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Sunday, 17 April 2016

Discuss the significance and need of guidance and counseling in schools or Describe the aims and objectives of the guidance and counseling program in schools


The need for guidance and counseling is universal. It is based on this visible fact that all human being need guidance. There would hardly be any individual who does not need any sort of guidance in his entire life Tome, everyone needs assistance in terms of guidance and counseling. Some people need guidance constantly and throughout their lives while others need it only at times of great crisis. I hold that guidance is not confined to particular people or groups of people. The Significance of guidance and counseling has been recognized by all mankind. The need for guidance has been there from the times immemorial and will continue to be as long as Man exists here on earth. The significance of guidance and counseling is addressed in the following lines :-

Self-finding :-

Self-finding refers to the understanding of an individual with his/her abilities, natural tendencies and social role. An expert advisor enables an individual to find himself/herself and consequently lead a balanced and successful life. The guidance program tells the individual what is She/he? What does he/she can? And
what are the professions in which the individual may succeed? The destination of self-finding is more or less the result of timely and continual counseling. This destination opens many new ways of success in the life Of the individual.

Agreeableness :-

Agreeableness means such a mutual relation between the individual and the environment which results in the acquisition of the individual and group objectives. A well-adjusted individual can earn personal and social welfare by utilizing his abilities in the environment. A maladjusted person does not possess a balanced personality and is always surrounded by various psychological problems. He has to face problems in coping himself with the environmental needs. Guidance and counseling program is the process of bringing about pleasant harmony between the individual and the environment. All the individuals suffering from the problems
of maladjustment Can be moulded into useful citizens by means of the guidance programs.

Behavioral changes :- 

Behavioral changes refer to the change of behavior of the individual corresponding to the norms and values of society. These very behavioral changes make the individual capable of understanding the social values and thereby enable him lead a success life. An individual is informed of extents of social life by means of the process of guidance and counseling. He is also told that the society expects a lot from you. The guidance activity brings about valuable behavioral changes in the individual which are both productive for the individual and the society as well.

Positive mental health :-

Attaining the destination of positive mental health of the students is one of the significant aims of the guidance program. This state of mental health allows the students to adjust in the society and the environment as well. The students express excellent educational performance with the help of positive mental-health. A mentally healthy student is well aware of his/her responsibilities and employs all possible sources for the accomplishment of assigned duties. This is the professional duty of the guide counselor to take such steps which aid in getting the destination of  positive mental health of the students. The state of mental health of the students gives birth to social stability, tolerance and respect for social values.

Determination of future :- 

This is one of the primary aims of the guidance program to determine the future of the students keeping in view their natural abilities and tendencies. A guide counselor suggests professions to the students which suit their abilities. The choice of a profession is directly concerned with the natural inclination of the students. An intelligent advisor helps the students in the selection of profession and determination of future. The researches indicate that the success in any profession and the natural aptitude of the individual depend on each other. If an individual has no aptitude for teaching, he/she cannot prove him/herself to be a good teacher.

A Organization of faculties :- 

Every human being is born with inborn faculties and abilities. These abilities are developed and organized through the educative process Sometimes, education is unable to develop a particular faculty of the individuals. This defect hinders the way to the balanced personality of the individual. In these circumstances, this is the duty of a counselor to reorganize the process of development of abilities of the student and thereby aids in obtaining the individual and collective aims. The coordination among various faculties is a positive sign for the organization of faculties of the individual.

Problem-solving training :- 

This is not the responsibility of the guide to solve the problems of the counselee by himself. The guidance program should enable the students to solve their problems by themselves. The problem-solving training
significantly aids the students in the solution of the problems of life. If the individual is not properly trained, he will always seek for some sort of guidance and counseling. In this very case, We cannot claim that the individual is capable of solving the problems of life by himself. It seems necessary in the circumstance that he/she should be trained to solve the problems of life by himself so that he/she may develop a state of agreeableness with him/herself and the environment.

Preparation for practical life :- 

The guidance and counseling programs prepare the individual to meet and fulfill the needs of the practical life. An individual is linked with life and society. He has to harmonize his/her desires and aspirations with the social norms and values. The society sends the children to the schools with the expectation that they will learn the art of better life. In this sense, the society puts heavy responsibility on the shoulders of schools of preparing the children for facing the challenges of practical life.

