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Saturday, 28 November 2015

Discuss the principles which determine the hereditary traits


The principles determining the hereditary traits refer to those foundations which serve as guidelines for determining the hereditary traits.
The experts predict the hereditary traits of an individual in the light of these principles. These principles
describe the foundations on whose-bases the hereditary traits are transmitted from the parents to their children. The experts have described the following laws which determine the hereditary traits :

Law of similarity : 

The law of similarity states that similar things give rise to similar things. Children are similar to their parents in many respects. This law is of the view that intelligent parents give birth to intelligent children and the dull parents may produce the dull ones. According to this law, it is generally observed that the beautiful parents have beautiful babies.

Law of dissimilarity : 

The law of dissimilarity states that similar things can give birth to dissimilar things. This law also states that intelligent parents can give birth to less intelligent children and less intelligent parents can give birth to intelligent children. According to this law, the children are not completely similar to their parents. The children of the same parents may different from one another in physical structure, color, intelligent, height and habits.

Law of recurrence : 

The law of recurrence states that direction of the development is from extreme to middle. This law is of the View that exceptionally talented parents may give birth to less exceptionally talented children. According to this law, the children possess average traits as compared to their parents. It is generally observed that the traits of the children are between the two extremes. Their traits follow the average line between the two extreme limits. The children of the gifted parents are the comparatively lower level of giftedness as compared to their parents. It is quiz possible that the children of the lesser intelligent parents may possess average
intelligence.

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Friday, 27 November 2015

Discuss factors influencing development with reference to arguments or Discuss the determinants of development in detail


Factors influencing development means the causes and elements which affect the human development and thereby cause changes. 
According to the developmental psychologists, heredity and environment are two such elements which can be termed as the ‘determinants of personality’. The human behavior and conduct is the product of these two factors of development. We cannot make a judgment about the exact share of heredity and environment in the development of human personality. But this is an established truth that both the factors play a significant role in the development of personality. These factors are explained in the following lines :

Heredity : 

Heredity means the genetic program that is transmitted from the parents to their offspring at the time of conception. To me, heredity refers to all those traits and effects that are transmitted to the individual through germ plasm of his/her parents
These traits are concerned with many past generations of the individual. Heredity provides the raw material or the potentialities for the development of human personality. It sets the limits of human capacities. What the individual inherits are the potentialities in relation to growth, appearance, intelligence and the like. Every individual is influenced by the genes that he/she inherits from his/her parents. The following points are significant in connection with role of heredity in the development of human personality :

  • A person gives birth to a person only because of heredity. A monkey never gives birth to a man because a monkey does not have human like hereditary traits.
  • An individual begins his/her life with a fertilized cell. This cell is a combination of sperm and ovum.
  • The share of mother and of father is equal in the heredity of a child. The chain of heredity is not confined to the parents of the child. It extends to the forefathers of the child too.
  • Physical appearance, bone structure, height, color and cognitive abilities are the result of hereditary traits.
  • The investigators have proved that there are some diseases which are genetic.
  • It is generally observed that the tall parents give birth to the tall children and the average intelligent parents give birth to average children. 

Environment : 

Environment refers to those factors and effects which bring about changes in a fertilized egg externally. Environment refers to all the physical factors and emotional influences that surround the member of a particular group or individual. I maintain that environment is an array of experiences to which individuals are exposed from conception to death. These experiences may be biological in nature, such as exposure to disease, drugs or inadequate nutrition. Or they may be primarily social, such as interaction with family members, teachers or exposure to the media and community culture. Environment plays a significant role
in the development and formation of human personality. The interests and attitudes of the individuals are subjected to the environment. The investigations have shown that the mental state, disease and nutrition of the pregnant women are the factors which influence the prenatal development The significant influences of environment can be observed following the birth of the baby. An individual cannot avoid him/herself from the environmental influences. A child learns his/her language, accent, culture and habits following his/her birth. Home is the first environment for a child. Then, gradually, he moves to the streets of his/her locality and then he/she joins a school. His/her social contacts increase gradually. He learns from- his/her parents, peers,
friends, class fellows, teachers and other senior members of the society. A renowned psychologist, Watson, says that make me a custodian of a child. 1 shall turn him/her into one that you wish. According to him, environment is the only responsible factors for the construction or destruction of the Children. Both the balanced personality and the defective personality is the product of favorable or unfavorable environment. The following points are significant in connection with role of environment in the development of human
personality :
  • The experiences and observations associated with the environment bring about behavioral changes in the individuals.
  • The healthy environment allows the hereditary traits to flourish.
  • Due to the environment, the experiences of the individual enrich the personality.
  • The hereditary trait can develop only if it is provided a favorable environment.
  • The dull children cannot be turned into the intelligent ones by means of favorable environment.
  • Environment is the only factor which decides to how much the abilities of an individual polished and developed.  
  The concluding remarks

