among the countries and the individuals as well.
  • It has given new visions to the fields of composing, designing and graphics.
  • It has reduced the burden of the accountants and maintained accounts in a scientific manner.

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Wednesday, 18 March 2015

What are the levels (stages) of general education


General education is administered by a formal system. This education aims at developing the abilities of the individual and enable them participate in the development of the country in a prestigious manner. For the convenience of administration and consideration of psychological principles, general education is
categorized into the following three levels :-

Elementary level : 

Elementary level is the first phase of general education. This is the start of formal education. This level, usually, consists of eight year of education. This level can be further divided into primary level and post-primary level. Elementary education enables a child to learn basic skill, fundamental knowledge of
language and the basic social values.

Secondary level : 

Secondary education is the second phase of general education. This level of education decides a clear direction for an individual. It also decides the profession for the individuals according to their natural tendencies. This level is further divided into post-secondary level and higher secondary level. According to
the educationists, this level of education provides necessary grounds for entering higher education.

Higher level : 

Higher education is the final phase of general education. It provides experts, intelligentsia, intellectuals, leaders and authorities in various fields of life. This phase is further divided into four categories of graduation level, post-graduation level, doctoral level and post-doctoral level. This level of education is conducted in colleges and universities.

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Define general education and write down its general functions


General education refers to the organized educational programs which aim promotion, preservation and transmission of national values, ideologies and culture.

General education is a combination of those formal opportunities which bring about behavioral changes in the individual. Here is a comprehensive account of the general functions of general education :-


  • It preserved the culture and civilization of a Society.


  • It promotes literacy in the society. 


  • It enables the individual to conform to the social demands. 


  • It transmits the cultural heritage and academic: excellence's to the next generations. 


  • It makes the life ideology and social values as the part of individual’s behavior.

  • It develops all aspects of national life.
  • It serves as a source of fulfilling the individual and collective objectives.
  • It enables the individuals to participate in the national development.
  • It expands the information of the individuals and thereby raises the academic standards.
  • It produces social stability following the harmony between individual and a society.
  • It paves the way to social peace and integrity by developing the insight of the individuals.

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Tuesday, 17 March 2015

What are the cultural aims of education


Cultural aims of education are concerned with the individuals beliefs, social values, skills, traditions and behavioral patterns. These aims have Close concern with the culture of a society. To me, following are the cultural aims of education :-

Preservation of culture : 

Education takes the responsibility of preservation of culture. Education is the only source of the preservation of national values, ideals, experiments and observations. Education; in the form of curriculum, protects the
cultural heritage of a nation. If education does not exist, there would be no concept of  preservation of culture.

Promotion. of cultural heritage : 

Every nation longs for the promotion of its civilizational and cultural values. A national system of education is developed for the fulfillment of these national desires. Education plays a significant role in the promotion of civilizational heritage. Social values cannot be promoted without a systematic process of education in this regard, promotion of social values is the primary cultural aim of education.

Cultural change : 

Human lifestyle, ways of thinking, modes of approaching and goals of life change with the change in culture. As culture is a dynamic enterprise, education should prepare itself to meet the changing demands of the society and the individuals as well. Education points out the righteous elements of culture and then includes them in the body of where. It discusses with those influential factors which cause social change. If culture is not harmonized with the new demands there would be cultural passivism and inactivity. In this respect, cultural evolution is an important aim of education which cannot be denied at any level. Education cannot fulfill its responsibilities without ensuring the cultural mobility.

Transmission of culture : 

Transmission of culture refers to. the shift of cultural  values from one generation to the next one. This is a fundamental cultural aim of  education to transmit the cultural values to the coming generation. The cultural
heritage can only be preserved if it is transmitted to the next generation. Education is held responsible for the transmission of cultural heritage.

Revival of cultural heritage : 

Revival of cultural heritage is another cultural aim of education. We already know that education maintains preservation, transmission and promotion of cultural values. But it is notable to know that education is also
responsible for the revival and growth of cultural heritage. Education enlightens the minds of the individual with the rays of culture. It tells the students that cultural heritage is a sign of prestige of a nation. A nation loses its identity in the absence of as cultural heritage. Keeping in view the significance of the cultural heritage,
education should take necessary steps which can pave the way to the revival of cultural heritage. In this way, the new generation will be proud of their cultural heritage.

