The individual differences are concerned with various aspects of human development. Having been concerned with all aspects of human development, the individual differences are divided into the following categories :
Inborn differences :The inborn differences are those that are transmitted to the individual through heredity. The difference of height and color are the inborn differences. Generally, the inborn differences and the genetic differences are
considered in one category. But there are some inborn differences that are not necessarily genetic e.g., the differences of aptitude may be inborn but not necessarily genetic. Following are the significant points regarding the inborn differences :
- The children having the same heredity may vary in height, color, texture and face appearance.
- The children of the same parents may differ in intelligence.
- The differences in tendencies are not absolutely hereditary and inborn but sometimes, they may occur due to the environment.
Environmental differences :Environmental differences refer to the differences in aptitudes, interests and goals on the basis of variation in environment. The environment of one individual varies from the other. Following are the Significant points regarding the environmental differences :
- The children living in the same environment may vary in interests, liking and disliking.
- The differences in tendencies may be born in the environment.
- If the environment is irritating, the child will learn the attitudes of irritation.
- Environment plays an important role in the emotional development.
- Most of the individual differences are developed in the environment.
Physical differences :Physical differences refer to the differences of physical structure (weight, color, texture) in various individuals. These differences are, usually, inborn. Following are the significant , points regarding the physical differences :
- They are generally, inborn and unlearned. Some physical differences are the results, of some incidents or accidents.
- Physical deformity, weak eyesight, weak hearing and short height are the general forms of physical differences.
- In most of the case, the physically-handicapped children are made fun by the others and consequently, they begin to feel, inferior to others.
- The physical deformity makes the students lesser hearted and detached.
Cognitive differences :Cognitive differences refer to the differences in, the degree of intelligence of various individuals. That is why; individuals are grouped as the gifted, the intelligent and the dull etc. Following are the significant points regarding the cognitive differences :
- Both heredity and environment affect the mental abilities of the individuals.
- The intelligent students demonstrate excellent performance in the educative process.
- Generally, environment cannot turn the dull students in intelligent ones.
- The students of the same class vary in mental abilities.
- The differences in intelligence directly influence the educative process positively or negatively.
- The dull students require special education programs to be designed for them.
Emotional differences :
Emotional differences refer to those differences which are manifested through behavioral forms such as tolerance, fellow feelings and irritability. Following are the significant points regarding the emotional differences :
- The children vary in emotions.
- The intensity of emotions Varies among the children.
- Some children are not emotionally stable while others observe emotional control and peaceful silence.
- The emotional instability hinders the way to education.
- If the children are not given proper attention, they fall a prey to emotional complexities.
- The emotionally disturbed children disturb the discipline of the school and the society as well.
- The intensity of emotions negatively affects the physical and mental health of the learners.
Aptitudinal differences :
Aptitude refers to the present ability of the individual that indicate future success in a particular field or profession. This ability is not a learned one. For instance, a person’s typing aptitude prior to practice on a typewriter.
Aptitudinal differences refer to the differences on whose basis various individual perform significantly in various professions and fields of life. These differences make an individual a renowned artist, teacher, scientist or an engineer. Following are the significant points regarding the aptitudinal differences :
- The students vary in interests and natural inclinations. These interests and inclinations influence the educative process. Heredity and environment play a significant role in the development of interests and aptitudes of the students.
- If the Students are educated according to their aptitudes and psychological needs, there would be greater chances of the success of the students in the field of education.
- If the students select the subjects against their aptitudes, they would not be able to produce excellent educational results.
- If the children are allowed to work according to their own aptitudes tendencies the pace of the development of their abilities would increase.
Social differences :
The social differences refer to the students belonging to different social groups, cultures, religions and conditions in the same educational institution. Following are the significant points regarding the social differences :
- The students of a school belong to varied social groups and conditions.
- The healthy social conditions positively affect the educational performance of the students.
- The favorable and unfavorable social conditions equally affect the educational performance of the students.
- The living in the favorable social conditions can easily adjust with the school environment.
- The students, whose parents belong to lower social classes, do not have the guidance facilities from their parents.
Economic differences :
The economic individual differences refer to the presence of students of different economic groups, economic conditions and economic backgrounds in the same classroom. Following are the significant points regarding the economic differences :
- The students of a class belong to various economic groups and levels.
- The children of economically stable parents, generally, exhibit excellent educational performance.
- The children of economically backward parents, generally do not perform well in the field. of education.
- The students with economic problems may suffer in some mental and emotional problems.
- When the basic needs of the students are not fulfilled, they would not pay full attention towards their educational affairs.
- The children of economically stable parents take advantage of the available sources and thereby remove their educational hindrances.