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Friday, 30 December 2016

Define "integration of curricular components" and what its significance is


The integration of curricular components refers to the logical relationship among the elements of curriculum which aims at developing the students so as to build their character in accordance with the objectives of education. • The integration of curricular components refers to the attempt of acquiring the educational objectives by means of the combined endeavors of the elements of curriculum. The integration of curricular components leads to the acquisition of the curricular objectives. All the components of curriculum influence one another. The performance of one rests on the other. If the mutual dependence among them collapses, the curricular process might not have achieved its targeted objectives. To me, the following points indicate the significance of the integration of curricular component :-
• The integration of curricular components positively influences of the instructional process and brings about better instructional results.
• The process of curriculum development proves to be effective only if there is a logical co-ordination among the components of curriculum.
• The success of the curricular process depends on the mutual co-ordination of all four components of curriculum. The conflicts among them obstacle the way to the acquisition of the objectives of curriculum.
• The relationship among the components of curriculum is essential for keeping the process of curriculum dynamic.
• If an element of curriculum is disconnected from the rest of the elements, the process of curriculum would have collapsed and failed to achieve its aims.
• The body of the process of curriculum consists of four components of curriculum. These components grant the process of curriculum a meaningful form. They are also the pillars of a building. If one of the pillars has defects, it would be dangerous for the whole building.
• Inter-dependence is observed in all components of curriculum. All the components depend on the others. For instance; if the method of teaching is ineffective and dull, the curricular content would not be able to secure its objectives.
• The curricular decisions are made keeping in view all the components of curriculum. If there is no mutual interaction among those components, the task of decision making would become difficult.

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Tuesday, 20 December 2016

Discuss the objectives of curricular evaluation in your own words




The educationists hold that curricular evaluation is an essential element of a system of education. This is the clement which tells the teacher and the educational administrator about the extent of those acquainted objectives of curriculum for which the instructional process was carried out. Without the curricular evaluation, nobody can know whether or not the curricular destiny has been achieved. Curricular evaluation is, in fact, an act of accountability. The following points are notable regarding the statement of the objectives of curricular evaluation in the educative process :-

• Curricular evaluation tells us whether or not the objectives of curriculum have been achieved for which the instructional process was carried out.

• Curricular evaluation makes us aware whether the expectations associated with the students have been realized or not following the teaching of the content.

• Curricular evaluation gives valuable information regarding the development of various aspects of the individual's personality.

• The results of curricular evaluation tell the teacher about the present situation of the student.

• Due to the process of curricular evaluation, a teacher can know where does a student stand? What is his/her educational performance and how can his/her performance be improved?

• Curricular evaluation reflects the performance of the teacher. The findings of curricular evaluation speak of the role of teacher in the instructional process. It also throws light on the extent to which the students get themselves advantage of the teacher's ability.

• The results of curricular evaluation throw light of the defects of the curricular content. The curricular content is modified and reformed in the light of the findings of curricular evaluation.

• Curricular evaluation is a tool for measuring the effects of a particular method of teaching on the instructional process. The results of curricular evaluation speak of the extent of effectiveness of a method of teaching for the instruction of a particular content.

• The findings of curricular evaluation throw light on the performance of various elements of education in the educative process. These findings enable to evaluate the possibilities of increasing the performance of the elements of education.

• Curricular evaluation helps in judging the harmony between the psychological needs of the students and the content imparted. It also indicates how much interest the "students took during the instruction of a particular content.

• Curricular evaluation makes the teacher aware of the experiences, observation and practical skills of the students. This enables the teacher to guide the students in deciding their tracks of practical life.

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Thursday, 15 December 2016

Discuss the objectives of curriculum in detail


Curriculum is a plan which is prepared for the acquisition of the objectives of education. This is the only means of bringing about behavioral changes in the personality of the children. If curriculum is eliminated from the educative process, the education system would lose its justification. A good curriculum is always the spokesman of the national aspirations and ideals. A good curriculum can be said to have the following major objectives :-

Fulfillment of national aspirations :- 

The most fundamental aim of education is to fulfill the national aspirations. To me, curriculum is the soul of the educative process. If it is excluded from the system of the education, the nation would not succeed in securing the national aims. The national and individual aspirations are mirrored in the curriculum. Curriculum is the only means which paves the way to individual and collective welfare. The national ambitions are absorbed into curriculum and they are acquired through the instructional process.

Behavior modification :- 

Curriculum brings about behavioral changes in the personality of the individuals and thereby enables them capable of social adjustment. Such socially adjusted individuals cause social stability. They play their effective role in the national development. When the changes occurred in the behavior of the individuals, they prove themselves useful individually and collectively. Curriculum is the only means which enables the students to take part in the productive and socially acceptable activities.

Understanding the mysteries of the universe :- 

Curriculum gives an understanding of the mysteries of the universe to the students. The young generation is imparted the knowledge of the fundamental laws of the universe by means of the curricular content. This knowledge about the facts of the universe paves the way to the understanding the mysteries of the universe. Every system of education produces the ability of discovering the facts of the universe in its students. A nation cannot  compete with the other nations of the world the ability of understanding the fact of the universe. The education aim of the mysteries of the universe can only be achieved if these facts and mysteries are included in the curriculum developed for various levels of education.

Continuity in educational activities :- 

This is one of the primary objectives of curriculum to produce integration and continuity among the educational activities. Curriculum is developed in line with the objectives of education. These objectives can only be achieved when there is a co-ordination, balance and integration among all the educational activities. Curriculum integrates all the activities of education which thereby makes the learning process effective and durable. The curriculum for lower level of education provides foundations for developing the curriculum for higher level of education. If the previous learning experiences are linked with the newer ones, then the continuity of experiences, observations, and information maintains.

