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Wednesday, 30 March 2016

Discuss the role of education in the development of society


The society depends on education for its stability, unity, peace and development; Education is the only tool which can guarantee the freshness and dynamism of a society. The overall development of a society lies in the educative process. The Whole civilization, social purity and flow of the society are subjected to education. In this sense, we may say that the role of education in the development of society is very significant which can be discussed in the following lines :-

  • The development of society is related with the development of the individual. The society develops with the development of the individuals. Education prepares the individual for playing their role for social growth following the development of their faculties.
  • The existence and survival of society is subjected to the educative process. Education brings about such conditions and opportunities which lead to the existence of a society. The society should be indebted to the education for taking steps for the existence and survival of the society.  
  • Education not only transmits the social values to the next generation but also reconstructs the social values. The impure elements are eliminated from the social values before their transmission to the next generations by means of the process of reconstruction.
  • The people of a balanced and healthy society, are well aware of their social rights and duties. Their thoughts and believe are in harmony with the social values. Education endeavors for the acquisition of this social aim in an organized and meaningful manner. Education is the only means of preparation of the individual bearing the quality of social agreeableness.
  • Education promotes, safeguards and transmits the national ideology and cultural heritage, If the educative process is eliminated from the social settings, the social values might not be transmitted to the future generations.
  • Education tells the society; what is the pattern of training of the individuals; what can be expected from the individuals and what type of new social trends can rise on the social horizon and how they can be absorbed into the daily social life. 
  • Society is a composition of people having different capacities and abilities. Some people- leave positive impressions on society. On contrary, some people distort the images of the society by means of their character and conduct. Education maintains a record of all good and bad characters and conducts. Keeping in view the record of this character balance sheet, education designs its future strategy.
  • Education leads the members of the society to the right direction of thoughts and actions. History witnesses that the character of the individuals bring  about the rise and fall of a society. The future of a society depends on the  character and conduct of the individuals. If the social values are mirrored in the character of the individuals, it can be hoped that the future of a society would be bright.
  • Every society needs such individuals who can play their role in the material and non-material development of the society. For the acquisition of this significant social aim, education trains the intellect and reason of the individuals and teaches them professional skills. These excellences and skills contribute much towards the academic and material development of the society. Education provides such competent, skilled and aware individuals who play their role in the all-round development of the social environment.
  • Every society has the desire for fulfilling the contemporary global demands so that it can compete with the other societies. Education offers its services for the acquisition of this significant social aim. It prepares the individuals of the society to face the present day challenges and needs. The society changes itself according to the changing conditions by means of the abilities and faculties of the individuals.

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Monday, 28 March 2016

Discuss the relationship between education and society or Give an account of the significance of society for education


The existence and survival of a society lies in the transmission of academic excellences and cultural values to the future generation. This process of transmission requires a system to be developed. This system is termed as ‘education’. Education is the fundamental need of a society. The society remains dynamic and moving only by means of the educative process. Education and society depend on each other. Their mutual relationship can be described in the following lines :-

  • Education prepares such individuals who can play their role in the social development and thereby can cause social stability.
  • Society is composed of individuals and the society needs such individuals who can bring about the promotion of social values. Education is the sonly means by which the individuals, bearing social values in their personality, are produced.
  • Education derives its objectives from society. An organized system of education is developed for the realization of predetermined aims of education. This system of education is constituted in line with the social values and traditions. 
  • The educative process is carried out for the welfare of the society. The educative process can only justify its existence if the society exists. Society provides justification for the conduct of the educative process.
  • The resident of a society can become a useful citizen only by means of the educative process. Education is the only tool for developing social agreeableness in the individuals of the society.
  • Education safeguards and transmits the national ideology, cultural heritage and social values. The cultural heritage cannot be transmitted to the future generations with a formal system of education.
  • Education reconstructs the social values and traditions. Education transmits only those values and traditions to the future generations which are desirable.
  • Society influences the educative process. The social changes also affect the process of education. Education always follows the social aspirations and ideals. All the social aspirations are mirrored in the aims of education.
  • A society is established in conformity with the national ideology by means of the educative process. The curricular and co-curricular activities help in developing, the personality of the individual in line with the demands of national ideology. 
  • Education trains and develops the political vision and insight of the individuals, This political insight paves the way to promotion of human values and stability of the political institutions.

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Sunday, 27 March 2016

Critically describe the relationship among education, community and society


Education is a social precess which aims at socialization and development of the individuals of the society. Education is carried out in the society. A society consists of various communities. To me, community is a unit of society. In this regard, we may conclude that education, society and community are interlinked and interrelated concepts. Their mutual relation and mutual dependence cab be described in the following heads:-

EDUCATION 

  1. Education is the process of the training of the individuals.
  2. Education is concerned with the preservation and transmission of culture and values.
  3. The mutual cooperation, integrity and universal brotherhood is promoted by means of the educative process.
  4. Education derives its aims from society.
  5. The needs of society and the community are the integral part of the comprehensive program of education.

SOCIETY 

  1. The process of training of the individual is carried out in the society.
  2. Every society has its particular culture and values.
  3. The mutual cooperation and integrity is essential for the social stability and survival,
  4. Society determines the destination for education.
  5. The needs of society and community are generally identical.

COMMUNITY 

  1. Every society consists of various communities. Community is composed of individuals and the training of the individuals is necessary in the present day social needs.
  2. The member of a community are acquainted with the social values by means of the educative process.
  3. The feelings of mutual cooperation and integrity are found in the members of a community.
  4. The fulfillment of the community needs is necessary for social stability.
  5. Community is a unit of society. It cannot be separated from the program of education of the society.

