The primary aim of education is to fulfill the natural needs and develop the personality of the individuals. The knowledge of the basic principles of development helps in preparing the instructional program for the students. The knowledge of the principles of development also enables the teacher to comprehend the interests, tendencies, capacities and aptitudes of the students belonging to various levels of education. With the help of this practical knowledge a teacher becomes able to take practical steps for the fulfillment of social and emotional needs of the students. The significance of the knowledge of the principles of development can be described in the following headings :
Objectives of education and the principles of development :The objectives of education are first formulated in the process of education. The different objectives are determined for various levels of education. These objectives are classified and categorized in line with the stages and aspects of development. There are different physical, cognitive, social and emotional needs at different phases of life. During the formulation of objectives of education, these versatile needs of the students should be taken into account by the developmental psychologists and the curriculists.
Learning and the principles of development :The process of learning and instruction cannot be successful and effective unless it is in conformity with the
mental level, tendencies, interests and psychological needs of the learners. The knowledge of the principles of development enables the teachers to understand the broad-based developmental needs and aspirations of the students. The knowledge of fire principles of development is also concerned with the extent of physical and mental ability which is required for a particular level of education.
Individual differences and the principles of development :It is obligatory for a teacher to take into consideration the individual differences of the students during the course of instruction. Every child is born with unique and distinct faculties. This is an educational misconception to consider all the children possessing the similar abilities and tendencies. The study of principles of development assists the teacher in understanding the individual differences of the students. To me, no effective instruction is possible Without the consideration of individual differences.
Understanding of the principles of development guides to the development of curriculum. To me, there are
Curriculum and the principles of development :
peculiar needs and demands of a student of a certain level of education. The content of curriculum cannot be selected and organized without the consideration of these needs and demands of the students. If the content of curriculum is not compatible with the mental level of the students, the process of education would become aimless and unproductive. The curricular content should be harmonized with the cognitive, emotional, social and emotional needs of the students.
Co-curricular activities, and the principles of development :The school organizes various co-curricular activities keeping in view the stages of development. The experts maintain that the co-curricular activities must be in harmony with the stages of cognitive and physical development. This is a significant educational need which must be taken into account during the selection of co-curricular activities for the program of the school. The study of the basic principles and characteristics of
development enables the teacher to select particular co-curricular activities for the students of particular age and educational level.
Methods of teaching and the principles of development :Successful and effective instruction is not possible without a suitable method of teaching. The knowledge of the principles of development enables the teachers to draw their instructional strategies according to the psychological needs and mental abilities of the students of different ages. If the developmental principles and characteristics are not considered during the educative process, the students would feel boredom and take no interest in the learning and instructional activities.
Educational administration and the principles of development :The study of principles of development helps the educational administrators to administer the affairs of the school in accordance with the objectives of education. The children of different age group can be brought under desirable discipline by means of various disciplines approaches. The duration of instruction should correspond to the span of attention of the child. As the span of attention increases, the duration of instruction
could be increased. The school administration can draw a code of conduct and behavior if they are well aware of the principles of development.
Exceptional children and the principles of development :The exceptional children refer to those children Who cannot be educated in the class constructed for the children With average abilities. Such children find difficulties in the normal educational settings. The knowledge of principles of development allows the teachers to discriminate the exceptional children from the normal ones. The exceptional children require special attention. They need special teachers, special curriculum and special methods of teaching. If a teacher has full Command over the principles of development, he/she would be able to take necessary measures for the education of exceptional children.
Guidance and the principles cf development :The study of the principles of development enables the teachers to guide the students through the affairs of school and social life. They assist the students in the selection of subjects and professions, solution of socio-psycho problems and maintaining domestic concerns. A teacher can better understand the emotional problems of the students if he/she is well aware of the principles of development. The process of education is, in fact, a process of guidance. The students face various problems at various stages of development. In
this regard, it seems necessary for the teachers to be equipped with the knowledge of development.
Evaluation and the principles of development :The study of the principles of development plays a significant role in the evaluationof educational achievement of the students. Educational evaluation is directly concerned with the abilities of the learners. The process of evaluation is carried out to evaluate the all-round abilities and skills of the students. The stages of cognitive development are taken into consideration during the evaluation of the cognitive abilities of the students. A
teacher should know the abilities and capacities of the students belonging to various age groups. This is possible only if the teacher is well-equipped with the knowledge of the principles of development.
Mental health and the principles of development :The mental health of the learner contributes enough to the fulfillment of the objectives of education. The study
of the principles of development points out the mental problems and concerns of the students. A teacher should take necessary steps- for maintaining the mental health of the students so that the comprehensive objectives of the instructional process may be realized. The knowledge of principles of development makes the teachers aware of the characteristics of mental health at various stages of development. A good student
contains sound mental health. And the principles of development render their services for the maintaining the sound mental health of the students.
Social activities and the principles of development :This is the responsibility of education to make the individuals useful citizens of the society. For the acquisition of the social aims of education, the individuals should be socially adjusted by means of the educative process, The study of the principles of development makes the teachers aware of the patterns of Social development in certain phases of life of a student. In this way, the teacher suggests the social activities which support in
obtaining the destination of social adjustment of the individuals.