Conformity to changeable needs :- 

This is the responsibility of curriculum to conform the individuals to the changeable needs of the society. Man is inquisitive in nature and he discovers new worlds due to this natural tendency granted by God. Man has conquered many secrets of the universe due to his intellect and insight These new discoveries can only be preserved only if they are included in the curriculum of a nation. When  new facts and findings are become the part of curriculum, it becomes harmonized with the current needs. Life and society are dynamic. The, needs of life arc continuously changing. If we wish to make life harmonized, with the changeable needs, new changes should be included in the content of curriculum. In this way, curriculum will be able to fulfill the needs of the individuals and the society.

Harmony between individual and society :- 

No society can continue to exist without the harmony between individual and society. No doubt; the personality development of the individual is necessary by means of the educative process. But at the same time, curriculum enables the students to respect the social values so, as to strengthen the fabrics of the society. The conflict between the aspirations of the individual and the society lead to the instability in the society. It will spread frustration among the individuals which ultimately causes a gulf between individual and society. If the individual is annoyed, he/she will distort the fabrics of society. This situation is injurious to the harmony between individual and society. In the  circumstances, this is the responsibility of curriculum to maintain an expected harmony between individual and society.

Promotion of values :- 

All world societies determine the objectives of national system of education keeping in view the social values and social needs. Education derives its ultimate destination from the objectives of education. Curriculum is the only means which enables the process of education to reach its destination. In this regard, the objectives of education serve as the lighthouse and curriculum serves as a means to reach the destination. When the objectives of national education are determined, a practical program is formulated. This very program is termed as curriculum which carries out the process of the promotion of values.

Self-realization :- 

An individual must have the justification of his/her life. He/she has his/her own identity and at the, same time, he/she is a member of a society. He/she has the right to develop his/her personality while living in the society. He/she is not made for society. But he/she is nothing without a society. Here curriculum offers its services. It provides such opportunities and activities to the individuals by which an individual reaches the destination of self-realization. Self-realization refers to a particular state of mind under which an individual thinks of him/herself a successful and productive member of the society. Every child has to undergo various experiences, observation and events. Then, he/she becomes aware of him/herself and thereby gets comprehensive understanding of the society. This understanding of the individual leads to the social stability.

All-round personality development :- 

Curriculum is responsible for individual and collective development. For the successful delivery of this responsibility, curriculum equips the students with such skills and excellences that open new ways of progress in various fields of life. A balanced and successful curriculum develops all the aspects of human personality. This all-round development is the primary responsibility of curriculum and the chief objective of education. For the realization of this particular aim of curriculum and education, there should be the element of comprehensiveness in all the skills, excellences and activities included in the curriculum. Curriculum is the soul of the process of education and all-round development cannot be expected without the curriculum compatible with the needs of society.

Social reconstruction :- 

Society is a dynamic organism. A series of continual changes can be observed within the society. As a result of these social changes, some desirable and undesirable cultural attitudes become the part of society. New things are becoming the part of culture due to the development in science and technology. The social attitudes are being changed due to the inclusion of these elements in the social settings. The survival of society lies in the harmony between social values and social needs. This is what we say the social reconstruction which is the basic function of curriculum.

Development of individuality :- 

Development of individuality is one of the primary aims of curriculum. Every individual is born with some unique and distinct abilities. These abilities are developed by means of the process of education and ultimately curriculum aims at the development of the individuality of the individuals. Curriculum consists of the activities through which the abilities of the individuals may be exposed and developed so that they may render valuable services for the welfare of the nation and humanity.

Globalization :- 

Curriculum enables an individual to compete with the global needs. Science and technology has entirely changed the world scene. Now, this world has turned into a global village. Local. and limited thinking cannot cope with the international demands. Survival lies in competing with the demands of the globe. Curriculum renders valuable services in this regard. It prepares the individuals to cope with modern needs so that they may maintain their individuality on the global level. 

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Wednesday, 14 December 2016

Give an account of the characteristics of good curriculum


Curriculum is not an end in itself but a means to an end. This is a truth that curriculum is developed in order to achieve the objectives of education. To me, curriculum is a tool in the hands of teacher to mould the students according to the objectives of education in the formal educational settings. A teacher is an artist who moulds his material according to his ideals in his studio. To me, the educator is like an artist and curriculum is an instrument used by him to develop the abilities of the educand in conformity with the aims of education. Following are the salient characteristics of a good curriculum :-

Curriculum should be conformed to the philosophy of life :- 

A good curriculum is developed in the light of national ideology of life. National traditions and ideologies are reflected in all aspects and elements of curriculum. This very characteristic distinguishes a curriculum of a nation from other curriculum's of various nations. The curriculum developed in line with the national ideology can only produce the individuals who believe in the national ideology.

Curriculum should be responsible for personality development :- 

The aim of education is to enable the individuals to lead a successful life following the development of abilities: A formal curriculum is developed for the attainment of this aim of education. The predetermined curricular activities are necessary for the personality development of an individual. In this regard, a curriculum should have the ability to develop the personality of the individuals.

Curriculum should prepare the individuals for practical life :- 

The educational institutions, being a small society, prepare the individuals to cope with the demands of real life. The curricular activities of the school make the students  acquainted with the social ideals and attitudes so that they may participate in the social life successfully. This is the only way of awakening the consciousness regarding the solution of collective problems. The school is responsible for social development of the students for which balanced curriculum is developed.

Curriculum should be in line with the demands of the individual :- 

The individual is not meant for curriculum but curriculum is developed for the welfare of the individual. Every child is born with some innate faculties. Education develops and organizes these faculties. For developing and organizing the faculties of the individual, it is necessary that the curriculum must be in harmony with the mental age, psychological needs, developmental patterns and individual differences. In this way, the objectives of curricular activities would be realized positively.

Curriculum should be compatible with the objectives of education :- 

Curriculum is developed in line with the objectives of education. A good curriculum is the most significance means of the attainment of objectives of education. The curriculum, which is not linked with the objectives of education, is unable to produce the individuals required by the nation. Curriculum is a comprehensive strategy and plan which aims at the production of such individuals as are expected in the objectives of education. In this regard, it can rightly be stated that a good curriculum is a tool for the realization of the objectives of education.