Development of positive attitude :- 

An individual faces various cognitive, psychological, emotional and social problems being a member of the society. These problems leave negative impressions. on the attitudes of the individual disturb the personality balance of the individual. The individual surrounded by various problems cannot prove him/herself to be a useful and desirable citizen. The social stability can only be ensured when an individual of the society is able to think positively and capable of solving his problem. The guidance programs bring about positive changes
in the personality of the individual. Thinking approaches and attitudes shape the character of the individual. In this regard, it seems necessary to develop a comprehensive program for bringing about positive changes in the personality of the individual.

Personal reconstruction :- 

Personal reconstruction is the spirit of the guidance and counseling program. Personal reconstruction refers to the evaluation of the pace of development and co-ordination among the various aspects of personality of an individual. Various undesirable and anti-social attitudes influence the personality of the individual while living in the society. There needs a personal reconstruction in these circumstances so that the anti-Social attitudes eliminate from the personality and thereby make them useful citizens. A counselor performs the function of personal reconstruction through the guidance program.

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Thursday, 14 April 2016

Discuss the concept of Counseling


Counseling refers to an advice given to a disturbed individual from a competent professional person.
  • Counseling is a process of giving advice to the students on their scholastic development and career patterns. 
  • Counseling refers to giving therapy to the students showing signs of disturbed behavior and stress. 
  • Counseling consists of the processes of interviewing, testing and advising to help an individual solve problems and plan for the future. 
  • Counseling is a process of aiding an individual to solve his/her adjustment and personal problems through the medium of face to face interview. 
  • Carl Rogers says that counseling is a series of direct contact with the individual which aims to offer him assistance in changing his attitudes and behavior. 
  • Wren thinks that counseling is a personal and dynamic relationship between the two individuals. 
  • Myers says that counseling implies a relationship between two individuals in which one gives a certain kind of assistance to the other. 
  • Williamson says that counseling is a personalized and individualized process designed to aid the individual to learn school subject-matter, habits, skills and attitudes. 
  • Andrew says that counseling is a mental learning process. It involves two individuals one seeking help and the other a professionally trained person helping the first to orient and direct himself towards a goal which leads to his maximum development and growth in his environment. 
  • Brammer opines that counseling is a self-adjustive process which helps the client in becoming more self-directive and self-responsible.

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Sunday, 10 April 2016

Discuss various types of guidance and also explain their relation with education


Life consists of many fields. Therefore, a person needs guidance in all the fields of life. The complex nature of man and life has become the concept of guidance broad and deep. For the convenience of the individuals and the advisers, the experts have divided the concept of guidance into the following categories which are
generally called ‘types of guidance’. These types include educational guidance, professional guidance, psychological guidance and social guidance. Let us discuss these types in turn.

Educational guidance : 

Educational guidance is a help which aims at adjusting the children. With the requirements of school and curriculum.
  • Educational guidance is concerned with the questions; how to develop the faculties of the student, what can they be made and what type of programs should be formulated to take advantages of educational opportunities. 
  • Educational guidance is primarily, concerned with such problems of education as are faced by the students studying different subjects.
  • Educational guidance is a process which is concerned with bringing about an individual with his distinctive characteristics on the one hand, and different opportunities on the other.
  • Educational guidance is concerned with the student’s success in his educational career. It is also related to the learners adjustment to the school and to the preparation and carrying out suitable educational plans in keeping with his educational needs, abilities and career interests.
  • Educational guidance is associated with the assistance given to the students in their choices and adjustments with relation to school curriculum and courses of school life. 
  • Educational guidance is intended to aid the individual in choosing an appropriate program of education and in making progress in it. 
All these definitions of educational guidance lay an emphasis on the assistance given to the students in the choice of such subjects as are in harmony with their needs and personal interests. To me, educational guidance enables the students to make proper choices of educational opportunities available to them. The main aim of educational guidance is to establish harmony between the potentialities of a student and the educational opportunities open to him. I opine that educational guidance is needed for all those individuals who have the desire for getting success in life.

Relationship between educational guidance and education :-

  • Educational guidance helps the students in the selection of subjects according to their own interests and tendencies.
  • Educational guidance allows the students to choose those subjects which give them practical knowledge. As a result, they will not have to face the stress of unemployment and can cam their livelihood. 
  • Education aims at the overall development of the individuals. Educational guidance helps a lot in achieving this target of  education by helping the individuals in choosing the correct educational opportunities.
  • Educational guidance provides valuable information and knowledge about different subjects and courses. This knowledge ensures the comprehensive development of the individuals. If there is a lack of information about the subjects, it will hinder the development of the individuals and the society as well.
  • Educational guidance helps in providing the educational opportunities to the students based on their abilities and performance.
  • Educational guidance helps the students in the selection of higher education institutions related to their particular areas of academic interest.