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Monday, 16 March 2015

What are the social aims of education


Social aims of education are concerned with the social stability, reconstruction, development and social agreeableness. The goal of social welfare is directly associated with the fulfillment of social aims of education. According to the educational sociologists, following are the social aims of education :-

Social, agreeableness : 

This is the responsibility'of education to take measure for social agreeableness and adjustment of the individual. Education should enable the individuals to live according to the social values and traditions. No society can attain the goal of social stability without the social adjustment of the individual. Social adjustment is necessary for the self-actualization of the individual. This is the responsibility of education to help the individuals in making adjustment with the society.

Civic training : 

Education gives an individual a clear understanding of social rights and duties. If a person is socially trained, he will prove himself a balanced and useful citizen. Education is the only source by. which an individual is given civic training. Education is the key to producing the sentiments of obedience and respect for social values and state laws. This respect and obedience observed'by an individual help in maintaining social stability in the society.

Promotion of social values : 

Education is the most effective source of promotion of social values and traditions. Preservation, promotion and transmission of social values cannot be ensured without the educative process. According to the experts,
promotion of social values brings about social stability and consequently this very social stability makes a society invincible.

Reconstruction of society : 

Social reconstruction and reorganization is the basic function cf society. This is the responsibility of education to make the righteous thoughts and ideals as the part of Culture. It should‘take necessary practical steps for
social development and reconstruction. Social positive evolution is not possible if education does not perform the function of social reconstruction.

Social awakening : 

Education develops the approved social behavior in the individuals. It also enables an individual to make a useful citizen of the society. The social attitudes and behaviors like collaboration, cooperation, sacrifice, benevolence and respecter humanity are the products of education. If there is no education, there will be no concept of social awareness and consequently no social integration in the society.

Popularization of the concept of unity of human race : 

Unity of human race is a feeling under which an individual considers the human race as one family. According to this feeling, all the human-beings of the world are the members of the same family. This feeling paves the way to global. human society which is free from all biases. The concept of unity of human race can be promoted through education. Due to the effects of education, an individual considers the whole humanity as the members of one family. This particular thinking and feeling of an individual can establish a global human society.

Development of political insight : 

Education generates political insight. In this regard, development of political insight and understanding is the primary social aim of education. Due to this particular understanding, an individual becomes able to solve the national problems and social complications. If an individual is equipped with necessary political insight, he will be in a position to select suitable representative for running the business of the state. In this way, the society will get the goal of political stability. This political stability will lead to social integrity afterward.

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Sunday, 15 March 2015

What are the professional aims of education


The professional aims of education are. concerned with the professional training of the individuals. Under these aims, individuals of the society are acquainted with the skills necessary for the concerned professions. These aims are also linked with the preparation of skilled work, force for the. society. With the acquisition of professional aims of education, skilled professionals are provided to the country. These professionals play their productive role in the national development. To me, following are the significant professional aims of today’s education :-

Preparation for professions : 

This is not the only aim of education to literate men. It also enables them to adopt a profession according to the abilities of the individuals. Preparation for professions is one of the important professional aims of education. Only the professionally trained individuals can play their effective and productive role in the economic activities of the society. Education is the only means of developing the professional skills in the individuals so that they may enter specific professions successfully.

Social welfare : 

Social welfare. of the people largely depends on various professions. If the people are skilled, professionally trained and competent, they may earn their lawful livelihood by adopting a profession. A professionally trained individual is, generally, well-aware and socially-adjusted. His social role brings about social peace and integrity. On contrary, an unskilled and illiterate individual may have the tendency to indulge in the anti-social activities. His anti-social behavior Can cause social unrest and dysfunction.

Acquaintance with today’s technology : 

Today’s age is the age of technology. Even this technology is replaced with another one in quick succession. The quick change in technology, new ideas and new discoveries has entirely changed the demands of life. In the circumstance, it seems necessary to equip the professionals of the country with the modern technology so that they may develop their professional abilities and harmonize themselves with new demands of technology. If the professionals are not equipped with new technological visions, they will be able to cope with the modern needs of the professions.

