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Monday, 29 February 2016

Discuss three significant learning theories which have been developed by the cognitive theorists


K. Kafka, W. Koehler and Ausubel are the significant cognitive theorists. They presented their thoughts regarding learning. These thoughts have been developed into theories which are discussed in the following lines :

Gestalt learning theory (approach) : 

Gestalt theory of learning is a basic learning model in which a person analyses the whole situation for the understanding and solution of new problems and then responds appropriately.

Insight learning theory (approach) : 

Insight theory of learning refers to the sudden reconstruction of the situation and awareness of all the relevant aspects of the problems for the solution of the problem.

A Information processing learning theory (approach) :

Information processing model of learning views learning operations as taking place in stages e.g. input, coding, storage, retrieval, decoding and output. They are put forward as computer programs.

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Thursday, 25 February 2016

Discuss the theories of learning in detail


The psychologists have conducted many researches to find out how an individual learns and changes his/her behavior, how the connection between stimulus and response is produced and how the internal and external factors influence upon the process of learning. Keeping all these questions into consideration, the psychologists have presented their theories and arguments. As the result of development of these thoughts and arguments, some theories developed which are termed as the theories of learning. Some of the most significant theories are discussed here under :

Behavioristic theory (approach) of learning : 

Behavioristic theory of learning refers to associate the learning of an individual with observable and measurable changes. The behaviorists maintain that learning is concerned with the delivery of measurable activities. For example, driving a car, memorization of a poem, operating heart surgery, flying a commercial jet and compile the biographies of the distinguished educators are the Behavioristic activities which have direct concern with the Behavioristic learning. Following are the significant points regarding the Behavioristic theory of learning :

  • The Behavioristic learning is observable and measurable.
  • The results of Behavioristic learning can be expressed in the numerical form.
  • The Behavioristic learning is based on scientific and logical ways.
  • The impartial and unbiased study of Behavioristic learning is possible. 
  • There is no room for inner feelings and changes in the Behavioristic learning.
  • The Behavioristic learning is the product of the essential relationship between stimulus and response.
  • All the actions and activities are subjected to the stimuli.
  • The observable actions of the individual indicate their Behavioristic learning.
  • The individual responds to the stimulus. The response brings about change and this change is termed as Behavioristic learning.
  • There is a close relationship between stimulus and response in this learning approach.

Cognitive theory (approach) of learning : 

Cognitive learning refers to the higher level learning involving thinking, knowing, understanding and anticipation.
Cognitive learning is a learning model which claims that the behavior of a person is affected by the changes in person’s thinking and knowledge. So to Say, the behavior represents the inner situation of the individual. Interpretation of a poem, criticism on a literary passage, discovery of a new law of learning and commentary of a book are some simple example of cognitive theory of learning. Following are the significant points regarding the cognitive theory of learning :
  • The observable behavior is influenced by the thoughts of the individual.
  • Human inner faculties are concerned with cognition.
  • Learning is an inner process and observable acts are the reflection of learning.
  • The inner change is necessary for the change in observable behavior.
  • The human inner faculties, aptitudes and beliefs play a significant role in the selection of stimuli.
  • The cognitive theory of learning is based on the inner conditions of the individual. The inner abilities decide the mode of response of a stimulus.
  • The individual relates him/herself with the environmental stimuli in conformity with his/her mental abilities.
  • The individual pays attention to only those stimuli which aid in the acquisition of goals.

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Wednesday, 24 February 2016

Elaborate the conditions of learning or Discuss in detail the factors which influence the process of learning


Conditions of learning are those factors that affect the learning process positively or negatively. The fulfillment of these conditions of learning is necessary for the effective process of learning. To me, following are the significant conditions of learning :

Readiness : 

Readiness is a position of preparedness in which an organism is set to actor to respond. To me, readiness is a state of a person under which he/she is in a position to profit from some experience.
Readiness refers to a state of a person under which he/she is in a position to profit from some experience. It is a basic condition of learning. Nobody can learn unless he is mentally ready to learn. The role of readiness in the learning process is narrated in the following points :

  • The process of learning is ineffective and unproductive without readiness.
  • Readiness steps up the pace of learning of the individual.
  • Readiness makes the learning of the individual durable and long-lived.
  • Readiness positively also influences upon other conditions of learning.
  • The signs cf readiness from the students persuade the teacher to get involved in the process of instruction. 

