Social Thought and Sociological TheoryThomas Hobbes in'the seventeenth century drew a picture of human society in these words:
“Human society Was surrounded by a continuous fear and aggressive death danger and the short life of an individual had fallen a prey to loneliness, poverty, unpleasantness and cruelty.”
According to Hobbes, man was busy in the continuous attempt of achieving power because of which the social world was changed into a field of wars and fights. The sociologists of that time accepted the opinion of Hobbes about the society and began to search the answer of the question keeping in view the condition of the society as how to create, maintain and change the patterns of social organization. Long before Thomas Hobbes, sociological thoughts had a modified form, the earliest example of this is the birth of a renowned Muslim historian, philosopher and sociologist, Abdur Rel‘iman Khuldun, on May 27, 1337. in Tunis who presented sociological thoughts on modern research lines which became a torch bear for modern sociological thought and theory.
Among the ancient Greek philosophers, Socrates, 400 BC, is honour as the founder of much physical and social knowledge. Socrates’ way of reasoning and thinking was scientific and he provided a foundation for modern physical and social knowledge and took the knowledge from theological age to scientific age.
The period of progress of social thought started after the rise of Islam. Islamic education produced such social thinkers who brought revolution in human life. These thinkers include the names of Ibne Sena, Ibne Rushud, Toosi, Imam Abu I-ianifa, Imam Ghazali, Imam Razi and Al-Farabi. These thinkers introduced
logical thinking by taking it away from magic and whims but the Muslim suffered a downfall in the fields of art and knowledge, the West availed of these arts and knowledge and promoted modern knowledge. Among these, Western thinkers is August Comte, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Karl Marx, George Samuel, Montesque, John Locke and Rousseau.
The basic aim of social thought is to end dispersion from the society, to lessen the problems and to promote harmony, control, justice and unity in the society.
Sociological TheoryMeaning and Nature :
Theory is a mental activity. This is an action of construction cf thoughts through which we can explain that how the different incidence take place.
Its basic aim is to explain social situations. It keeps in view different characteristics of society and derives principles about it.
Theory also presents the solution of social problems and gives an organized shape to the facts of a society, laying the foundation of knowledge. All physical and social learning are based on theory and the stages of evolution of knowledge were settled by acceptance or rejection process.
A social theory is based upon four elements.
All social themes can be divided into four perspectives:
1. Functional theory
2. Conflict theory
3. Exchange theory
4. Interactionism and role theory
Sociological theory has the following characteristics from which its f importance can be judged:
1. It surrounds the observable facts of the phenomenon of social theory.
2. The indicators of the theory are simple and measurable.
3. It has the capacity to foretell the facts.
4. Not only it explain the social phenomena but also points to views of new researches in the fields of research.
Eastern Sociological Thinkers1. Imam Ghazali
l. Bibliographical Sketch
2. Spcial Thoughts
(i) Concept of social life
(ii) Social action
(iii) Theory of J ustice
2. Shah Waliullah
l. Bibliographical Sketch
2. Theory of Origin and Evolution
(i) Origin of society
(ii) Evolution of society
3. Social Ailment Theory
3. Ibne Khuldoon
(i) Life history
(ii) Theory of Ethnocentrism
(iii) Rise and fall of nations
(iv) Social life