All-round national development : 

All-round development of a country largely depends on the professions. The professions like medicine, engineering, teaching, farming, publishing, advertising, calligraphy and book writing etc pave the way to the
all-round comprehensive development of the country. If the professionals belonging to different professions do not play their role, the process ’of development may discontinue. If there is a lack of skilled professional, there is no visible development in the country.

Participation of private sector in economic activities : 

When highly skilled individual are produced by means of education, they set up their own production units instead of looking for jobs in the government‘sector. In this way, burden on the public sector lessens. This tendency adopted by the professionals becomes visible in terms of new units of production. The experts maintain that the number of production units affects the degree of economic stability of the country. With the participation of the private sector in the field of production, the ratio of unemployment reduces and the people begin to become prosperous. it also increases the pace of industrial development of the country. Besides this, the people find new ways of developing their abilities to meet the challenging demands of the day.

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Monday, 9 March 2015

What are the economic aims of education


The economic aims of education are concerned with the individual and collective economic development. These aims are closely related with the social stability. The individual and collective development is connected with the acquisition of these aims. The experts hold the following economic aims of education :-

Provision of skillful manpower : 

Provision of skillful manpower to the society is a significant economic aim of education. Acquisition of this aim can cause economic development and individual well-being. The skilled work force of a country plays a
productive role in the economic development. Provision of competent and skilled men to the society is the primary responsibility of education. An education system trains the individuals in conformity with the needs of the country. These skilled, competent, and trained men do their best for the overall development of the country and thereby make it a stronger, flourishing and prosperous one.

Economic development : 

Education is directly linked with the individual and collective economic development and stability. Education enables an individual to participate in the productive economic activities and thereby promote his standard of
living. When an individual’s standard of living is raised, he starts moving towards the individual economic growth and consequently collective economic development is ensured. Keeping in view the concern of economic development with education, this is the duty of the state to take necessary practical steps to educate and train the men of society so that economic backwardness may be eradicated.

Utilization of natural resources : 

The educationists hold that utilization of natural resources is one of the significant economic aims of education. This is the responsibility of education to enable the individuals to fully utilize the national natural resources. In this way, the Grand National Products will increase. No nation can utilize their natural resources without an organized system of education established for the individuals. Education produces such skilled and professionally trained individuals who are capable of utilizing the natural resources for national welfare and promotion.

Promotion of economic opportunities : 

Promotion of economic opportunities is also a significant. economic aim of education. The abundance in economic opportunities is closely linked with the abundance in employment opportunities. If there is no economic activity. there is. no possibility of employment. Education opens new ways of development and economic stability. The individuals get benefit of new economic opportunities and thereby strengthen their economic conditions by means of the process of education.

Increase in individual and national income : 

Every system of education intends to increase in individual and national income. A developed system of education opens new ways of economic development. Education enables an individual to cam his livelihood in accordance with his potentials and professional skills. In this way, his individual income increases. This very individual income causes an increase in the national income. The experts maintain that individual income is, in fact, a national income and economic stability of an individual is the economic stability of the society in reality. When an individual is economically stable, this is the economic stability of the society in general.

Rise in standard of living : 

Betterment in the standard of living is another economic aim of education of today. Education increases and develops those abilities of the individual with which he becomes able to participate in the productive economic activities. In this way, the individual income and the purchase power increase. Increase in purchase power brings about rise in the standard of living which enables the individuals lead a prosperous life.

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Saturday, 7 March 2015

What are the academic aims of education


Academic aims of education are concerned with those information and discoveries which change human understanding about society and universe. For instance, this is an academic aim of education to produce scientific approach in an individual. For the acquisition of this academic aim of education, it is necessary to make an individual acquainted with the scientific discoveries and principles discovered. To me, following are the significant academic aims of education :-

Expansion in academic excellencies : 

Education gives rise to sciences, skills and discoveries. The subject-matter of natural and social sciences has much increased because of education. The content and subject-matter of various sciences are, in fact, academic excellencies which are being increased with the passage of time. If the educative process suspends, the evolution and development of various sciences would come to an end and the world would go back to the Stone Age again.

