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Saturday, 9 January 2016

Give an account of the laws of learning in detail


Laws of learning refer to those foundations on which the learning process is based. These vary laws make the learning process scientific and logical. These laws are also termed as ‘Thorndike’s laws of learning’. These laws are briefly discussed here under :

Law of readiness : 

Learning law of readiness states that learning occurs when neurological conduction units are ready to conduct. To me, learning law of readiness refers to the relationship between readiness for learning and the effectiveness of learning. The following points are significant regarding the learning law of readiness :

  • Readiness is the basic condition of learning, The learning process cannot be carried out without readiness.
  • The level of readiness determines the level of learning.
  • Readiness determines the pace of learning. The enriched readiness paves the way to enriched learning.
  • Mental level, previous knowledge, mental freshness and aptitude of the students are those factors which positively or negatively affect the learning process.
  • Readiness persuades an individual to learn. So to say, readiness is the activity of persuasion to learn.
  • The success or failure of the process of learning largely depends on readiness.
  • A goal makes the individual prepared for learning new skills. This goal is, in fact, readiness.
  • All new learning is based on the previous knowledge and readiness of the learner.

Law of exercise : 


The learning law of exercise states that the more practice to learn a task, the stranger learning will be. The principle describes that if a stimulus and response occur together regularly, they will come to form a learned association. If a person does not continue the typing practice, his/her efficiency of typing will reduce. On contrary, continuous practice of typing will increase the efficiency of the individual significantly. The following points are significant regarding the learning law of readiness :

  • Exercise makes the learning durable and long-lived.
  • Exercise reduces the possibility of committing mistakes. 
  • Exercise enables the individual to repeat the activity successfully.
  • The skills, for which an individual does not practice enough, cannot become the part of his/her personality permanently. 
  • An individual can overcome the difficulties associated with various skills by means of practice. 
  • A performed task can be turned into a habit of an individual by means of exercise. 

Law of effect : 

Learning law of effect refers to a learning principle that actions which have a pleasant effect on the organisms are likely to be repeated. This law is also termed as 'law of satisfaction'. This law implies if our efforts are accompanied by a feeling or achievement or satisfaction, we are further inspired to learn, and therefore, effective learning will take place. The following points are significant regarding the learning law of readiness : 
  • Law of effect is concerned with the reward or punishment as a result of particular task.
  • All the activities are subjected to the law of effect. The individual cannot get involved in the activity which has no benefit for him/her or which is not capable of saving him/her from harms.
  • All the educational activities are carried out under the influence of law of effect. 
  • Law of effect wins the interests of the students in the educative process. 
  • Under the law of effect, the learning of the students becomes durable and relatively permanent. 

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Define learning by role playing and What the steps in learning role playing by are


Learning through role playing refers to the learning which becomes the part of behavior by practical experiences and activities. Calligraphy, typing, horse riding, commercial flying and playing cricket are the significant examples of role playing. These skills can only become the part of personality when the individual him/herself practically participate in these practical skills. Learning by role playing is primarily based on practical activities and skills. To me, learning by role playing is a significant mode of learning which allows the skills to become the part of human personality. Following are the necessary steps involved in the learning by role playing :

  • Identification of the problem : the individual determines his/her problem or goal. Here, he/she decides what does he/she need or wish to solve.
  • Consideration of various steps for getting the goal : the individual explains the significance of the problem to be solved or the goal to be achieved. He/she also describes the foundations on which he/she wishes to solve the problem or achieve the goal.
  • Selection of appropriate steps and sources : the individual thinks about various measures, sources and means for the solution of the problem or for the realization of the goal.
  • Execution of the selected steps and sources : the individual selects the sources and means which may aid in solving the problem or achieving the goal.
  • Theoretical study of the selected sources and steps : the individual studies the theoretical foundations of the selected sources and means and afterward starts acquiring the practical expertise concerning the selected sources.
  • Making efforts to overcome the mistakes : the individual commits mistakes during the acquisition of practical skill and consciously strives for overcoming these mistakes.
  • Removing the mistakes and solving the problem : the individual succeeds in removing all the mistakes and thereby solves his/her problem or get his/her goal.
  • The learned skill paves the way to learn future skills : the individual gets mastery over the practical skill by means of repeated exercise and thereby get the ability for getting further skills in future.

