Wednesday, 22 October 2014

Explain Social Conflict and Describe its different form with the reference to Indian or Pakistani society


Conflicts are not praiseworthy but it is the most occurring social process. When in the society a benefit or value desire becomes intense and the individuals do either to check its achievement or to damage that consciously, then conflict starts.
     In the dictionary of sociology, Fair Child writes: "Conflict is the name of such a condition in which two or more individuals try to fail the objectives of each other."
     In the words of C.H. Persell : "Conflict is a form of social interaction invoking direct struggle between individuals or groups over commonly valued resources or goals, more interested in defeating opponent."

Types of Conflicts

1. War :
     The most terrible form of conflict in which opponents try to give serious loss of life and property is war. In this social process, social life is crippled and paralyzed and the manner of life changes to a large extent and the society falls a prey to money disorders and this instability has far-reaching effects. The war between Afghanistan and America and it is difficult to estimate its effects.

2. Racial Conflict s:
     There are different races and groups of white, black and yellow people living in the world and when there is a conflict of racism among them, this is called racial conflict as is the case of white and black people in America. In South Africa, white people rule but in minority often did actions to make the majority of  black people and because of this there are often racial conflicts amounting to great physical and financial loss.

3. Class Conflicts :
   All societies of the world are divided into socio-economic classes. Every class has its own benefits. Considering the activities of other classes against their own benefits, they adopt an opposing attitude to these classes which cause a conflict. According to Karl Marx, this type of conflict is the greatest hindrance in the way of social and economic progress. The greatest reason of this conflict according to Karl Marx is the exploitation of the working class by the higher classes. Its examples are a conflict between a mills owner and labourers, landlord and farmers which are common in a capitalistic system.

Forms of Conflicts

   In the Indian and Pakistani society, there are conflicts in different departments of life like other societies because it is a necessary part of social life. These are the forms of conflicts:

1. Family Conflicts :-
   Family system in Pakistan is strong and is a good example of cooperation but there are many matters in the family where there is conflict. In the village society because of common family system by the name patriotically family which produces a conflict between mother-in-law and wife of son. In addition, husband-
wife quarrels envelope families to the extent of fight and murder. Property division among brothers causes conflicts etc.

2. Religious or Sectarian Conflicts :-
   The most of the people of Pakistan have Islam as religion and the religion of Islam teaches brotherhood and peace but in spite of this, people are divided into sects and the conflicts among different sects is increasing and becoming a problem. There are bomb blasts, murder of religious leaders and as a result of this there are riots, burning incidents and blood-sheds to the terrible extent.
   The conflicts of religious types are seen in Bharat where there are Hindu- Muslim riots and murder of Muslims. In Europe, there is conflict between Catholics and Protestants. In Palestine, there is conflict between Muslims and Jews.

3. Individual Conflicts :-
   Sometimes complication of economic emotional attachment for a specific purpose and its attainment produces conflicts. In the beginning, this conflict is individual but soon it emerges as group conflict and two groups are produced. In Indian and Pakistan, village society especially and urban society generally suffer individual conflicts. Murders are caused of individual petty matters which become intense to
the extent of murder, fighting, loss of property and finally litigation.

Negative or Destructive Effects of Conflict

     Conflicts always result in negative effects on society. Individuals of a society often attempt to avoid these conflicts. The detail of these losses is given :
       1. Conflicts produce between individuals and groups and hatred is created and segregation occurs between groups and social interaction becomes less which causes many social complications and difficulties.
       2. Conflicts cause physical and property destruction among groups which reverse their progress and economic sources are destroyed.
       3. Conflicts lead to inter-group tensions. Daily functions and their sources are limited and cooperation is finished because of destruction of channels of cooperation.
       4. Conflicts divert the attention of the groups from social aims and energies are used to cope with conflicts and this decreases the facilities for the society and progress rate becomes a secondary aim.


