Define Intelligence Quotient and also discuss the types of children as per intelligence Quotient Classification
Intelligence Quotient refers to the measure of intelligence computed by dividing an individual mental age by his/her chronological age. This number is multiplied by 100.
- Intelligence Quotient is a score derived» from intelligence tests that is designed to represent a person's overall intellectual capacity. In 1908, the French psychologist, Alfred Binet claimed that there is a mental age along with the chronological age. The mental age differs from the chronological age. Alfred Binet was entrusted with the charge of finding out the reasons for backwardness of the students in the schools of Paris. He, then, came to the conclusion that intelligence of a child develops without school education. He prepared a number of simple tests meant for measuring the intelligence of the children of each age level and applied these to them..He succeeded in the standardization of his test. He discovered three groups of testees. Further developing the concept of mental age, the German psychologist, Stem introduced the theory of Intelligence Quotient. The numerical presentation of intelligence made possible due to this theory and consequently the measurement of intelligence took a new turn. The formula of IQ is
I.Q = MA/CA x 100
Suppose, ‘Sara is an intelligent girl. Her chronological age is 6 years. She has successfully solved a test which is prepared for the 8 years old children. It means that her mental age is 8 years. In this respect, her IQ would be 133.33. It would be calculated as under :
I.Q = MA/CA x 100
I.Q = 8/6 x 100
1.Q = 133.33
For the calculation of I.Q., the mental age is divided by chronological age and then the acquired number is multiplied by 100. The obtained number is termed as I.Q. It helps in knowing the level of intelligence of an individual... The children vary in intelligence. The I.Q. can present their level of intelligence in the numerical
form Prof. Terman has divided the children, according to their intelligence, in the following categories :
The gifted Children :The gifted children refer to those children whose Intelligence Quotient ranges from 140 to above. Following are the general characteristics of gifted children :
- They succeed in drawing the attention of the members of society because their cognitive abilities and insight.
- They hate strong inclination to research and observational ability in abundance.
- They have the ability to solve their problems without the, assistance of others.
- They are much involved in the educational activities and exhibit excellent performance.
- They are generally, hardworking, well-mannered, confident and tolerant.
- They are curious, inquisitive and creative.
The intelligent children :
The intelligent children refer to those children whose Intelligence Quotient ranges from 110 to 139. Following are the general characteristics of the intelligent children :
- They perform excellently in various fields of life.
- They take part in the educational activities with full attention.
- They are keenly interested in the social affairs of the day.
- They have the ability of criticism and evaluation.
- They do not need continuous guidance and supervision. They have deep understanding of their problems.
The average children :
The average children refer to those children whose Intelligence Quotient ranges from 90 to 109. Following are the general characteristics of the average children :
- They exhibit average performance in every field of life.
- They need special attention and guidance from their teachers and parents.
- If these children are not given proper attention, they leave the school without completing education.
- Obedience is generally, observed in such children. They do not include their personal analysis during the act of obedience.
The dull children :
The dull children, refer to those children whose Intelligence Quotient ranges from 80 to 90. Following are the general characteristics of the dull children :
- They can get benefit of the learning process by means of drill method.
- They can be turned into semi-skilled workers.
- They are generally, inclined to crimes and anti-social activities.
- Their behavior and Conduct is normally a problematic for the society.
- They are unable to adapt themselves to the needs of the environment.
- They do not exhibit desirable educational performance.
- The teachers have to pay special attention to such children.
- An ordinary academic understanding can be developed in these children.
The borderline children :
The borderline children refer to those children whose Intelligence Quotient ranges from 70 to 79. Following are the general characteristics of the borderline children :
- Special educational institutions are established for such children.
- They have no real understanding of the social values.
- They are unable to participate in the productive activities.
- They can be made limited literate due to special attention.
- They have, in general, weak memory.
- They join school at the age of six or seven.
- They lack in self-confidence.
- They cannot dispose of a task with in the normal time duration.
- They demonstrate the abilities which are not corresponded to their chronological age.
The mentally backward Children :
The mentally backward children refer to those children whose Intelligence Quotient is less than 70. Following are the general characteristics of the mentally backward children :
- They have very limited lingual ability.
- They have no sense of social values.
- They cannot get benefit of the educative process.
- They can be taught only the simple objects by means of individualized attention.
- They have limited ability» of adapting to the needs of the environment.
- They are backward in all respects as compared to other students.
- Some social norms, for example, hand shake, smile in response to an object, feel pleasure in response to see the objects the person likes and greet someone, are generally observed in these children.