Professional guidance :


Professional guidance refers to the process of help in deciding a profession for an individual keeping in view his/her abilities and aptitude in order to maximize the possibilities or success in the opted profession.
  • Professional guidance is concerned with the assistance which is required for the selection of a profession and the possible success involved. 
  • Professional guidance is a formal procedure which aims at providing the necessary information regarding the selection of a profession, basic requirements of a profession and the opportunities of success associated with an opted profession. 
  • Professional guidance is a sort of guidance which is given to an individual by an expert person regarding the right choice of and right placement in some useful profession in life.
  • Professional guidance is the process of assisting the individual to choose an occupation, prepare for it, enter upon and progress in it. It is concerned primarily with helping individuals make decision and choices involved in planning a future and building a professional career.  
  • Professional guidance is an assistance to an individual in solving problems related to occupational choice and progress with due regard for the individual’s characteristics. 
  • Professional guidance is the process of helping a person to develop an integrated picture of himself and of his role in the world of work. 
I opine that professional guidance is needed for all those individuals who have the desire for getting success in their adopted professions.

Relationship between professional guidance and education :-


  • Professional guidance assists the student to acquire knowledge of the characteristics and functions of the professions within which their choice will probably lie.
  • Professional guidance enables the students to find what general and specific abilities are required for the occupations under consideration and what the entry requirements are for particular professions.
  • Professional guidance aids in believing that all honest labor is worth and lawful earning is worship.
  • Professional guidance assists the students in securing such information about himself, his abilities, interests and powers as he may need for a particular profession opted by him.
  • Professional guidance is imparted to the students with a view to realize them that success is purchased at the rate of effort and that satisfaction in job is derived from doing work honestly and competently.
  • Professional guidance is concerned with the professional planning according to the needs of the market.
  • Professional guidance helps the students in the selection of profession according to their natural abilities, tendencies and contemporary needs.


Psychological guidance : 

The term ‘psychological guidance’ is very broad in meaning and deep in nature. In this type of guidance, the client is cured of the negative activities such as suppressed needs, feelings and emotions through
psychological methods and normal interactive process.

  • Psychological guidance is concerned with the mental, psychological and maladjustment problems of an individual. It also suggests solutions to these problems. The balanced personality development is deeply connected with these problems. The mental and psychic health of the students is essential for the acquisition of the objectives of education. An individual may fall in psychological disorders if proper attention is not paid to the solution of his psychological problems. 
  • Psychological guidance is a process in which a psychologist discovers the problems” concerning with individual’s mind and behavior and thus suggests an appropriate solution so that he/she can secure the internal and external agreeableness.
  • Psychological guidance is the activity of helping the students in their emotional, cognitive and other psychological problems. It aims at producing fully adjusted individuals with the social needs. 
I opine that psychological guidance is needed for all those individuals who have the desire to find the solutions of their psychological and adjustment problems.

Relationship between psychological guidance and education :-


  • Psychological guidance program is designed to provide valuable information to the students passing through various stages of cognitive and psychological development.
  • Psychological guidance understands the personal emotional, and adjustment problems and thereby takes necessary Steps for their solutions.
  • Psychological guidance produces a state of harmony between the individual and the society following the solution of  the psychological problems of the concerned person.
  • Psychological guidance brings about the spirit of service for mankind in the adolescent boys and girls and thereby causes the fulfillment of the objectives of education.
  • Psychological guidance designs comprehensive plans for the identification and solution of the psychological illnesses of the individuals.
  • Psychological guidance provides valuable information regarding learning, memory, intelligence, forgetfulness and educational settings. This knowledge plays an important role in the better educational performance of the students.


Social guidance : 

Social guidance is such a formal aiding activity which aims at ensuring the acquisition of individual and collective social aims by producing harmony between person and society. Man’s survival largely depends on society. The society is necessary for the balance of his life. By means of education, an individual is hoped to be a useful citizen. Education can secure this aim only if a balanced adjustment and harmony is generated between an individual and, the society. Social guidance performs the function of balanced adjustment. 
  • Social guidance is a process by which a pleasant harmony between the individual and the society is produced so as to make the individual beneficial for the society.
  • Social guidance is concerned with indoctrination of social role in the individual.
  • Social guidance refers to the scientific process of character education and personality development corresponding to the social values. 
  • Man, society and life depend on each other. A pleasant balance among them leads to prosperity and global peace. Social guidance is a help of the individual in the establishment of this very pleasant balance. 
  • Social guidance aims at imparting the students those habits, traits, and attitudes which are socially desirable. Group discussions, organized socio-cultural activities, group-games and group therapy are the most commonly used techniques and procedures for administering social guidance. Children social organizations like Boy scouts and Girl guides are also used for imparting social education and guidance. 
I opine that social guidance is needed for all those, individuals who have the desire for performing
their positive social role in the society. 

