Thursday, 15 January 2015

How the print journalism was started in the Sub-Continent


Printing in the Sub-Continent was started by Portugese. Equipment of printing press were brought by ship in 1550. A printing press was developed in Goa in 1557. The main objective of the press was to print Christian literature.

Early Books :
First printed book of the Sub-Continent is “Principles of Christianity”. It was in Tamil language. In 1577, a book in Maliyalam language was printed. Johan Gaan Slaves prepared types of Maliyalam and Tamil writing.

Behaviour of Mughals :
Mughals ruled the Sub-Continent for a long period. Printing was introduced in Mughal’s regime. They were patrons of every new thing but their behaviour towards printing was discouraging.
Following reasons were given in this respect :
1. Christian Literature :
Christian literature was sent as a specimen of printing to rulers. This was based on preaching of Christianity. Being Muslim, Mughal rulers disliked Christianity, so they ignored printing presses.
2. Calligraphy :
There were many good writers present at that time. Calligraphy was looked beautiful and satisfied the taste of rulers. On the other hand, printed matter did not look beautiful.
3. Less interest in books :
Majority of people were uneducated, and they did not take interest in books. Only good literary masterpieces were in demand. This need was fulfilled by calligraphy.

Britishers and Printing :
Britishers were dreamed to rule the Sub-Continent for a long time. He encouraged to establish printing press. Different printing presses were established as following :
1674   Bombay (Present Mumbai)
1772   Madras
1779   Calcutta
1778   Hugley (Type of Bangla language)

News System in the Sub-Continent :
Ghaznavids had developed ‘Al-barid’ in the Sub-Continent. Balban was appointed “Waqa-i-Nigar” to every village and town of the country. Alauddin Khilji also played a vital role in this manner. He gained news from three sources, then these news were compared and punished the one who gave false statement.

Mughal Rulers :
Muslims had gained progress in many departments. One of them is news-making. Akbar had developed a separate department for news gathering. Waqa-i-Nigar were appointed in the Court of the King, who read every event.
This system was remained till Alamgir’s regime. After his death, this system lost its importance and functioning.
News system in the Sub-Continent had a quality that truth is emphasised in it. In addition to truth, Waqa-i-Nigar had given an honourable position. They could tell truth without any hesitation and fear.
1784 Type of Persian and Arabic language.

Types of printings were used as :
1836    Litho printing
1900’s Offset printing

News Making in the Sub-Continent :
News were sent to people from Gupta’s empire till Muslim rulers in the Sub-Continent. Spying system was also being developed in every regime. If we take meaning of news as information collection, the ruling class was remained well awared of current situation of the country. These news were not for public. This system was being in progress and news writing was developed.


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