Preservation of knowledge : 

The facts, truths and findings collected from various fields cannot be preserved and safeguarded without the process of education. Education is the only key to preservation of knowledge acquired through different
means. If education did not exist, there would be no academic capital in the hands of mankind. Discovered truths and other academic excellencies are preserved in terms of curriculum. Then this curriculum is transmitted to the next generations through the instructional process.

Research tendency : 

Development of research tendency is another academic aim of education. Research in various fields of knowledge has significantly increased the academic capital. The subject specialists and experts are contributing to natural and social sciences, in the research centers. Research is an integral part of the educative process. Findings of the research activities are included in the process of education in terms of curriculum. This curriculum, afterwards, brings about individual and  collective development and productive evolution. If the research activities are not carried out, the development in various fields of knowledge would discontinue.

Reconstruction of knowledge : 

Reconstruction of knowledge refers to the modification and re-organization in the existing body of knowledge. This medication is carried out on the basis of research. Old theories are replaced by the newer ones due to the educative process. New content is added in the subject-matter of various subjects due to the new discoveries and principles. All this is termed as reconstruction of knowledge and this paves the way to the development of mankind.

Preparation for global leadership : 

Education prepares the individuals of the society for global leadership. The experts hold that 'preparation for global leadership is an important academic aim of education. A nation gets the destination of scientific and technological progress due to education. Education enables an individual to play his role in the global community. History knows that the nations, who are the leaders in the fields of science and technology, lead the rest of the nations.

Acquaintance with earthly responsibilities : 

Education enables the individuals to know their earthly responsibilities. Education also tells the individual the purpose of life and human existence. Man has been sent down on earth for the fulfillment of particular functions. For these functions, man has been declared ‘the supreme being’. When an individual is aware of his responsibilities, it brings about behavioral changes in the individual. When behavioral changes occur in the individual, it pave, the way to individual and collective development and betterment.

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Friday, 6 March 2015

What are the moral aims of education


Moral aims of education refers to the character development of the individuals. promotion of values and development of productive human traditions. Education is the sole source of developing the moral character of the individuals in the light of life ideology. The aims of education concerned with the character
development of the individual cannot be fulfilled without a system of education. To me, following are the significant moral aims of education :-

Purification of soul : 

Purification of soul is the fundamental moral aim of education. Purification of soul refers to harmonize the self character and potentials of the individual with the Divine will. Education is, in fact, a process of. soul purification which leads to the spiritual destination proposed by God.

Propagation of moral values : 

Propagation of moral values is one of the most significant moral aims of education. Every society has its own set of system of values according to which the members of society lead their lives. A society discriminates
itself from the other societies on the basis of values and traditions. The moral values Such as truthfulness, justice, brotherhood, piety, devoutness, honesty, promise fulfillment, benevolence and generosity are propagated and transmitted to the present and future generations by means of the educative process. The society run by these values paints a picture of heaven. These very values pave the way to social stability and economic rise.

Character building :

Character building is an important responsibility of education. Every system of education has the aim of character building of the individuals to achieve through the formal educational settings. Better and stable social life largely depends on the moral training of the individuals. The education which cannot provide moral training to the individuals is useless and unproductive. For the character building of the individuals, the students should be taught moral subjects in the schools.

Moral training : 

For the accomplishment of the national aims, moral training of the individuals in the light of social values is necessary. This is the responsibility of education to develop the character of the individuals in the light of national ideology. Moral training of the individuals serves valuable purposes for the society. This is an effective source of individual and collective development.

Healthy moral environment : 

Provision of healthy moral environment to the individuals of the society is an important aim of education. A healthy moral environment allows an individual to practice moral values with his free will. Such environment is helpful in the promotion and development of established moral values and traditions. Education should take steps to maintain a healthy moral environment in the school.