Curriculum should be flexible :- 

Good curriculum is capable of coping with the changing social conditions. A balanced curriculum can mould itself according to the existing conditions. In this regard, it seems necessary that the curriculum must have the traits of flexibility, reformation and modification. Man and society are continuously changing. These changes should be included in the contents of curriculum so that the new generation may successfully face the challenges of the changing world.

Curriculum should be integrated and continuous :- 

The contents and learning experiences of good curriculum are integrated. The elements of continuity and organization are explicitly observed in a good curriculum. When the curricular contents and activities are inter-linked, they would make the process of instruction and learning meaningful and productive. The curricular activities should be organized in such a way that they may motivate the students for further experiences and experiences. To me, the continuity in the learning experiences leads to the gradual personality development of the students.

Curriculum should be linked with the environment :- 

A good curriculum is linked with the surrounded environment and needs. An individual is bound to live in a society. He/she should not be prepared for such life as he/she does not practice in the society. By means of education, an individual is imparted with the understanding of the environment and the local traditions so that he/she may lead a successful life. Besides, a good curriculum takes advantage of available resources and instructional technology. The process of instruction can be made effective by employing these sources. This is the only way to make the students aware of the phenomena around them.

Curriculum should be dynamic :- 

Good curriculum keeps the educative process, the students and the teachers moving and dynamic. To me, dynamism is the key to development. The curriculists should include those activities in the curriculum which may help in all-round personality development of the students and thereby enable them to lead a successful life. An emphasis should be laid down on the practical activities in the curriculum for the children so that they may develop their dynamic potentials. Good curriculum always motivates the students to actions and makes them mentally active and alive.

Curriculum should be comprehensive :- 

The contents and activities of curriculum should be comprehensive and capable of bringing about behavioral changes in the students. The learning experiences included in the curriculum should be linked with the broader aspects of life. When the students pass through such experiences, they get a comprehensive understanding of the society and life. The limited curriculum cannot comprehensively develop the abilities of the students. It seems necessary in the circumstances that the character and conducts of the students should be moulded according to the national aspirations, and ideologies by means of comprehensive curricular activities.

Curriculum should be balanced :- 

The curriculum should cater for the needs of the individual and the society as well. All the aspects of human personality should be taken into account during the development of curriculum. There should be the elements of interest and motivation for all the students having different abilities. It should produce such individuals as can establish a balanced and stable society. If balanced attention is not paid to the personality of the individual, the object of balanced development of personality of the student might not be attained.

Curriculum should be life-oriented :- 

A good curriculum is closely associated with the demands of practical life. The curriculists should include those contents which enable the students to participate in the affairs of life successfully and productively. All the skills and activities included in the curriculum should be life-oriented. As this is the duty of education to train the individuals for future life, curriculum should be the mirror of the demands and requirements of daily life affairs.

Curriculum should be based on individual differences :- 

A good curriculum considers the individual differences of the students. Every child is born with distinct abilities which make him/her a unique individual. These unique traits of the children give birth to the concept of individual differences. The experts hold that all the children vary in interests, tendencies and attitudes. These differences and variations of the children in abilities should be taken into account during the development of curriculum. The optional and elective subjects should also be included in the curriculum so that the students may select the subjects of their own choice and interest.

Curriculum should be harmonized with the psychological principles :- 

A good curriculum is always harmonized with the psychological principles. The psychological needs of the students are taken into account during the development of a good curriculum. The interest and aptitudes of the students should be seriously considered during the process of curriculum development. For the comprehensive realization of the objectives of education, it seems necessary that the contents of curriculum should be in line with the psychological needs, interests, and natural tendencies of the students.

Curriculum should be conformed to the abilities of the students :- 

Curriculum is developed for the child and the child is not born to obey the commandments of the curriculum. A good curriculum takes into account the all-round abilities of the students. If the content of curriculum is higher than the cognitive level of the students, it would not be able to motivate the students to take interest in the process of instruction. In this way, all the educative process will prove purposeless, unproductive and meaningless: In the circumstance, it requires that the abilities of the students must be kept in mind during the construction of curriculum for various levels of education.

Curriculum should be linked with the social needs :- 

Curriculum trains the individuals to play their role in the society. A good curriculum develops a necessary social vision to meet the social challenges and problems. An individual can comprehensively understand his/her social responsibilities. If education is a process of socialization, we should have to acknowledge that a good curriculum works behind this socialization. Curriculum should make the individuals acquainted with the social traditions and values. It teaches the individuals the art of practical living and makes them good citizens. in this way, curriculum proves itself to be the fulfiller of the social needs and makes the society stable, prosperous and integrated.


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Tuesday, 13 December 2016

Define the concept 'components of curriculum' and discuss these components in detail or discuss the elements of curriculum in detail



Components of curriculum refer to those essential elements (parts) which make the instructional activities effective and result-oriented. To me, curriculum is a combination of four important elements. These elements provide the bases for the logical continuity of the process, of curriculum. These elements play a significant role in the process of curriculum development. These elements are discussed here tinder :-

Objectives of curriculum :-

The 'objectives of curriculum' is logically the first element of the process of curriculum. The objectives are first formulated in the process of curriculum development. The other elements of curriculum development are planned in the light of the objectives of curriculum. Generally, the objectives of curriculum and the objectives of education are identical in nature. The curricular affairs like the selection of content, methodology, instructional technology, preparation of textbooks and selection of the methods of evaluation are directly concerned with the objectives of curriculum. The ambitions of the nation are mirrored in the objectives Of curriculum which are realized by means of the curricular and co-curricular activities. The 'objectives of curriculum' is, in fact, a national document containing the national aspiration. For the acquisition of these aspirations, a formal process of instruction is carried out. To me, the objectives of curriculum guide the entire curricular process. They give us the knowledge of what do we wish the students to be? 'Determination of objectives of curriculum' is a sensitive process which requires ample care in their selection. There should be the following characteristics in the objectives of curriculum :-
• The objectives of curriculum are harmonized with the needs of the society.
• The psychological needs and interests of the students are taken into account during the development of the objectives of curriculum.
• The objectives of curriculum are conformed to the ideological foundations of a nation.
• The all-round development of the personality of an individual is considered to the objectives of curriculum. • The objectives of curriculum are explained in an explicit, simple and categorical language.