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Friday, 8 January 2016

Define learning by insight and what the steps in learning insight by are


Learning through insights refers to the reorganization or reconstruction of the pattern or the significance of events allowing one to grasp relationships relevant to the solution. It also refers to the process by which problems are solved and situations are comprehended. Expertise in computer operations, solving the mathematical problems, understand the complexities of the laws of learning, highlighting the mistakes in a book and translating a book into a foreign language Are some commonly known examples of learning by insight. In this type of learning, an individual can solve his/her problems by employing his/her cognitive abilities Learning by insight is based on explicit principles. Following are the necessary steps
involved in the learning by insight :

  • A problem arises : the individual comes across a problematic situation. This problem certainly disturbs the internal and external balance of the individual.
  • Understanding of the available sources : the individual gets acquainted with the sources available in the environment.
  • Presence of motive for the solution of the problem : the individual realizes the need for the solution of the problem. This need serves as a motive which is necessary for the solution of the problem.
  • Consideration of various aspects of the problem : the individual critically evaluates various aspects of the problem and employs all of his/her previous knowledge. 
  • Selection of the experiences necessary for the solution of the problem : the individual selects the experiences and activities which can aid in the solution of the problem. He/she also employs all of his/her past knowledge, information and observations in this problem solving process.
  • Consideration of possible sources for the solution of the problem : the individual thinks about the possible sources for the solution of the problem. These sources must have relevance with the problem.
  • Searching for the solution of the problem consciously : the individual employs all the selected sources and consequently finds out the solution of his/her problem. 
  • Making the outcome of the problem a part of behavior : the individual learns from the problematic situation. This learning brings about behavioral changes in the individual which direct the future decisions of the individual.


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Wednesday, 6 January 2016

Define learning by imitation and what the steps in learning by imitation are


Learning by imitation refers to the learning process which is Characterized by the actual copying of the behavior of others. If a child follows the accent of his/her mother, this is what we say imitative learning. Adaptation of pronunciation of the students with that of the teacher, conduct of the experiment by the students in the same manner the teacher did, and picture drawing by the students in the same fashion the teacher drew for them are the significant examples of learning by imitation. This learning, type is directly concerned with the observational ability of the individual. An individual can imitate the actions of others by employing the observational ability. To me, this mode of learning is based on observation. This learning can occur consciously or unconsciously. An individual learns through this method of learning throughout his/her life. Following are the necessary steps involved in the learning by imitation :

  • Observing others doing the activity : the individual observes the other individuals doing some sort of activity in the environment consciously or unconsciously.
  • Doing by own the activity observed : the individual attempts to do the observed activity by: his/her own. He/ she pays full attention to the activity undergone.
  • Identifying the mistakes in case of failure in imitation : the individual identifies the mistakes in case of failure. He/she critically evaluates his/her performance and collects the necessary relevant date. 
  • Control over the mistakes : the individual strives for overcoming the mistakes and eliminate all the wrong acts of imitation.
  • Redoing the activity : the individual ultimately succeeds in imitating an action and then he/ she repeatedly does the same successful activity.
  • Get mastery over the activity by repeated exercise : the individual practices much to have expertise in the imitated act so that he/ she may again perform it in the future.

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Tuesday, 5 January 2016

Define learning by trial & error and What the steps in learning by trial & error are


Leaning through trial & error refers to the course of such learning that is characterized by gradual elimination of ineffectual responses and the strengthening of those responses that are satisfactory. Thorndike believes this process a central to the acquisition of all complex acts of learning. We exemplify the concept of learning by
trial & error. Suppose, it is darkness all sides at night. You have to unlock a lock. You do not know the relevant key to unlock the lock. You try all the keys of key-ring one by one. At last, the lock unlocks with one key. This process of unlocking will be termed as ‘learning by trial & error’. Making efforts to write alphabets on the slate and afterwards write correct words, completing of pictures and words with the help
of various blocks, and solving question of mathematics after committing several mistakes are the general other examples of  learning by trial & error. Learning by trial error is a significant mode of learning which has developed many theories and has contributed much to the human academic assets. Following are the necessary steps involved in the learning by trial & error :

  • Facing the problem : The individual encounters a problem which disturbs his/her internal balance or external settings.
  • Identifying the problem : The individual gets aware of the problem which negatively affects his/her being.
  • Attempting to solve the problem : The individual strives for the solution of the identified problem in a random way.
  • Encountering sudden success : The individual comes across a sudden success following many random attempts for the solution of the problem.
  • Repeating the solution in case of success : The individual repeats the successful attempts and eliminates all other unproductive attempts from the activity.
  • Exercising the solution : the individual exercises the successful solution in order to get expertise of the solution.
  • Finding the appropriate solution : the individual finds the appropriate solution to the problem and relates it to his/her daily life affairs.