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Thursday, 5 March 2015

What are the cognitive aims of education


The cognitive aims of education refer to those aims which are concerned with cognitive changes in the individuals. deepness of thoughts and non-material acquaintance. These aims of education place an individual for an animal level onto the human level. Following are the significant cognitive aims of education near me :-

Self-cognizance : 

Self-cognizance refers to the individual is acquaintance with his own potentials and abilities. This very acquaintance passing through different stages of development helps the, individuals in achieving high position in life. Self-cognizance is, in fact, the ability of . self-knowing and self-recognition. If an individual knows himself, he knows what he can do in life. To me, this is an ability which leads to the total development of an individual’s personality.

Understanding of universe : 

Understanding of universe refers to the understanding of the laws of universe and thereby uses them in the welfare of humanity. Science education is necessary for the acquaintance with these laws of the universe. This acquaintance broadens and deepens the approach of an individual.

Accessibility toward the absolute reality : 

The absolute reality means a reality which is self-existent and which is dependent on other being for its existence. This is the responsibility of education to enable an individual in accessing and discovering the absolute reality. This absolute reality is the foundation of individual and collective life. This reality is mirrored in the actions and approaches of the individuals and society.

Awareness of abilities : 

This is an important responsibility of education to make the individuals known of their abilities and potentials. Education enables the individuals to know their capabilities and how to utilize them. If an individual is acquainted with his abilities, he will be in a position to make use of them. Acquaintance with the abilities is a significant cognitive aim of all the education system of the globe.

Understanding of laws of universe : 

When an individual discovers the ruling principles of universe, his understanding towards universe increases and broadens. This understanding brings about positive changes in the mind of an individual. An individual’s concept of GOD, Man and Universe becomes clear due to these changes. To me, understanding of the laws of universe has facilitated the life of an individual. Purposefulness in life and society: Life and society are interlinked and they cannot be understood if they are parted from each other. Life and society find its purpose and justification in education. Education tells the individuals; what is life and what is its relation with the society? Education makes an individual understand the purposefulness of life and society and thereby enables the individual to lead a balanced social life. Life and society cannot maintain their flow, strength and
survival without the effective educative process.

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What are the spiritual aims of education


Spiritual aims of education refer to those aims through which national ideology and values are injected in the character of the present and future generation. These aims are given priority in a system of education. These aims serve as a foundation of a system of education. They are directly concerned with the life ideology of a nation. The intellectuals have pointed out the following spiritual aims of a system of education :-

Divine cognizance : 

Divine cognizance refers to get introduced and acquainted with the supreme Lord and Creator of man and the universe. The intellectuals hold that Divine cognizance is the base of Divine willingness. Divine cognizance is an important spiritual aim of education. For the acquisition of this particular aim, efforts are made to enable the students to recognize their Creator and know the mysteries of the universe.

Sense of accountability : 

An important aim of the education system is to produce a sense of accountability in the holy court of GOD after death. Man is held responsible, for all his actions and deeds before GOD. Education makes an individual realize the aims of life. Life has a definite purpose set by GOD. A man should do the acts and deeds approved by GOD.

Surrender to Divine : 

Surrender to Divine refers to submission personal desires to will of GOD. When a man hows himself before the Divine commandments, he earns the Divine willingness. Surrender to Divine is an important spiritual aim of education. This aim enables the individual to lead their lives according to the religious way of life. In this way, not only Divine willingness will be secured but also a pure society will be established.

Hereafter thoughtfulness :

Hereafter thoughtfulness refers to generation of a sense of responsibility in an individual that he will be accountable for all his deeds, blessings granted by GOD and overall life pattern after death. This of education
enables the individuals to lead their lives according to their religion teachings and consequently secure success in the life of hereafter.

Religious insight : 

Production of religious insight in the individuals is another aim of education. Religious insight helps in understanding the philosophy and justification of religious commands and prohibitions. In this way, education will turn an individual into a true man. Education enables the individual to get acquainted with the facts presented by religion. This knowledge of the material and non-material facts enable an individual to lead a balanced social fife. An individual with religious Insight can better harmonize with according their religious teachings which lead to Divine cognizance and Divine willingness.