Curricular content :- 

The curricular content is the second important component of the process of curriculum. Following the determination of the objectives of curriculum, the questions arises how to realize the determined objectives of curriculum. So to say, which learning experiences, activities and skills should be selected for instruction for the acquisition of the objectives of curriculum? According to my viewpoint, curricular content refers to a collection of information, skills, learning experiences and practical activities that are organized for the purpose of securing the curricular objectives. Curricular content is, in fact, a content selected for instruction for the purpose of curricular Objectives. The curricular content is a significant component of the process of curriculum due to the following reasons :-
• Curricular content decides the destination of the learner.
• Curricular content makes the instructional process effective and purpose-oriented.
• Curricular content decides a course of action for a student.
• Curricular content provides foundations to the process of evaluation.
• Curricular content provides bases for the formulation of  textbooks. A textbook is developed on the lines provided by the curricular content.
• Curricular content contains the ideology of a nation and thereby promotes it through the process of instruction.

Methodology :- 

Following the selection and organization of the curricular content, an affair comes out how to transmit the curricular content to the students? The instructional process is ,carried out for the acquisition of this aim. The curricular content is transmitted to the students by means of the instructional process. The transmission of the curricular content is necessary for the acquisition of the curricular objectives. The teacher adopts different instructional strategies for the transmission of the curricular content keeping in view the nature of the content so that he/she may transmit the content to the student in an effective manner. In a lay man term, the instructional strategies are called the methods of instruction. To me, the teaching method is a tool which is used by a teacher to transfer the content to the students. The experts hold that the teaching method is a carrier that carries the content from one place to another. A method of teaching must possess the following significant characteristics :-
• The method of teaching must be compatible with the nature of the content.
• It must be harmonized with the mental ability of the students.
• It must be in line with the interest and aptitude of the students.
• It must have the ability to fulfill the needs of the subject concerned.
• It must have relevance with the surrounded conditions.
• It must have the ability to use the available resources in the classroom.

Curricular evaluation :- 

Curricular evaluation is an activity that examines the degree to which objectives of curriculum have been achieved by means of the instructional process. To me, the curricular evaluation refers to the use of research techniques to measure the degree to which identified objectives have been achieved in a program. Following the process of instruction, it is examined to what extent the determined objectives of instruction  have been realized. The instructional process brings about behavioral changes in the character and conduct of the students. A teacher wishes to know the extent of the success of his/her instruction following the transmission of the curricular content to the students. For the purpose of answering all these questions, curricular evaluation, as a formal activity, is carried out. Being the last element of the process of curriculum, curricular evaluation plays a considerable role in the process of curriculum which can be explained in the following lines :-
• It provides valuable help in evaluating the performance of the students.
• It helps in evaluating the validity and effectiveness of a method of teaching.
• It provides valuable information regarding the extent to which the objectives of curriculum have been achieved.
• The results of curricular evaluation help in making necessary modifications in the content, teaching methods and other instructional strategies.
• It helps in measuring the performance of the teacher.
• It also helps in calculating the suitability and appropriateness of the methods of teaching.


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Monday, 12 December 2016

Define the concepts of 'Curriculum', 'syllabus' and 'course' And also explain the differences among them with examples


`Curriculum', 'syllabus' and 'course' are entirely distinct and different concepts. They cannot be used interchangeably. They are not synonymous in meaning and usage as some people consider them identical. The differences among these concepts are discussed here under :-

Curriculum :- 

Curriculum is a sum total of the activities which are executed for the acquisition of the broader objectives of education. These activities include both the curricular and co-curricular activities. What do we wish to make a nation? This requires a particular curriculum to be developed and presented to the new generation. Curriculum consists of all these things which are necessary to reach the destiny. The future of a nation is associated with the curriculum developed for the people of a nation.

Syllabus :- 

Syllabus refers to a list of topics and books that the students study in a particular subject at school. • Syllabus refers to a list of topics which is prepared for success in public examination. • The syllabus is, in fact, a detailed document of the topic of a subject. That is why : some experts hold that syllabus is a list of topics to be taught to the students.

Course :- 

Course refers to the details of topics described in the syllabus. All the sub-topics of a topic are mentioned in it. • Course refers to any of the separate units of instruction in a subject made up of lectures. • Course refers to a series of lesions or lectures on a particular subject. • Course is a mirror which tells us the number of lessons, instruction duration and supporting concepts required for instruction of a topic. The differences among curriculum, syllabus and course are discussed in the following table.

Differences among `Curriculum', 'syllabus' and 'course :-

Curriculum :-

  1. Curriculum includes all those activities and learning experiences Which are provided to the students for the acquisition of the objectives of education.
  2. Curriculum is concerned only with the acquisition of the objectives of a particular level of education.
  3. Curriculum is concerned with all those objectives for which curriculum is developed.
  4. The different syllabuses bring about the fulfillment of the objectives of curriculum.
  5. Curriculum includes both curricular and co-curricular activities. 
  6. Curriculum is a comprehensive plan for the acquisition of the objectives of education.
  7. The different Syllabuses make a body of subjects. Then, this body of subjects is presented in terms of curricular activities.

Syllabus :-

  1. Syllabus refers to a list of topics of a subject.
  2. Syllabus throws light on the instructional material to be taught to the students for the acquisition of the objectives of a particular subject of a particular level of education.
  3. Syllabus is concerned with the objectives of a particular subject.
  4. Syllabus is a part of Curriculum. Different syllabuses make a curriculum.
  5. Syllabus is concerned only with the curricular activities.
  6. Only the objectives of a particular subject are explained in a syllabus.
  7. Syllabus consists of many topics.