Relationship between social guidance and education :-

  • Social guidance is directly concerned with the social aims of education. It helps greatly in the realization of the social concerns of education. To me, all education is a social guidance.
  • Social guidance plays a significant role in producing harmony between the interests of the individual and the society which is also a leading aim of education.
  • Social guidance enables an individual to perform his positive role in the society. This positive role of the individual paves the way to social prosperity and growth.
  • Social guidance is directly concerned with the sociological foundation of education. No system of education can set aside the social aspect of  education. As every education system is developed for a particular society.
  • Social guidance imparts the social values to the students and thereby enables them to take part in the collective social activities. In this way, social guidance aids in securing the basic social aim of education. 
  • Social guidance attempts to generate love for desirable social values and hatred for social evils and anti-social behaviors.

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Saturday, 9 April 2016

Discuss the salient aspects of guidance coming out of the views of experts or Discuss the nature of the concept of guidance


Life has many dimensions. Likewise, there are several sides. of the process of guidance. It is directly connected with all the fields of life. During the study of the views of various scholars about guidance, we find out the following salient aspects of the concept of guidance.

  • Guidance is a process of helping a personal with his adjustment problems.
  • Guidance is a promotion of the growth of the individual in self-direction.
  • Guidance is a process which brings about positive changes in the individuals.
  • Guidance is a means of establishing relationship between a person’s total educational experiences and his personal needs and potentialities, in an effective manner. 
  • Guidance is essentially an educative process, the outcomes of which are mental and educational preparedness for courses of action centered round the basic functions of men especially those pertaining to vocational and social service fields.
  • Guidance involves the difficult art of helping the individuals to plan their own future wisely in the full light of the factors that can be mastered about themselves and about the world in which they are to live and work.
  • Guidance is a process of helping every individual through his own efforts.
  • Guidance is an assistance of an individual in finding his place in life.
  • Guidance is an individualized education which promotes the learner in all respects.
  • Guidance is an adjustment to the external environment.
  • Guidance is the activity of  making favorable, adjustments in the benefit of the individual.
  • Guidance assists in solving the problems that arise in life.
  • Guidance is concerned with all men of society. It is provided on formal request.
  • Guidance is a means of establishing relationship between a person’s total educational experiences and his personal needs and potentialities, in an effective manner.

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Friday, 8 April 2016

Define the concept "Guidance" in detail


The concept of guidance is as old as the man himself. This concept has gained a global status in the present time. Every individual needs guidance in various fields of life. To me, guidance has become an independent field of study. Here are some established views of the learned which will help us in understanding the true
spirit of guidance.

  • Guidance is a process of helping every individual, through his own efforts, to discover and develop his potentialities for his personal happiness and social usefulness.
  •  Guidance refers to the helping the students to make more favorable adjustment. 
  • Guidance is, in fact, an individualized education which aims at helping the students to develop themselves to the maximum possible degree in all respects. 
  • Guidance is a process and technique through which a person is able to receive help needed in solving his personal and other problems.
  • Guidance is a process through which an individual is able to solve his problems and pursue a path suited to his abilities and aspirations. 
  • Guidance refers to assisting the individual to choose prepare for, enter upon, and progress in courses of action pertaining to the educational, vocational, recreational and community service groups of human activities. 
  • Guidance is an understanding a person and making him understand himself, so that he may bring about in himself and in his environment such changes through which his proper development becomes possible. 
  • Guidance helps an individual to develop his personality fully and enables him to serve the society to the best of his capabilities and talents. 
  • Guidance is a process through which an individual or groups of individuals are helped to make necessary adjustments to the environment inside or outside the school. 
  • Guidance seeks to help the individual discover his own talents in comparison to the opportunities of the world and help him prepare himself so that he can find or develop his place in which he can live a well-balanced life and Contribute his part to the welfare of his fellow men. 
  • Guidance involves personal help given by someone; it is designed to assist, a person in deciding where he wants to go, what he wants to do and how he can best accomplish his purposes.
  • Guidance is a continuous process for a favorable directional influence upon appropriate social behavior, personal effectiveness in every day affairs, academic competence and assimilation of right values and attitudes. 
  • Guidance is an assistance made available personally qualified and adequately trained men or women to an individual of any age to help him manage his own life activities, develop his own point of views; make his own decisions and carry his own burdens. 
  • Guidance is a process of dynamic interpersonal relationships designed to influence the attitudes and subsequent behavior of a person. 
  • Guidance is an educational service designed to help students make more effective use of the school’s training programs.