Preparation for vicegeraney of land : 

Preparation of an individual for vicegerancy of land is another significant spiritual aim of education. Education is responsible for enabling the individual to fulfill the duties of vicegerancy. Man is vicegerent to GOD on earth. He has been sent on earth with many authorities and choices. He is accountable to GOD in connection with his deeds and actions. This is the function of education to make the individual acquainted with the responsibilities of viccgerancy. Education is the only source which enables the individual to perform the duties of vicegcrancy. Being the vicegerent to GOD on earth, an individual should not disobey the commands of GOD.

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Define objectives of education and what are the significant foundations (factors) kept in mind while determining the objectives of education in a system of education


Objectives of education refer to the national desires and individual need which give birth to any education system of a nation. So to say, objectives of education are the causes which bring about the emergence of a system of education.
  • Objectives of education refer to the driving forces which attract a nation to develop a system of education.
Following are the significant foundations which are kept in mind while determining the objectives of education for a system of education :-

Ideological foundation : 

Every nation of the world has its own life ideology. This life ideology is’the foundation of. individual and collective life. For instance, Islam is the life ideology of the Muslims whereas Christianity is the life ideology of the Christians. The Islamic ideology of life is the central concern of the education system of the Muslims. The life ideology of nations is given fundamental significance While determining the objectives of education.

Social foundation : 

Every nation has its own system of values and traditions. This is the social responsibility of education to equip the present and future generations with the social traditions. Social foundation of determining objectives of education refers to absorb the social needs into the objectives of education. An individual cannot get the status of social adjustment without the absorption of social needs in the objectives of education. Social stability can only be ensured if the objectives of education are determined in the light of social needs of a society

Economic foundation : 

Economic training of is necessary for the balanced personality development of an individual along with his ideological and social training in the modem age, it becomes essential that education should enable an individual to participate in the productive economic activities. Economic training of an individual is as necessary as the ideological training. This is one of the primary functions of education to enable an individual to adopt a profession according to his potentials. Economic training is one of the foundations of determining the objectives of education which cannot be ignored at any level.

Psychological foundation : 

Psychological foundation of determining objectives of education refers to the consideration of psychological needs of children at various periods of chronological and mental age. The educative process can produce positive educational results when it is in harmony with the psychological needs and natural inclination of the children. A child is the focus of the educative process and personality development of a child is the primary aim of educational activities. In this respect, it seems necessary that objectives of education should be in accordance with the psychological needs of the students.

Cultural foundation : 

Culture refers to the customs, beliefs, objects and life style of a nation. This culture is transmitted to the present and future generations by means of the educative process. Accepting the significance of culture in determining the objectives of education, cultural foundation is the key factor in the transmission of cultural heritage to the next generations A system of education cannot safeguard the cultural heritage if it ignores the cultural foundation of determining the objectives of education.

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Wednesday, 4 March 2015

Explain the role and significance of determining objectives of education in the system of education


The significance and role of objectives of education is recognized by the educationists and educators. It is said that education without clear cut objectives is a like a rudderless ship. We know that eves“; pilot has route-chart and set timing of handing at predetermined destination. There is a constitution or traditions through
which a country is governed. Similarly, there should be properly defined and declared principles, aims and objectives of education so that a clear destination of a system of education may be defined. The significance and role of determining objectives of education in a system of education may be explained in the following
points:-