Course :-

  1. Course includes the details of the topics. It throws light on the sub-topics and other supporting concepts of a topic likely to be instructed.
  2. Course seeks guidance from syllabus. The sub-topics of a course strive for the fulfillment of the objectives of a syllabus.
  3. Course strives for the acquisition of the objectives of a syllabus.
  4. Course is concerned with sub-topics. They organize themselves in terms of a syllabus.
  5. Course explains all the components of the curricular activities.
  6. Course points out the activities necessary for the acquisition of a particular topic.
  7. A topic is composed of many sub-topics.

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Thursday, 8 December 2016

Define Textbook and also discuss the characteristics of a good textbook


A textbook serves as a guide for a teacher and s student as well. Its content decides the destination of the both. To my mind, a textbook provides foundation for the instructional process. This also motivates the teachers and the students for instruction and learning. Here are some established and acknowledged definitions of a textbook. A textbook are a basic book used in a particular course of study. • A textbook is a book that is developed keeping in view particular curricular objectives, particular level of education and students possessing specific cognitive abilities. • The book that is developed for the purpose of seeking similarities in content and instructional activities organized for the students of various educational institutions. The salient characteristics of a textbook are mentioned in the following lines :-

Conformity with the objectives of curriculum :- 

A standard textbook conforms to the pre-determined objectives of curriculum. There must be coordination between the content of textbook and the objectives of curriculum. To me, every textbook is the most significant source of obtaining the curricular objectives. It it fails in achieving the aims of curriculum, it will definitely be regarded that there is no agreement and relationship between the content and the curricular objectives.

Harmony with national ideology :- 

Every nation leads life according to its philosophy of life which is reflected in the system of education. This very philosophy of life is presented in the textbook contents so that the new generation may get acquainted with it. A textbook is developed in the light of the segments of the national philosophy of life. All aspects of a textbook mirror the national ideology. It is obligatory for the learned writers to provide these necessary services in terms of the development of textbooks for the attainment of the broad objectives of education.

Logical organization :- 

A logical organization can be observed in the content, skills and other activities selected for the textbook. The flow of information and skills should be from simple to complicated, know to the unknown, easy to difficult and from abstract to concrete. The content of the textbook should be integrated, balanced, sequenced and harmonized. It should not be disintegrated and parted. All concepts presented in the textbook must be interlinked and logically connected so that they may assist in understanding one another.

Conformity with the capabilities of the learners :- 

A standard textbook must be harmonized with the interests, needs, psychological demands and mental level of the student. In this situation, the students will take keen interest in the educative and  instructional process. Otherwise, the educative process will end in nothing. If the textbook content is not in accordance with the psychological needs and cognitive level of the students, the students will exhibit fatigue and disinterest which will lead ,to wastage of academic and educational sources. A good textbook  attracts the students in many ways if it is developed according to the established principles.

Unbiased content :- 

The content and other learning experiences of a good textbook are unbiased and objective. There should be no_ amalgamation of the personal aspirations and attachments of the writers in the contents of the textbook. The textbook should be free from all those academic contents which hurt particular class of the individuals or a school of thought. The content of the textbook must address the whole mankind.

Comprehensiveness and simplicity :- 

Comprehensiveness and simplicity are the two primary traits of a textbook. The content of the textbook should be simple in nature and in presentation but should be comprehensive in impression and effect. The content should cover all the aspects of human life. In this way, the comprehensive aims of developing the personality of the individual shall be obtained. It is necessary for the developer of the textbook to avoid from irrelevant material but they must keep in mind the principle of comprehensiveness and simplicity during the development of the textbook.

Real-life experiences :- 

A good textbook makes the individuals aware of the experiences of real life. Curriculum is concerned with life and life is a reality. The experiences of life are the precious heritage of mankind. A textbook must consist of the human heritage. This heritage is transmitted to the students in terms of a textbook. Education is life and this life is presented in the textbook. In this regard, it seems necessary that the students should be acquainted with the truths of life so they may solve the problems of life.

Presentation of the content :- 

A psychological and logical order is observed in the presentation of a textbook. First of all, the topics are described and thereafter, such topics are mentioned in the textbook. The division of the content into topics and sub-topics facilitate the instruction and learning process. This division enables the teacher to teach a topic under various headings. On the other hand, it brings about facilitation in learning of a topic for the students.

External impression :- 

The external impression of a good textbook is always impressive and absorbing. The external impression includes printing on good quality paper, attractive title, appropriate volume, reasonable price and easily availability in the market. The external impression of a textbook matters much for a lay man. It is quite possible that a student begins to dislike a subject because of the unimpressive title of a textbook. It is also possible that a student cannot get benefit of a textbook because of its high price. The textbook should be free from all grammatical and typographical mistakes. Such mistakes may corrupt the meaning of the content and leave negative effects on the learning process.

Objectivity :- 

Objectivity refers to a tendency of viewing things on the basis of external truths and unbiased findings. It totally denies the personal desires and wills. A good textbook is marked with the feature of objectivity. The content of a textbook should be the spokesman of the external realities. All the content of a textbook should be verifiable. A textbook, lacking the quality of objectivity, cannot produce the students which the education system expects.

Explanation of the content :- 

The difficult points of a textbook are explained in terms of pictures, sketches, tables, concrete examples and diagrams. The use of these explanatory tools can bring about better instructional results. The students become able to understand the immaterial concepts presented in the textbook. The writers must be careful in the development of explanatory tools. They should keep the social values and curricular objectives during the development of these explanatory tools.

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Tuesday, 6 December 2016

Discuss the scope of curriculum in detail


Education is an orderly, society oriented and deliberate effort. So, some plan is needed to guide this effort. In this way, curriculum, generally, refers to this plan. This plan is indispensable for the acquisition of the objectives associated with curriculum. The scope of curriculum is broad and wide. It ranges from the individual needs to the global needs. It includes all those activities which help in obtaining the comprehensive objectives of education. The scope of curriculum can be explained by means of the following headings :-

National ideology :- 

Curriculum is directly concerned with the ideology of a nation. All the aspects of curriculum are developed on the basis of national philosophy of a nation. The contents of curriculum correspond to the basic principles of the national ideology. It cannot maintain its existence without the guidance of national ideology. This is the only means of promoting the national ideology in the youths of a nation. All the components of national ideology are mirrored in the contents of curriculum. So, we may say that curriculum is a spokesman of national ideology.

