Development refers to those changes which occur in the behavior and functions of an individual. It this change is concerned with cognition, it would be termed as ‘cognitive development’. It these changes are Concerned with human body, emotion or society, they would be termed as ‘physical development’, ‘emotional development’, and social development’ respectively. The developmental psychologists have stated the following four types (aspects) of development :
Physical development :Physical development refers to all those internal and external changes, that take place in different body organs. As a result of these changes, the body organs achieve their natural form and thus starts doing their
instinctive functions e.g. increase in height and Weight.
Physical development means the progressive development of the various parts of the body and their capacity to function in a natural way. An individual is first and foremost a physical being. From conception until death, he/she is constantly changing. He/she is never static. Throughout the childhood and adolescent years, he/she develops into an adult. Even at the stage of adulthood, changes do not cease. Instead they continue at a
slower rate. To me, development is a continuous process which ranges from birth to death. In the early years of life, the physical changes are rapid in rate. Each physical change is dependent upon what preceded it and, in turn, affects which will come afterward. The experts hold that physical development influences behavior and behavior, in turn, influences physical development.
Cognitive development :
Cognitive development refers to a gradual increase in memory, thinking ability, imagination and other cognitive abilities. These abilities help the individual to get adjusted with the environment, e. g. development of memory.
Cognitive development refers to the increase and expansion in mental abilities like memory, imagination, creativity and thoughtfulness. These abilities enable the individuals to acquire better adjustment. For instance improvement in memory and discrimination abilities is directly concerned with the adjustment of the individuals. The cognitive abilities develop as the time passes and ultimately an individual, secures the destination of mental maturation. The individual can solve his/her problems by him/herself at the life period of mental maturation. In this way, he/she organizes his/her daily life affairs.
Social development :Social development refers to all those changes that occur due to the different accepted social activities. These activities are in harmony with the cultural heritage and social values, e. g. respecting the elders. Social development means the exhibition of the abilities which enable the individuals to cope with the social needs and values and thereby make them adjusted individuals of the Society. Social development is a combination of organized activities carried out for awakening the social understanding in the individuals. Social development ranges from heme to the remote areas of the society. a child begins his/her social life from home. At this stage, home is a society for him/her. Afterwards, as the time passes, a child comes across his/her neighboring street and school. A socially developed person leads a balanced and successful life in the society. This is the responsibility of the school to develop social abilities of the individuals as Man is s social-being in nature.
Emotional development :Emotional development refers to all those healthy and balanced changes in the emotions and feelings of the individuals that are concerned with emotional response, e.g., tolerance, patience, fellows feeling etc. the word ‘emotion’ is used in psychology to describe a state of excitement in an organism. The emotion represents effective feeling tone. It is characterized by inner adjustment, conditioned by functioning of the automatic nervous system and aroused by the interaction between an external stimulus and the inner mental status. The complex study of emotions provides us a view of the vital subjective influences in the individual’s life. Emotional development is the most difficult areas of the human life to comprehend. A parent or a teacher is frequently ineffective because of his/her own emotions and feelings. Emotional development involves many questions. A child who is apparently mature and balanced in his emotional life suddenly becomes upset.
Is emotional development cyclic like other forms of development? What can the parents and teacher do to help the child become emotionally mature? In short emotional development is primarily concerned with the emotional responses like tolerance, patience, affection and politeness etc. the number of emotions increases as the time passes. At birth, the number of emotions is very few but they increase as the interaction between the individual and the environment strengthens.