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Monday, 4 January 2016

Define learning and also discuss its basic characteristics of learning


Learning has been defined and explained in a number of ways. A few of the views regarding the nature of learning are presented here. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. Learning is a relatively enduring change in observable behavior that occurs as a result of experience.


  • Learning is a change in an individual caused by experience. 
  • Learning is a relatively permanent change in mental associations due to experience. 
  • Learning is a process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior.
  • Learning involves the acquisition of knowledge, habits, skills and attitudes.
  • Learning refers to both acquisition and retention. 
  • Learning is more or less permanent incremental modification of behavior which results from activity, special training or observation.
  • Learning is modification due to- energies of organism and the environment influencing on the organism itself. 
  • Learning refers to more or less permanent change in behavior’which occurs as a result of practice. 
  • Learning implies a fairly permanent change in a person's behavioral performance
Learning can take place in many forms. Sometime, it is intentional and at another time, it is unintentional.
Learning is not time-bound. It can take place anywhere and at anytime. At this time, we are reading the chapter ‘learning’. We are learning about the concept of learning. We are in the process of learning. To me, the process of learning involves the following essential characteristics :

Learning is a dynamic process : 

The active role of the individuals is very important in the process of learning. When an individual has a particular goal in his/her mind, he/she actively participate in some activities. He/she repeat the activities which help him/her in achieving his/her goal. He/she does not repeat those acts which do not help him/her in achieving his/her goal. This chain of activities remains to continue throughout the individual’s life. In this respect, we may say that learning is a dynamic process.

Learning is conducive to behavioral changes : 

Learning refers to the modification in behavior. When, an individual learns a skill or activity, he/she gets some sort of experiences. These experiences bring about behavioral changes in the individuals. So to say, change is the basic learning condition if no change occurs, there is no learning to be happened. There is no concept of the learning process without the existence of change. Learning leads to behavioral changes. And these changes enable the students to cope with the environmental needs.

Learning is a progressive process : 

The process of learning is progress and evolutionary. It is lifelong process which ranges from birth to death. An individual experiences news skills situations which consequently change his/her behavior. The pace of learning steps up at a particular span of life. The human learning expands and deepens as he/she grow/s old. At a particular period of human life, we can visualize the elements of maturation in the conduct and behavior of the individuals. This is all due to the process of learning that is an essential part of individual’s daily life affairs.

Learning is a mental activity : 

Learning is such an activity that requires the active participation of the mental abilities of the individual. We can easily observe that mental attention is necessary for learning how to drive a car and how to learn typing.
A person can learn nothing without the application of the cognitive abilities on the process of lcarning. The cognitive abilities are essential for making use of the learned skills in future. So to say, mental abilities are directly concerned with the process of learning. No learning can occur without the participation of mental abilities.

Learning is a purposeful process : 

Learning is a process which is conducted for the acquisition of predetermined goals. No learning activity can happen without the determination of explicit objectives. Only the needs and goals persuade the individuals to learn new skills, attitudes and habits. Goal is the only vital motivational force which provides necessary persuasion for learning. According to the experts, the more explicit goal of the individual, the more enthusiasm for learning would be observed in the individual.

Learning is an intentional process : 

The process of learning is dependent on the intention of the individual. To me, intention is the basic condition for learning new things. The process of learning cannot produce the required results in the absence of well-directed intention. The unintentional and incidental learning is short-lived and transitory. Such learning has no permanent effects on human behavior. According to the psychologists, no durable learning can be ensured in the absence of well-defined intention.

Learning is associated with practice : 

According to the experts, the process of learning. is associated with different types of practices. Repeated drill is the prerequisite of the mastery over certain skills. It is, generally, said that practice makes a man perfect. Near me, repeated drill is the only element which is behind this popular proverb regarding the process of learning. The excess of practice decreases the possibility of mistakes in the learned skills. An individual has to undergo practice sessions following the learning of typing skills. Likewise, only the learning how to drive a car is not sufficient. The driver has to practice driving for turning into a competent driver.

Learning is a continuous process : 

Learning is lifelong process. There is no break found in the process, of learning. The chain of learning begins from the birth and extends to the death of the individual. There is no beginning or end of the learning process. The whole life of an individual is a combination of learned experiences, observations, skills and attitudes. All these things rightly affect the behavior and conduct of the individual. The individual modifies his/her behavior in the light of the learned experiences and observation. All the experiences and observations of the individual are termed as learning that is the essential part of his/her life.