Objectives of curriculum :- 

Curriculum derives its objectives from the objectives of education. There is a close relationship between the objectives of curriculum and that of education. Curriculum does not decide its objectives by itself. It seeks
guidance from the objectives of education. Curriculum cannot part with the objectives of education. If the content of curriculum is not developed in line with the objectives of education, it would fail in securing its objectives. To summarize, curriculum, without the consideration of objectives of education, is mere a combination of information and skills which lead to the production of socially unproductive individuals.

Selection of content :- 

Selection of content is also included in the scope of curriculum. The content gives a material form to the concept of curriculum. The a selection of content is a very sensitive activity. A curriculists should take into account many aspects of individual and social life. He/she must consider the mental, physical, social, economic and psychological needs of the students during the selection of content for a particular level of education. If the content of curriculum is compatible with the needs of the individuals and the society, it would succeed in securing all of its objectives.

Curricular activities :- 

The curriculists hold that the curricular activities include  human learning experiences, observations, skills and other academic excellences. These activities help in developing the personality of the students in a comprehensive and all-round way. These curricular activities belong to all aspects of human life. They range from earth to heaven and from an individual to the far end of the society. These activities are developed in line with the objectives of curriculum. If there is no co-ordination and integration among these activities, the objectives of instruction might have not been achieved. These activities are the soul of the whole process of education. In the circumstances, it requires that these activities should be in accordance with the social, cognitive, moral, and psychological needs of the students.

Co-curricular activities :- 

The aim of education is the comprehensive personality of the individuals. Only the curricular activities cannot develop the personality of the individuals in a comprehensive way. The textbooks are not capable of developing the individuals personality in an all-round manner. For the balanced development of the personality of the students, the school should arrange the co-curricular activities along with the curricular activities. The, co-curricular activities include games, sports, athletics, student union, tutorial groups, literary society; subject society, scouting, Girl Guide and welfare organizations etc. These activities leave positive impression of the personality of the students and deepen their life experiences. These activities play a significant role in the development of moral and leadership abilities.

Methodology :- 

When the content of curriculum is decided for instruction, it requires a method of instruction to transmit the content to the teacher. This method is selected keeping in view the nature of the content. A teacher should use the technique of teaching which corresponds to the psychological needs of the students and requirements of the content. If the element of methodology is eliminated from the process of curriculum, the transmission of the academic excellences to the students would have become impossible. This is the method of teaching which allows the content to be transmitted to the students. To me, methodology is a carrier which takes the content from the teacher to the student.

Communication :- 

Communication is the essence of the process of curriculum. It is the process of transmission of information,. skills and other academic excellences from one place to another and from one mind to another. For the successful transmission of curriculum to the students, a teacher must have the ability of explicit communication. If the teacher has mastery in the skill of communication, he/she might have expressed him/herself in an effective way. Through education, we develop the ability of effective communication in the students. Curriculum is the only means which may develop this ability in the students.

Instructional aids :- 

The instructional aids play a significant role in the transmission of content to the students effectively and successfully. The use of instructional aids is an important element of the process of curriculum. Instructional aids and effective teaching depend on each other. A teacher can effectively transmit the content to the students with the help of proper instructional aids. These aids make the lesson attractive, absorbing, interesting, result-oriented, and effective. Keeping in view the significance of the instructional aids in the instructional process, we may conclude that the scope of curriculum is bound to acknowledge the services of instructional aids.

Professional activities :- 

Curriculum prepares the individuals to successfully adopt professions compatible with their potentials, training and aptitudes. For the acquisition of this aim of curriculum, the psychomotor activities are included in the curriculum so that the individuals may prepare themselves for - entering a profession of their livelihood. The professional training leads to the individual and national economic stability. In this regard, the scope of curriculum extends to the professional training of the individuals.

All-round development :- 

Curriculum is directly concerned with the personality development and social stability. It opens new door to prosperous life. All the contents of curriculum target the comprehensive and all-round development of the individual's personality. This is the primary responsibility of curriculum and the foremost aim of education. There must be comprehensiveness, broadness and versatility in the contents of curriculum so that the objectives of curriculum may be realized. To me, personality development of the individual is the core subject of curriculum. That is why: curriculum should keep all the aspect of human personality in consideration.

Guidance :-

Curriculum, in fact, guides to the unknown and unseen ways of life it guides the students through all the aspects of life. This guidance may involve cognitive, physical, emotional, moral or spiritual aspect of human personality. And human personality development is the primary aim, of the process of curriculum. Man is confronted with many problems in life. Curriculum suggests solutions to these problems in a formal way. It trains the individuals for leading a successful life. So to say, the transmission of curriculum is the transmission guidance. To summarize, the process of curriculum is rightly the process of guidance as education is a process of guidance.

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Monday, 5 December 2016

Elaborate the nature of curriculum in brief


Curriculum is an important element of the process of education. This makes education a practical social activity. We come across many aspects of curriculum following the studies of the views on curriculum of educational philosophers. These aspects provide valuable information regarding the nature, structure, composition and functions of curriculum. They are briefly discussed here under :-

  • Curriculum is a comprehensive program of education which consists of activities necessary for the acquisition of the objectives of education.
  • Curriculum is concerned with the learning experiences. These experiences are conducted inside or outside the school.
  • Curriculum is s path which leads the students to their destiny. This is the only means of acquiring the goals of education.
  • Curriculum is a compact plan which aims at the production of the individuals conformed to the national needs.
  • Curriculum includes all those information, skills and activities which develop the personality of the students and turn them into aware citizens.
  • Curriculum is a combination of such opportunities which enable the students to bring about positive behavioral changes in their personality.
  • Curriculum is a blend of activities which develop the personality of the students and thereby enable them to play their role in the construction and building of the nation. 
  • Curriculum is a plan which is designed for the all-round personality development of the students.
  • Curriculum is a development plan formulated for the students so that they may learnt the art of successful living in the society.
  • Curriculum is a document which points Out the cognitive, social, moral, spiritual and academic activities by means of whom the personality of the students is shaped in conformity with the social values and traditions.
  • Curriculum is a regular and formal program which is formulated for the realization of the objectives of education.