Motivation : 

Motivation refers to a condition that energizes behavior and gives it direction. Avoid from punishment, acquisition of reward, success in the examination, obtaining high social status and striving for being a successful member of the society are the sources of motivation for a student. Motivation is one of the basic conditions of learning which influences upon the process of learning. The role of motivation in
the learning process is narrated in the following points : 
  • Motivation persuades the-students to take part in the process of learning.
  • Motivation is a tool which drives the students to learn. 
  • Motivation generates the feelings of commitment and enthusiasm for learning.
  • Motivation makes the individual restless and untiring till lie/she gets his/her goal.
  • The motives like punishment, reward or appreciation play significant role in the success of the educative process.

Interest : 

Psychologically speaking, interest is an inner mental state by which an individual feels, pleasure in doing a particular task. With this state of mind, an individual exhibits excellent performance in the educational affairs. A student cannot reap the benefit from the instructional process in the absence of interest. The role of interest in the learning process is narrated in the following points :
  • An individual can learn a task quickly due to the element of interest.
  • The instructional process can be made effective due to interest.
  • The interest is like an inner desire of the student which enables: him/her to succeed in the educative process.
  • The students take interest in different activities at different stages of life.
  • The girls and boys vary in interests.
  • An individual can have mastery over a skill due to the element of interest.
  • The interest, as a condition of learning, expands the scope of learning.
  • The instructional objectives cannot be achieved without the element of interest.
  • Interest makes the instructional process effective and durable.

Attention : 

Attention refers to the selective aspect of perception which functions so that at any instant an organism focuses on certain features of the environment to the exclusion of other features. Without the element of attention in the process of instruction, the teacher and student cannot get the goals associated with the process of learning. The role of attention in the learning process is narrated in the following points :
  • Attention increases the pace of attention.
  • Attention produces harmony between stimulus and response.
  • Attention, as a condition of learning, brings about the acquisition of the objectives of the instructional process.
  • Attention ensures the involvement of the students in the instructional process.
  • Attention is a source of developing harmony between the cognitive abilities of the individual and the external influences.

Attitude : 

Attitude refers to favorable or unfavorable evaluations of reactions to objects, people, situations or other aspects of the world. To me, attitude is a learned tendency to respond to the individuals or institutions in a positive or negative way.
Attitude refers to a learned tendency to respond to people or institutions in a positive or negative way. For instance, a person dislikes smoking. This mental condition of hatred regarding smoking will be termed as attitude. Sometimes, we observe that a student has particular negative emotions for a particular teacher. The
educationists hold that these emotions are, in fact, an attitude of the student for a particular teacher. The positive or negative attitude of an individual, definitely, affects the process of learning. The role of readiness in the learning process is narrated in the following points :
  • If a student has negative attitudes towards a subject or a teacher, the process of learning would not be succeeded in obtaining the expected objectives.
  • The attitudes are, primarily, concerned with the values. If the process of learning does not agree with the fundamental values, it would bring about negative results.
  • The attitudes are, generally, acquired and learned. They are result of interaction between the individual and the environment. Some attitudes become the part of the individual’s personality during the learning process.

Meaningfulness : 

Meaningfulness refers to the productivity and effectiveness of a tasks or idea. The students do not take interest in learning the tasks Which lack meaningfulness. To me, meaningfulness is the basic condition of learning. The process of learning is an unproductive activity without fulfilling this basic condition of learning. For examples, if the children are told interesting stories, they will remember them for long because they would be meaningful for them. On contrary, if the children are told unordered stories, they would not be able to remember them for long because the told content is meaningless for them. The role of readiness in the
learning process is narrated in the following points :
  • Meaningfulness makes the process of learning interesting.
  • Meaningfulness makes the learning process durable and effective.
  • Meaningfulness brings about critical and creative abilities in the students.
  • Meaningfulness deepens and expands the learning of the students.
  • Meaningfulness enables the students to remember the learned content for long.

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