Learning is a development : 

Learning is a developmental process. It brings about emotional, cognitive and social changes in the individual, This is the learning which affects the attitudes, trends, approaches, social habits and so on. This formation of attitudes and habits reshape" the ideals and beliefs of the individuals. At last, the learning process leads the individual to the destination of comprehensive development.

Learning is a gradual process : 

Learning is a process of changes but these changes take place gradually and at a slow pace. Soto say, an individual learns a skill step by step. This is the natural style of development observed in the phenomenon of
nature. There is a fixed order of change on account of the learning process. For instance, as in the case of language learning, the child first learns the alphabets of the language, then he/she learns how to form words and ultimately, he/she learns to form sentences. In this way, he/she learns the various segments of language according to the fixed gradual order.

Learning is bound to take place in environment : 

Most of the learning psychologists hold that learning is essentially an adaptation and adjustment to the
environment. Thus, environment has heavy influences upon the environment. We cannot separate the process of learning from the conditions of environment. Learning needs an environment to take place. Here, it comes out that environment is one of the determinants of the process of learning. In the circumstances this is the responsibility of the teachers to maintain a friendly learning environment for the students so that the learning objectives may be achieved.

Learning is intelligent and creative : 

Learning involves some intelligent interpretation of the situations and conditions. It is also concerned with some selectivity in the response. This necessarily involves intelligence and creative thinking on the part of the learner. To me, intelligence and creativity are two basic elements of the process of learning. The dullness slows down the pace of learning. On contrary, intelligence and creativity step up the pace of learning. The pace of learning is directly concerned with the intellectual and creative decisions during the process of learning.

Learning affects the conduct of the individuals : 

Learning positively affects the learners to adjust him/herself to the environment. This is an agreed fact ,that all
learning reforms and modifies the behavior and conduct of the individuals. The process of learning is, in fact, the process of change which affects the conduct of the learners . If there is no effect of learning on the conduct of the individual, there is no existence of the process of learning. I hold that conduct of the individual undergoes changes on account of the process of learning.

Learning is active : 

Learning requires activity and involvement on the part of the individual. It can take place only if the learner is actively engaged in the learning process. To me, active participation of the learners is the basic conditions for the success of the, learning process. Activity ensures the smooth running of the process of learning. The interaction between the learner and the activity itself results in valuable experiences which allow the individual to decide his/her course of life.

Learning is universal : 

Both men and animals learn from their experiences and observations; Learning is the fundamental capacity with which both are born. The human beings possess as much developed brain as the animals do not. Still the
animals learn though their pace of learning is slow. The circus animals can learn the tricks to exhibit in the public show. On contrary, human beings learn at a quick pace though there are some slow learners among the human beings too.

Learning is need-based : 

To me, much of human learning is need-based. It is the result of Some particular needs of demands of the time. Human learning is subjected to the internal and external needs and requirements of the individual. These needs motivate the individuals to pass through the process of learning. According to some distinguished psychologists, the pace of learning largely depends on the intensity of the needs which are the motivational forces for the process of learning. In our daily life, we can observe that the children learn quickly near the examinations.

Learning is adjustment : 

Learning is a process which involves adjustment of the individuals to their environment. An individual learns to adjust him/herself to the changes that take place around him/her. To me, adjustment is the outcome of the
learning precess. Since adjustment to the surrounded environment is the primary aim of education, attempt is made for adjusting the students to their environment by means of the learning process.

Learning is organizing experience : 

Learning does not aim at gathering disarrange experiences and put them in a warehouse. It aims at connecting the previous experiences with the new-ones and thus gives rise to new form of behavior. To me, learning involves the proper organization of the series of experiences in an intelligent manner. If the human experiences are not organized, the individuals would not reap the benefit of these experiences. Only the organized experiences can lead to the organized personality.

Learning is transferable : 

Learning is one area may be got transferred to another areas. This transfer of learning occurs when there is similarity of task, content and methodology. The amount of this transfer may vary from time to time, situation to situation and place to place.

Learning is hypothetical construct : 

Learning cannot be directly observed but can only be inferred from observable behavior. So, for example, if the performance of a student on a task at Time I differs in any particular way from performance on the task at Time 2, we may infer that learning has taken place. This observable difference clearly indicates that there are some signs of learning.

Learning involves permanence : 

Learning is concerned with permanent Chang in individual’s behavior. The temporary fluctuations in behavior as a result fatigue, drugs and temperature are not included in the concept of learning. To me, permanence is the minimum requirement for saying that learning has taken place.

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