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Sunday, 4 December 2016

Define the concept ‘Curriculum’ in the light of the Views of distinguished scholars


The ‘word "curriculum” has been derived from the Latin word ‘currer’. Lexically Speaking, curriculum means a runway. The term ‘curriculum’ was first used by the Scottish in 1820. In the beginning, this Word was used in the meaning of ‘riding’ but with the passage of time, it began to be used in sense of ‘course of study’. On contrary, the Greek used this word in the sense of development of abilities. This passage reveals that the concept of curriculum has been repeatedly changing from time to time.
According to some other historical traditions, the term ‘curriculum” implies an ‘athletic ground”. Thus, it indicates that Curriculum is the ground through. Which the educand has to pass in order to reach a definite goal. In the remote past, this term was also taken to mean a collection of knowledge and skill. But the modern interpretation of the term is clarified by many experts who suggest that the curriculum is the organized form of subject matter, specially prepared to meet the requirements of the students. Now, Curriculum includes those activities, experiences, and skills which provide the students with the abilities and skills they will require in facing the various situation of real life. To me, the term ‘curriculum’ cannot be
restricted to the list of books or subjects because it must include other activities and the social environment of the school and other elements which are not taught in books. Curriculum, in its broadest sense, includes the complete school environment involving academic books, activities reading skills and associations furnished to the students in the educational institutions. Here are some established and" representative
definitions of curriculum.

  • Curriculum is a blend of such activities, skills and behavior which are arranged and developed for the fertilization of pre-determined objectives of education.
  • Curriculum is a work schedule or a body of experiences that lies between objectives and teaching styles. 
  • Curriculum is the whole body of courses of studies offered to the students. 
  • Curriculum refers to the selection of subject matter to be taught. 
  • Curriculum is an activity oriented comprehensive strategy which aims at developing the students in line with the objectives of education. 
  • Curriculum is a plan for gleaming. 
  • Curriculum is a combination of those activities, skill and attitudes which are organized for the realization of the pre-determined objectives of education.
  • Curriculum consist of the courses of studies offered in the instructional activities of the school. 
  • Curriculum is a set of contents for the teachers and learners in the class room. 
  • Curriculum refers to the practical steps to be taken for the attainment of educational objectives. 
  • Curriculum is a menu of opportunities that allows a student to develop the thinking and skills necessary to succeed in life and to pursue mental and physical well being.
  • Curriculum is an essential body of skills and knowledge which enables the students to continue the acquisition of new knowledge and additional skills. 
  • Curriculum is a body of knowledge that is a framework and guides to allow students to reach their potential. It teaches them skills needed to survive as productive citizens. 
  • Curriculum is a process of learning and discovery which utilizes any means necessary to enhance students abilities to recognize and explore their ignorance. 
  • Curriculum refers to the planned experiences provided through instruction, which enables the school to meet its aims.

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Saturday, 3 December 2016

Briefly discuss the significant types (approaches to) of counseling


Counseling is a broad term which encompasses all the fields of life. For the convenience of study, the scholars have divided the concept of counseling into various types. All these types are based on the general principles which run the process of counseling. The experts have pointed out the following well-defined
approaches to the theory and practice of counseling :-

Directive counseling :- 

The directive Counseling, which is g also called as prescriptive or counselor-oriented counseling, was founded by Prof. Williamson, University of Minnesota, USA. He holds that the counselor is competent, mature and qualified person. .He has the ability to handle a problem and can advise the counselee. regarding the solution of the problem. The process of counseling should evolve around the counselor, Counselor is the person who can lead the counselee out of the problematic situation. The counselor owns the responsibility of solving the problems of the counselee. 
  • The directive counseling refers to the counseling strategy in which the counselee follows the directions of his/her counselor to solve the problems.
  • Directive counseling refers to a counseling process in which the counselee depends on the directions and experiences of the counselor for the solution of his problems.
Following are the salient characteristics of directive counselings :-

  • This approach of counseling is counselor-centered. The counselor designs the strategy for his counselee.
  • The focus of attention in the directive counseling is ‘the problem’ rather than ‘the counselee’. But it does not mean that they are two different things.
  • The counselor plays an active role in this approach of counseling. He is well aware of the situation and wishes to control the conditions according to his own will.
  • The counselor employs various tools of research for the collection of date about the counselee.
  • The counselor prepares suggestions for the solution of the problems faced by the counselee. The counselee can get rid of the painful situation by acting upon the suggestions advised by the counselor.

Non-directive counseling : 

The non-directive counseling, which is also termed as permissive or client-centered counseling, has grown out of reaction to the directive approach of counseling. This new approach was founded by its chief exponent Carl Rogers. He believes that every individual has to right and ability to choose a right path to attain the goals of life. In the non-directives approach, the counselor pushes himself into the background and allows the counselee to play on the front foot. Rogers calls his approach of counseling, as ‘client-centered counseling as it evolves around the personality of the client. This counseling aims at facilitating each person in his self-directed process of becoming.

  • The non-directive counseling is concerned with the counseling process in which the counselor, aids his/her counselee in solving his/her problems by himself/herself so, as to lead a better and balanced life. 
  • Non-directive counseling is a counseling approach which aims at facilitating each person in his self directed process of becoming. 
Following are the fundamental characteristics of non-directive counseling :-

  • This approach is counselee-centered. It evolves around the personality of the counselee.
  • Non-directive counseling not only aims at solving the problems of an individual but also trains him to solve his problems by himself.
  • In this approach of counseling, the counselor creates an environment of mutual trust so that the counselee may express his feelings and expose himself. 
  • This approach of counseling is based on non-intervention. The counselor does not intervene in the expressions of the counselee.
  • The counselor has no authority to impose his wishes on the counselee. He cannot close the doors of choice for the counselee also. The counselor should help the counselee in the understanding of the problems.