The question of what determines development is one of the oldest controversies in the recorded history of human race. Even the ancient Greeks speculated about this particular issue. But in the contemporary time,
the controversy has centered around two major factors: heredity and environment. The controversy over what determines development often has taken as extreme form. One group of researchers argues for heredity as the primary factor in development. On contrary, an opposing group of researchers argue for the unique role of environment in human development. In this extreme form, however, the heredity environment (nature-
nurture) issue has-proven net be very fruitful for understanding development. To me, both heredity and environment play a significant “role in the development of personality and the formation of attitudes. It is very difficult to calculate which of the factors has greater influence on development than the other. The researchers have found the following truths regarding the influences of heredity and environment on human development :

  • The unfavorable environment cannot suppress the good heredity. According to this law, the intelligent children perform excellently even in the unfavorable environmental conditions. Their performance can be increased if they are provided favorable environmental conditions.
  • The investigators have argued that development can be better understood only in terms of the interaction between genetic and experiential forces.
  • Most agree that neither development nor environment alone can adequately explain the complicated way in which each of us grows and develops. At the same time, however, it is not assumed that each of these factors plays an equal role in all aspects of human development. Certain behaviors, such as walking, can best be explained by the process of maturation that is guided by our genetic blueprint. Other behaviors such as wearing a business suit or playing cricket are best explained by examining the influence of the individuals and society we encounter.
  • The critical question concerning development is not which factor-heredity or environment is responsible for our behavior, but how these two general factors interact to propel (push forward) us along our unique developmental paths.
  • Development of the hereditary, traits is determined to a large extent by the environmental opportunities.
  • The behavior of a pregnant woman affects her unborn child’s development. Medieval European doctors advised pregnant women that uplifting thoughts would help the baby develop into a good, happy person while negative emotions might disrupt the pregnancy and possibly influence the infant to become sad or mean-spirited.
  • Environment, to some extent, can influence heredity. while heredity is not capable of influencing the environment because the genes are inactive and the environment is an active organism.
  • Environment allows the genetic traits to flourish. On contrary, the defective environment makes the natural abilities inactive and passive.
  • Heredity provides the raw material for the development of human personality whereas environment shapes it in a meaningful form.
  • Environment has the ability: to develop most of the human traits. But the unfavorable environment can cause the defective development of many aspects of human personality.
  • Heredity determines the extent of human abilities whereas environment indicates the activities which an individual can conduct with the help of natural granted abilities.
  • Heredity and environment do not fully determine the extent of a trait. In some cases, there are heavy effects of heredity e.g. physical texture, height, color and level of intelligence. On the other hand, greater involvement of environment can be observed in the formation of beliefs; attitudes and habits of the individuals.
  • The favorable environment cannot take the place of good heredity. A dull person cannot be turned into an intelligent one due to the favorable environment. The favorable environment, to some extent, can polish the hereditary traits but huge changes and modifications in the hereditary traits cannot be made possible with the help of favorable environment.