     Conflict and competition cannot go side by side always because conflict is cause of loss of time and competition keeps people continuously active. Conflict produces a tension in the social atmosphere and makes it unpleasant. This is to be terminated and positive and approved relations are to be developed producing an accommodation.
     Accommodation is a permanent or a temporary activity which suspends the aggressive attributes of conflicting groups and persuades these to cooperate without deciding the disputed matters.

     "Accommodation is a process of developing temporary working agreements between conflicting individuals or groups."

Form of Accommodation

     The following are the forms of accommodation:
i. The Truce :-
     This situation of truce is found in almost every society. This suspends the disputed problem for some time to postpone conflict. In other words, "Without reaching a decision to prevent a conflict for decision in the near future."

ii.Temporary Domination or. Super Ordination :-
   When any of the conflicting group gets an edge over another temporarily, this accommodation comes into existence. When the balance of power between the conflicting parties is seriously disturbed and resistance may seem, useless or impossible, the weak party accepts the edge of the powerful party to avoid losses.
This is a temporary domination. This type of action is continuing in the societies and this provides a safety to avoid from serious losses.

iii. Compromise :-
   "Compromise is a form of accommodation in which each party accepts less than its full goals in order to avoid or end the conflict." When two groups are strong enough not to conquer each other or the price of conquest be very great loss, then both the parties agree to provide facilities being agreed upon some point
is called compromise. Compromise is a temporary settlement. When a party feels that its interests are being affected it can finish it and it can be permanent also and in this case, both the parties seem satisfied.Generally, a compromise lessens differences permanently.

iv. Tolerance :-
   "Tolerance is to accept each other's difference without insisting for a compromise." Some conflicts are such where no party is victorious because they belong to such values which cannot be abandoned and no compromise is also possible. These values are precious. In the circumstances, the two parties willing or not willing find out a way to cooperate without doing some compromise. It is called tolerance. In spite of serious differences in religious values, every sect sharing tolerance acts upon its own religious beliefs.

v. Displacement :-
   It is such an activity in which conflict is finished by another conflict or a party changes its direction which decreases the chance of conflict.
   Its best example is that the internal conflict of a country should be replaced by making fear of war and thus national integrity is produced. In this Way, internal group conflicts come to an end.

  Assimilation :-

   When two groups are assimilated, the mutual social characteristics are different in a cultural manner which cause assimilation.

Definitions :-
 1. According to R.T. Schaefer: "Assimilation is the process by which a person forsakes his or her own cultural traditions to become part of a different culture."
 2. "The process of mutual cultural diffusion through which persons or groups become culturally alike is called assimilation."
 3. C.H. Persell defines: "Assimilation involves the merging of minority and majority groups into one group with a common culture and identity."
 4. Newman defines: "A gradual process where' by cultural differences tends to disappear."
   He gives an example A+B+C=A
   Where A is a majority group which has its power in all matters. The minority groups B and C try to copy the cultural ways of A to merge and look like
A. Diffusion affects to the roots of recognition and obliges minority groups to have their culture to merge into new culture.

The Marginal Man :-
   Such an individual who has been brought up in one culture and he passes through diffusion to another culture but he cannot complete this act of diffusion, so after some behaviours of cultures. None of the cultures is his recognition and he is called a marginal man. He has to face several social problems and complication :
1. Therefore, he is partially socialized so he is unable to adopt both the cultures.

2. He finds a difficulty in adjusting to the opposite views and behaviours of both the cultures which affects his mental harmony.

3. When both cultures reject a marginal man, he finds many complications because he does not think himself as part of any of the cultures. The result is that, he falls a prey to insecurity. Thus he loves recognition and belongingness. If this action is with an individual, he falls a prey to loneliness and deserted feelings or he likes to suffer such a condition to get attachment in the form of sympathy. But this action is with majority group like religious, social or language group that acquires physical separation by trying to keep relation with original culture and get security for these problems.

Amalgamation :-
   To form a common group having common characteristics of majority and minority group is called amalgamation. It happens by the time when two or more biological and cultural groups pass through differences and form a new shape inter-marriage for several generation or holding festivals and interaction cause amalgamation. For this, the mutual consent of both the groups are necessary. Separate identity feelings can prevent this process to completion.


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