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Friday, 25 March 2016

Define society and also discuss its salient characteristics


Society means a group of individuals living in a specific geographical territory who share a culture which forms the basis for the rules that guide their behavior.
Society consists of a group of people interacting within a limited territory guided by their culture.
Society refers to a group of people united together for securing the collective goals and adopt a particular social order. Society refers to a collection of interacting individuals, sharing the same culture and territory. Society means a fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it.
Society means a population whose members share a cultural identity and way of life, interact in patterned Ways and occupy common geographic territory.
Society means a relatively self-sufficient and self-sustaining group of people who are united by social relationships and who live in a particular territory.

A society is composed of men and women. This combination of both the sexes gives birth to the society as a living organism. The experts have pointed out the following salient Characteristics of a society :-

  • Every society is established» within a specified territory. The people living outside the geographical boundaries of a society are not considered the members of the particular society.
  • The individuals of the society exhibit mutual cooperation. Despite having individuality, they endeavor for the fulfillment of collective needs. In this way, a handsome balance is observed between individualism and collectivism.
  • A society is a combination of social groups. These groups come into being by means of social interactions. These social groups constitute various institutions and these institutions lead to the establishment of a society.
  • The society is composed of the individual having different abilities. The basic function of the society is to satisfy the needs of the individuals. Various social institutions e.g. family, religious places, schools, financial institutions, political institutions, courts, perform their functions to satisfy the needs of the individuals of the society.
  • Every society has its own culture which is different from other cultures. Every society endeavors to preserve, increase, safeguard and to transmit its a culture. The survival of society and culture depends on each other.
  • The social norms are the integral part of the structure of a society Which is the collection of traditions and customs. These norms are the protector of our social values. The strict observance of social norms causes social stability and social discipline. Violation of social norms leads to the social indiscipline and social astray.
  • Every society has its organized social system which is moral destination of the members of the society. The individuals attempt their best to acquire and learn these social values and enhance the quality of social life. The civilized and aware citizens do not violate these social established norms of the society. 
  • Every society on the earth is confronted with social problems. There are different social problems in different societies. Poverty, illiteracy, environmental pollution, collapse of family system, and human smuggling are leading social problems of the globe.
  • Every society has its system of reward and punishment. The people, who exhibit excellent performance in various fields, are rewarded with medals and national signs. On contrary, the criminals and law-breaking individuals are punished in terms of fine, imprisonment and death penalty.
  • Every society is based on some common interest of the people. For instance, fulfillment of the basic needs of the people, defense of the country, a balanced system of education, national development and the just division of products are some significant common interests of the people of a society. The people of a society co-operate each other for the fulfillment Of these common interests.

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Thursday, 24 March 2016

Define conditioning and what its significant types are


Conditioning means modification of the natural response. The natural stimulus results in the natural response. According to the conditioned response, the natural stimulus is substituted by an artificial stimulus. In this way, a new connection between the artificial stimulus and the natural response is created and consequently,
conditioning takes place. Conditioning is a kind of learning that involves associations between environmental stimuli and the organism responses. To me, conditioning refers to the ways in which events, stimuli and behavior become associated with one another.

Classical conditioning (conditioned response learning) : 

Classical conditioning refers to the conditioning process in which an originally neutral stimulus, by repeated pairing with a stimulus that normally elicits a response comes to elicit a similar response. This conditioning is also termed as ‘Pavlovian conditioning’.


  • Classical conditioning refers to a basic form of learning in which existing reflex responses come to be elicited by new stimulus.The theory Of classical conditioning was introduced by the Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov. His contribution to the field of learning is highly regarded throughout the world. He arrived at the theory of learning by Conditioning following his experiments on hungry dogs. He is interested in the process of digestion in dogs. He developed a surgical technique whereby the dog’s salivary secretions could be collected in the tube attached to the outside of its check so that the drops of saliva could be easily measured. In the course of his investigations, he noticed that the dog would often start salivating before any food was given to it, for example, it looked at the food, or saw the feeding bucket or even when it heard the footsteps of the person who was coming to feed it. These observations led to the study of what is now called classical conditioning, whereby a stimulus (a bell) which would not normally produce a particular response (salivation) eventually comes to do so by being paired with another stimulus (food) which normally does produce the response. This learning theory has wide ranging educational implications. Love and hatred, fear and freedom, respect and disrespect all are the results of classical Conditioning. It is often observed that children develop a particular kind of distaste for a certain Subject and an equal amount of interest in another subject of study. This is the result of conditioning. 

Operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning) : 

Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or
diminished if followed by punishment.


  • Operant conditioning is the conditioning in which the probability that an organism will emit a response is increased or decreased by the subsequent delivery of a reinforcer or punisher. To me, operant conditioning refers to the learning based on the consequences of responding. The Operant conditioning is also called instrumental conditioning for the reason-that some act of behavior of the learner is instrumental in bringing about a change in the environment that makes the action get repeated. Prof. Skinner coined the term Operant conditioning for instrumental conditioning. He indicated that ‘when a response operates on the environment, it may have Consequences that can affect the likelihood that the response will occur again. Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning dominated the scene for many years. Skinner came forward to challenge the theory of Pavlov. He was not rejecting the discoveries of Pavlov but arguing that most animal and human behavior is not elicited by specific stimuli in the way they described. Instead, he was interested in how animals operate on their environment and how this operant behavior is instrumental in bringing about certain consequences Which then determine how probable that behavior is to be repeated. Skinner’s view of learning saw the learner as much more active than Pavlov had, for whom behavior was automatically brought about by stimuli-unconditioned stimuli before learning and conditioned stimuli after learning. The most essential feature of operant behavior is that it can be made more likely or more appropriate to occur in the situation by the appropriate use of reinforcement. The response is, therefore, changed according to need, and demand of the individual: The response is made and determined by the organism itself. This is the most distinguished feature of operant behavior. The operant conditioning is not as simple as the classical conditioning.

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