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Wednesday, 25 November 2015

Briefly discuss the salient aspects (types) of development


Development refers to those changes which occur in the behavior and functions of an individual. It this change is concerned with cognition, it would be termed as ‘cognitive development’. It these changes are Concerned with human body, emotion or society, they would be termed as ‘physical development’, ‘emotional development’, and social development’ respectively. The developmental psychologists have stated the following four types (aspects) of development :

Physical development : 

Physical development refers to all those internal and external changes, that take place in different body organs. As a result of these changes, the body organs achieve their natural form and thus starts doing their
instinctive functions e.g. increase in height and Weight.
Physical development means the progressive development of the various parts of the body and their capacity to function in a natural way. An individual is first and foremost a physical being. From conception until death, he/she is constantly changing. He/she is never static. Throughout the childhood and adolescent years, he/she develops into an adult. Even at the stage of adulthood, changes do not cease. Instead they continue at a
slower rate. To me, development is a continuous process which ranges from birth to death. In the early years of life, the physical changes are rapid in rate. Each physical change is dependent upon what preceded it and, in turn, affects which will come afterward. The experts hold that physical development influences behavior and behavior, in turn, influences physical development.

Cognitive development : 

Cognitive development refers to a gradual increase in memory, thinking ability, imagination and other cognitive abilities. These abilities help the individual to get adjusted with the environment, e. g. development of memory. 
Cognitive development refers to the increase and expansion in mental abilities like memory, imagination, creativity and thoughtfulness. These abilities enable the individuals to acquire better adjustment. For instance improvement in memory and discrimination abilities is directly concerned with the adjustment of the individuals. The cognitive abilities develop as the time passes and ultimately an individual, secures the destination of mental maturation. The individual can solve his/her problems by him/herself at the life period of mental maturation. In this way, he/she organizes his/her daily life affairs.

Social development : 

Social development refers to all those changes that occur due to the different accepted social activities. These activities are in harmony with the cultural heritage and social values, e. g. respecting the elders. Social development means the exhibition of the abilities which enable the individuals to cope with the social needs and values and thereby make them adjusted individuals of the Society. Social development is a combination of organized activities carried out for awakening the social understanding in the individuals. Social development ranges from heme to the remote areas of the society. a child begins his/her social life from home. At this stage, home is a society for him/her. Afterwards, as the time passes, a child comes across his/her neighboring street and school. A socially developed person leads a balanced and successful life in the society. This is the responsibility of the school to develop social abilities of the individuals as Man is s social-being in nature.

Emotional development : 

Emotional development refers to all those healthy and balanced changes in the emotions and feelings of the individuals that are concerned with emotional response, e.g., tolerance, patience, fellows feeling etc. the word ‘emotion’ is used in psychology to describe a state of excitement in an organism. The emotion represents effective feeling tone. It is characterized by inner adjustment, conditioned by functioning of the automatic nervous system and aroused by the interaction between an external stimulus and the inner mental status. The complex study of emotions provides us a view of the vital subjective influences in the individual’s life. Emotional development is the most difficult areas of the human life to comprehend. A parent or a teacher is frequently ineffective because of his/her own emotions and feelings. Emotional development involves many questions. A child who is apparently mature and balanced in his emotional life suddenly becomes upset.
Is emotional development cyclic like other forms of development? What can the parents and teacher do to help the child become emotionally mature? In short emotional development is primarily concerned with the emotional responses like tolerance, patience, affection and politeness etc. the number of emotions increases as the time passes. At birth, the number of emotions is very few but they increase as the interaction between the individual and the environment strengthens.

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Discuss the significance of the knowledge of the principles of development for a teacher


The primary aim of education is to fulfill the natural needs and develop the personality of the individuals. The knowledge of the basic principles of development helps in preparing the instructional program for the students. The knowledge of the principles of development also enables the teacher to comprehend the interests, tendencies, capacities and aptitudes of the students belonging to various levels of education. With the help of this practical knowledge a teacher becomes able to take practical steps for the fulfillment of social and emotional needs of the students. The significance of the knowledge of the principles of development can be described in the following headings :

Objectives of education and the principles of development : 

The objectives of education are first formulated in the process of education. The different objectives are determined for various levels of education. These objectives are classified and categorized in line with the stages and aspects of development. There are different physical, cognitive, social and emotional needs at different phases of life. During the formulation of objectives of education, these versatile needs of the students should be taken into account by the developmental psychologists and the curriculists.

Learning and the principles of development : 

The process of learning and instruction cannot be successful and effective unless it is in conformity with the
mental level, tendencies, interests and psychological needs of the learners. The knowledge of the principles of development enables the teachers to understand the broad-based developmental needs and aspirations of the students. The knowledge of fire principles of development is also concerned with the extent of physical and mental ability which is required for a particular level of education.

