Define the concept 'components of curriculum' and discuss these components in detail or discuss the elements of curriculum in detail
Components of curriculum refer to those essential elements (parts) which make the instructional activities effective and result-oriented. To me, curriculum is a combination of four important elements. These elements provide the bases for the logical continuity of the process, of curriculum. These elements play a significant role in the process of curriculum development. These elements are discussed here tinder :-
Objectives of curriculum :-The 'objectives of curriculum' is logically the first element of the process of curriculum. The objectives are first formulated in the process of curriculum development. The other elements of curriculum development are planned in the light of the objectives of curriculum. Generally, the objectives of curriculum and the objectives of education are identical in nature. The curricular affairs like the selection of content, methodology, instructional technology, preparation of textbooks and selection of the methods of evaluation are directly concerned with the objectives of curriculum. The ambitions of the nation are mirrored in the objectives Of curriculum which are realized by means of the curricular and co-curricular activities. The 'objectives of curriculum' is, in fact, a national document containing the national aspiration. For the acquisition of these aspirations, a formal process of instruction is carried out. To me, the objectives of curriculum guide the entire curricular process. They give us the knowledge of what do we wish the students to be? 'Determination of objectives of curriculum' is a sensitive process which requires ample care in their selection. There should be the following characteristics in the objectives of curriculum :-
• The objectives of curriculum are harmonized with the needs of the society.
• The psychological needs and interests of the students are taken into account during the development of the objectives of curriculum.
• The objectives of curriculum are conformed to the ideological foundations of a nation.
• The all-round development of the personality of an individual is considered to the objectives of curriculum. • The objectives of curriculum are explained in an explicit, simple and categorical language.
Curricular content :-The curricular content is the second important component of the process of curriculum. Following the determination of the objectives of curriculum, the questions arises how to realize the determined objectives of curriculum. So to say, which learning experiences, activities and skills should be selected for instruction for the acquisition of the objectives of curriculum? According to my viewpoint, curricular content refers to a collection of information, skills, learning experiences and practical activities that are organized for the purpose of securing the curricular objectives. Curricular content is, in fact, a content selected for instruction for the purpose of curricular Objectives. The curricular content is a significant component of the process of curriculum due to the following reasons :-
• Curricular content decides the destination of the learner.
• Curricular content makes the instructional process effective and purpose-oriented.
• Curricular content decides a course of action for a student.
• Curricular content provides foundations to the process of evaluation.
• Curricular content provides bases for the formulation of textbooks. A textbook is developed on the lines provided by the curricular content.
• Curricular content contains the ideology of a nation and thereby promotes it through the process of instruction.
Methodology :-Following the selection and organization of the curricular content, an affair comes out how to transmit the curricular content to the students? The instructional process is ,carried out for the acquisition of this aim. The curricular content is transmitted to the students by means of the instructional process. The transmission of the curricular content is necessary for the acquisition of the curricular objectives. The teacher adopts different instructional strategies for the transmission of the curricular content keeping in view the nature of the content so that he/she may transmit the content to the student in an effective manner. In a lay man term, the instructional strategies are called the methods of instruction. To me, the teaching method is a tool which is used by a teacher to transfer the content to the students. The experts hold that the teaching method is a carrier that carries the content from one place to another. A method of teaching must possess the following significant characteristics :-
• The method of teaching must be compatible with the nature of the content.
• It must be harmonized with the mental ability of the students.
• It must be in line with the interest and aptitude of the students.
• It must have the ability to fulfill the needs of the subject concerned.
• It must have relevance with the surrounded conditions.
• It must have the ability to use the available resources in the classroom.
Curricular evaluation :-Curricular evaluation is an activity that examines the degree to which objectives of curriculum have been achieved by means of the instructional process. To me, the curricular evaluation refers to the use of research techniques to measure the degree to which identified objectives have been achieved in a program. Following the process of instruction, it is examined to what extent the determined objectives of instruction have been realized. The instructional process brings about behavioral changes in the character and conduct of the students. A teacher wishes to know the extent of the success of his/her instruction following the transmission of the curricular content to the students. For the purpose of answering all these questions, curricular evaluation, as a formal activity, is carried out. Being the last element of the process of curriculum, curricular evaluation plays a considerable role in the process of curriculum which can be explained in the following lines :-
• It provides valuable help in evaluating the performance of the students.
• It helps in evaluating the validity and effectiveness of a method of teaching.
• It provides valuable information regarding the extent to which the objectives of curriculum have been achieved.
• The results of curricular evaluation help in making necessary modifications in the content, teaching methods and other instructional strategies.
• It helps in measuring the performance of the teacher.
• It also helps in calculating the suitability and appropriateness of the methods of teaching.