Eclectic counseling :- 

The eclectic counseling is a counseling approach which combines the features of both directive and non-directive approaches to counseling. Carl Rogers and Williamson adopted two opposite lines of action in connection with counseling approach. We are aware of the fact that the purpose of either of the counseling approaches is the welfare of the counselee. Both wish to make the counselee self-reliant and independent. It means that counselee is the focus of the counseling process. The experts have observed various limitations and demerits in both of counseling approaches. Keeping in view the weaknesses of two traditional approaches to counseling, F.C.Thorne presents a new approach to counseling namely the ‘eclectic counseling’. He believes that it is convenient for a counselor to alternate between directive and non-directive techniques rather than rigidly sticking to a particular mode of counseling. According to Thorne, eclectic counseling refers to a deliberate attempt, made by the counselor, to combine direction and freedom as the
situation demands.

  • The eclectic counseling refers to the freedom to the counselor to use whatever procedures or techniques seem to be the most appropriate to any particular situation or to any particular counselee. 
  • The eclectic counseling is characterized by its freedom to the counselor to use whatever procedures or techniques seem to be most appropriate to any particular time for any particular client.
  • The eclectic counseling is one who is willing to utilize any procedures which hold promise to solve the problems of the client. 
Following are the salient characteristics of eclectic counseling :-

  • Methods of counseling may change from client to client or even With the same client from time to time. This is the easiness that is the specialty of eclectic counseling.
  • Flexibility is the key note of this approach of counseling.
  • Freedom of choice and expression lies open to both the counselor and the counselee.
  • A feeling of comfort is realized both by the counselor and the counselee in this approach of counseling.
  • Both the counselor and the counselee observe the experience of mutual confidence and faith in the relationship.

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Friday, 2 December 2016

Give an account of the similarities between the procedure of individual counseling and group counseling


Both the individual counseling and group counseling are concerned with the welfare of the individuals. For the acquisition of this very welfare, the individual or group methodology is adopted. The experts hold that individual or group counseling, more or less, follow the same procedure. In this regard, it can be carefully said that a visible resemblance is found in the individual and group counseling procedure. This common procedure consists of the following necessary steps :-

Comprehensive planning :- 

‘Counseling’, as a program, is an integral part of the total program of an institution. This is highly formal and organized program. It requires comprehensive planning at every step or stage. An advisor has to carefully
look into the existing situation. He must know the direction of the steps taken and the gains for the counselees or counselors. Counseling requires detailed planning and logical mutual coordination among the various steps.

Initial contact :-

Whether the counseling is individual or group, the counselor establishes initial contact with the counselees. He develops a friendly relation with them. In this way, he wins: the trust and reliance of the individuals seeking for counseling. He gets close to them so that the counselees may express their inner feelings and problems. This is. the only way of getting comprehensive information about the counselee for the accurate planning for the process of counseling.

Identification of the problem :- 

The mutual trust following the initial contact identifies the problem of the counselee. When the counselee recognizes the counselor as his advisor and well-wisher, he unfolds the problem before the counselor.
Following the identification Of the problem, the counselor becomes able to take necessary steps for the solution of the problem. Determination of objectives: Following the identification of problem, the counselor determines the objectives of counseling. Here he decides the objectives which have to be realized through the process of counseling. At this particular stage of counseling, he also highlights the behavioral changes which have to be brought about by means of counseling. For the realization of these objectives, the counselor
forms his counseling strategy. The determination of objectives leads the process of counseling to a well defined effort.

Selection of effective sources :- 

For the acquisition of the objectives of education, a counselor has to select the tools and sources which can be useful for collecting date about the counselee. These tools may include tests, questionnaires, cumulative record, observational reports, case study and interviews etc. The counselor must be very careful in the selection of these tools and sources. They must be in harmony with the nature of the problem and social values.

Acquisition of information :-

Counselor collects information about the various aspects, of the life of counselee for the solution of the problem. These pieces of information help in understanding the interests, likings and tendencies of the
counselees. The. information can be obtained through observation, tests and formal meetings. They serve as a guide in the solution of problem. They tell us about the present situation of the individual surrounded by problems and how he/she can be guided accordingly.

Interpretation of date :- 

It seems, here, necessary to analyze and interpret the date collected through different sources. The statistical methods are used for the analysis and interpretation of date. The collection of date is not sufficient for the solution of the problem. An analysis of the collected date is essential for making the date rational, organized, purposeful and quotable. The mutual relations of cause and effect are traced among the collected date by means of , statistical methods and then results are drawn on the basis of the collected date.

Diagnosis of the problem :- 

Analysis of date, according to the statistical methods, enables a counselor to get aware of the root causes of the problem. This analysis of date unfolds all the aspects of the problems of the counselee. The counselor has to be very careful during the course of diagnosis of the problem. He has to consider some critical matters seriously during this stage of counseling. For instance, whether the diagnosis based on the provided date is correct? Did the circumstances and conditions influence the result? Do the results are valid, credible and authentic? After considering more other questions like these, the counselor states his/her expert
opinion regarding the diagnosis of the problem.

Action plan :- 

When a counselor brings the problem to light, he suggests a formal strategy for its solution. He makes the counselee aware of the suggested strategy for the solution of problem. In connection with the development of problem-solving strategy, the nature of the problem, emotional condition of the counselor are taken
into account. Thus, the proposed Strategy helps in solving the problem of the counselee.

Follow-up study :- 

The counselor keeps in "touch with the counselee following the execution of the proposed strategy for the solution of the problem. He again advises the counselee to strictly stick to the proposed line of action. He asks him to continuously keep in touch with the counselor. The Continuous contact with the counselee allows the counselor to know about the effectiveness of the proposed strategy regarding the solution of the problem. The date gathered through the follow-up study is kept under keen custody and used for further references.

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