Individual differences and the principles of development : 

It is obligatory for a teacher to take into consideration the individual differences of the students during the course of instruction. Every child is born with unique and distinct faculties. This is an educational misconception to consider all the children possessing the similar abilities and tendencies. The study of principles of development assists the teacher in understanding the individual differences of the students. To me, no effective instruction is possible Without the consideration of individual differences.


Curriculum and the principles of development : 

Understanding of the principles of development guides to the development of curriculum. To me, there are
peculiar needs and demands of a student of a certain level of education. The content of curriculum cannot be selected and organized without the consideration of these needs and demands of the students. If the content of curriculum is not compatible with the mental level of the students, the process of education would become aimless and unproductive. The curricular content should be harmonized with the cognitive, emotional, social and emotional needs of the students.

Co-curricular activities, and the principles of development : 

The school organizes various co-curricular activities keeping in view the stages of development. The experts maintain that the co-curricular activities must be in harmony with the stages of cognitive and physical development. This is a significant educational need which must be taken into account during the selection of co-curricular activities for the program of the school. The study of the basic principles and characteristics of
development enables the teacher to select particular co-curricular activities for the students of particular age and educational level.

Methods of teaching and the principles of development : 

Successful and effective instruction is not possible without a suitable method of teaching. The knowledge of the principles of development enables the teachers to draw their instructional strategies according to the psychological needs and mental abilities of the students of different ages. If the developmental principles and characteristics are not considered during the educative process, the students would feel boredom and take no interest in the learning and instructional activities.

Educational administration and the principles of development : 

The study of principles of development helps the educational administrators to administer the affairs of the school in accordance with the objectives of education. The children of different age group can be brought under desirable discipline by means of various disciplines approaches. The duration of instruction should correspond to the span of attention of the child. As the span of attention increases, the duration of instruction
could be increased. The school administration can draw a code of conduct and behavior if they are well aware of the principles of development.

Exceptional children and the principles of development : 

The exceptional children refer to those children Who cannot be educated in the class constructed for the children With average abilities. Such children find difficulties in the normal educational settings. The knowledge of principles of development allows the teachers to discriminate the exceptional children from the normal ones. The exceptional children require special attention. They need special teachers, special curriculum and special methods of teaching. If a teacher has full Command over the principles of development, he/she would be able to take necessary measures for the education of exceptional children.

Guidance and the principles cf development : 

The study of the principles of development enables the teachers to guide the students through the affairs of school and social life. They assist the students in the selection of subjects and professions, solution of socio-psycho problems and maintaining domestic concerns. A teacher can better understand the emotional problems of the students if he/she is well aware of  the principles of development. The process of education is, in fact, a process of guidance. The students face various problems at various stages of development. In
this regard, it seems necessary for the teachers to be equipped with the knowledge of development.

Evaluation and the principles of development :

The study of the principles of development plays a significant role in the evaluationof educational achievement of the students. Educational evaluation is directly concerned with the abilities of the learners. The process of evaluation is carried out to evaluate the all-round abilities and skills of the students. The stages of cognitive development are taken into consideration during the evaluation of the cognitive abilities of the students. A
teacher should know the abilities and capacities of the students belonging to various age groups. This is possible only if the teacher is well-equipped with the knowledge of the principles of development.

Mental health and the principles of development : 

The mental health of the learner contributes enough to the fulfillment of the objectives of education. The study
of the principles of development points out the mental problems and concerns of the students. A teacher should take necessary steps- for maintaining the mental health of the students so that the comprehensive objectives of the instructional process may be realized. The knowledge of principles of development makes the teachers aware of the characteristics of mental health at various stages of development. A good student
contains sound mental health. And the principles of development render their  services for the maintaining the sound mental health of the students.

Social activities and the principles of development : 

This is the responsibility of education to make the individuals useful citizens of the society. For the acquisition of the social aims of education, the individuals should be socially adjusted by means of the educative process, The study of the principles of development makes the teachers aware of the patterns of Social development in certain phases of life of a student. In this way, the teacher suggests the social activities which support in
obtaining the destination of social adjustment of the individuals.

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