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Sunday, 3 April 2016

Define community and also discuss the differences between society and community


Community refers to a group of people living within a specific geographic area who co-operate in all their life activities and who share a sense of belonging.
  • Community means a small group of people living in a particular locality and having common interests.
  • Community refers to the residents of a local area like a township. 
  • Community means a group of people having common interests such the a medical community, educational community, intellectual community, government servant community and the white-collar community. Tribes, villages and families are the significant forms of community.


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOCIETY AND COMMUNITY

The differences between society and community can be explained in the following lines :-

SOCIETY 

  1. Society spread over a vast area.
  2. A society consists of many communities.
  3. A society is free from all external pressures and sanctions.
  4. This is not necessary for the members of a society to be similar in dress, language and customs.
  5. There is a limited mutual co-operation and dependence in the members of a society.
  6. Generally, the people of a society are Self-conceited and self-indulged. There is a a lesser sense of belonging in the members of a society.
  7. A society is aware of the situations and conditions of other societies of the world.
  8. Society is based on the ontological and metaphysical believe.
  9. A nation is developed on the basis of a society.
  10. The individuals of a society gather together on various commercial places.
  11. The Indian society, the Arabic society, the French society and the Chinese society are the significant examples of a society.

COMMUNITY

  1. Community spread over a limited area.
  2. Community is a unit of society.
  3. Community is not concerned with the external pressures.
  4. Similarities in language, dress and customs are generally observed in the people belonging to a community.
  5. The members of a community depend on one another in their daily life affairs.
  6. The members of a community share their pleasures and sorrows. Their mutual relationship is exemplary.
  7. Community is interested in knowing the situations and conditions of its members.
  8. Community is based on the common interests of the people who think alike.
  9. Tribes and villages are developed on the basis of a community.
  10. The members of a community share the same religious and trade centers.
  11. The tribes, villages and army towns are the significant examples of a community. When we say that the Rajpoot tribe lives in this village, it means that this village belongs to the Rajpoot tribe.

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Friday, 1 April 2016

Discuss the role of education in the development of an individual


Every child is born in a society. This very society turns him/her into an aware individual. Education renders valuable services in connection with the acquisition of the individual-oriented social objectives. Education prepares the individual for performing their social role successfully following the development of their abilities.
If there is no educative process, the individual might not have acquainted with his/her faculties. In this regard, education is essential for an individual. Every society acknowledges the role of education in the development of personality of an individual. The salient points regarding this role are discussed here under :-

  • Education makes the individuals acquainted with their capacities and potentials and consequently enables them to take part in the healthy social activities.
  • Education makes an individual self-aware, Divine-aware and socially-aware and thus turns him/her into a balanced and civilized individual of the society.
  • Education develops the personality of the individuals in line with the national philosophy of life. To my mind, education is the only means by which such individuals are produced whom God and society like.
  • Education awakens the civic sense Of the individuals. An individual is acquainted with social rights and duties by means of the educative process. This is the educative process which assists in securing the significant aim of establishment of a healthy society.
  • Education provides professional training to the individuals and thus enables them to take part in the healthy economic activities.
  • Education increases not only the individual income but also leaves positive effects on Grand National Income.
  • Education teaches the social role to the members of the society. The individual, aware of his/her social role, brings about social peace, stability and unity. 
  • Education develops a sense of moral values in the individual. The educated individuals absorb the :moral values into their personality and thus become a means of promotion of these social values.
  • Education tells the individuals about the abilities they possess, the trends they are born with, and  the professions which are in conformity with their abilities and tendencies. The individual is in a position to make right decision following the acquisition of such valuable information about his/her self.
  • Following the all-round personality development of the individuals, education introduces an individual as an aware and competent citizen. Such civilized and well-aware citizens render necessary services for the state and the nation as well.
  • Education maintains a pleasant harmony between the individual aspirations and the collective needs and thereby ensures the fulfillment of the needs of the individual and the: society as well. Education makes an individual understand his/her social role which the society expects.

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