  • Objectives of education provide the guiding principles with which a clear course of action is decided for a system of education. So to say that those objectives of education decide the destination of education.
  • Objectives of education provide the necessary motivation which is necessary to keep the process of education moving and producing the required individuals. These objectives serve as a vital force for the teachers, students, educational administration in getting the academic excellencies associated with the educative process. 
  • Objectives of education aid in evaluating the process of education. Every activity has a specific aim to achieve in the process of education. in the educational setting, it is generally believed that every activity should be evaluated so that one can know to what extent the objectives of an activity have been achieved. This is called the process of evaluation in the terminology of education. The process of evaluation is meaningless if the objectives of education are not predetermined.
  • Every activity requires specific sources to carry out. Specific activities are carried out for the acquisition of the objectives of education. In the same fashion, specific sources are needed for the execution of specific activities. The significance of the determination of the objectives of education cannot be ignored. If the objectives of education are predetermined, the selection of sources required for the acquisition of the objectives of education becomes easy.
  • The educational objectives decide the destination of education. In this way, determination of the objectives of education enables a teacher to select the alternative courses to reach the destination of education. Objectives of education are the destination of the educative process. If destination is predefined, there are many ways opened before the teacher to reach the destination.
  • A strategy for the acquisition of educational objectives is designed following the determination of the objectives of education This planned strategy is called curriculum. The process of curriculum development cannot take place without the predetermined objectives of education. The objectives of education, rightly, decide what a society wishes to be its children; what type of individuals are required by the society; which activities suit to the children of specific age-group; and which skills are necessary for the children belonging to the specific age-group. All these educational affairs can only be decided when the objectives of education are predefined.
  • The preparation of textbooks is not possible without the pre-determined objectives of education. The objectives guide the authors in selecting the appropriate content of the textbooks. If the author is not aware of the objectives of education, he/she will be not in a position to decide the relevant content of the textbook. To me, a good textbook always follows the guiding principles of the objectives of education. 
  • Determination of educational objectives enables a teacher to select appropriate teaching methods for the acquisition of objectives of education. Without the clear determination objectives of education, appropriate methods of teaching cannot be selected for the transmission of the  instructional content. Selection of teaching methods for the acquisition of objectives of education is a Concrete reality of the educative process.
  • It is necessary for a teacher to have a clear knowledge of functions of education. Otherwise,. all the academic activities will become meaningless. When a teacher keeps in mind the objectives of education during instruction, he sees his destination very clearly. A clear knowledge of the objectives of education guides the teacher in reaching the academic destination.
  • Objectives of education mirror the aspirations of a nation. Education prepares an individual for future life. Social values, traditions, skills and other excellencies are transmitted to the next generations through the educative process. Education is responsible for our social survival, bright national future and all-round personality development as well. In this respect, education is a sensitive activity and it cannot be left unnoticed. It seems essential that objectives of education should be determined so that strategy for successful educative process may be planned.

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Tuesday, 3 March 2015

Define a system of education, what its salient elements are and which is the most significant element


A system of education refers to the educational strategy organized for the fulfillment of individual and collective requirements and aspirations. o A system of’ education refers to such a body of interlinked and organized elements which aims at getting the objectives of education. a A system of education is such a meaningful and organized body of elements that makes efforts to get the objectives of education.
Following are the salient components (elements) of a system of education:-

  • Objectives of education
  • Curriculum 
  • Learning
  • Student 
  • Teacher 
  • Teacher’s training
  • Teaching strategy 
  • Administration of education
  • Educational planning 
  • Examination system

According to the educationists, ‘objectives of education’ are the most significant element of a system of education. They give birth to a System of education for a nation. They provide the justification for the existence of a system of education.

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Objectives of Education


I occasionally wish to understand why i was sent to the school in my childhood. This practice continued and the very ‘question of why ‘brought me to the learned scholars of my time. Perhaps, the fulfillment of some conscious or unconscious desires is the foundation of my academic endeavor. The society helps me in fulfilling my desires by establishing formal educational institutions. I am not separated with society. I am a unit of society and it consists of individuals like I am. The society keeps watch my aspirations and makes necessary arrangements for the fulfillment of these aspirations The aspirations of  the society and mine are, in fact, the objectives of education for which a formal and organized system of education is developed.
                                                                                                                An extract from Maiki’s diary

Prologue 

Human survival and strength lie in the existence of society. That is why; mankind united itself in terms of a society. Then another question arises how to maintain the survival of society and human conscious. The individual of the society carry out the process of education in response to that question. This process of education turned into an organized system of education with the passage of time. A system of education transmits the societal excellence to the forthcoming generations and thereby ensures the continuity of the society. The existence of a society largely depends on education. The objectives of education are, in fact, the steps taken for maintaining the existence of a society. If there is no society, there would be no concept of the educative process. Education is a source of preparation of the individuals required by the society. The educative process is responsible for the fulfillment of the pro-determined objectives. These objectives motivate the process of education..A system of education cannot survive with the pre-determined objectives of education. A system of education comes into being for the fulfillment of the individual and collective aspirations. This system of education is the chief source of the fulfillment of the objectives of education.

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