Thursday, 15 January 2015

Write short notes on 1. Review 2. Tattler 3. Spectator


Review was started in 1704 and ceased publication in 1713. It was founded by Daniel Defoe who is said to be the “Father of British Journalism.” Defoe was a professional journalist as well as a famous writer also. He was founder of light essay in English literature. Important features of Review were as follows :

1. Weekly Newspaper :
Review was started as a weekly newspaper. Then it was started publishing twice and afterwards thrice a week.

2. Political Articles : 
Politics was the favorite topic of people of that time. Political articles were  included in the “Review” and these articles were become the reason of popularity of the newspaper. Defoe was written such articles by himself.

3. Social Articles :
One objective of the Review was betterment of the society. Social issues were taken as topics of discussion. Suggestions to social issues were given in such articles. Social manners and sense of rights and responsibilities were taught by such articles.

4. Literary Articles :
Defoe was a writer of high rank. readers having literary tastes were also satisfied by giving literary pieces of writing. Light essays were introduced by Defoe, which were printed in the Review

5. Policy :
This newspaper had moderate policy. It had not adopted the style of partiality and prejudice. Defoe was used to promote truth whether it was against government. He criticized the rulers and by doing so he was imprisoned for several times but he did not stop this style.

6. A Journalist :
Defoe was a journalist by profession. He not only wrote for the Review, but he also used to write for the papers of his time.

7. Writing Style :
Simple and easily understandable (journalistic) language was used in the Review. So more and more people can understand it. It was kept in mind that there should be literary touch in its readings.

8. Staff :
We can say Review as one~man show because Defoe himself used to write and he did not rely on anyone for writing even a single news.


The Tattler was launched, after five years of the Review, in 1709 by Richard Steel. He was a writer and usually chosen problems of lower class as a topic. He was sit in coffee house with common people and get topics from there. This paper was sold in coffee houses like hot cakes.

1. Norms and Values : 
The Tattler was a beautiful blend of modern and old norms and values of civilization.

2. Publication :
The Tattler was published three times in a week.

3. Better Society :
The Tattler was not linked with politics or trade. Its objective was to point out social evils, and create a better society. Its effects were reached to the Sub-Continent.

4. Pages :
The Tattler was published on single page. All important articles were given briefly in it.

5. Literary Articles :
Literary articles were given in the Tattler. The objective of publishing such articles was the betterment of people.


The Spectator was launched in 171 l by Joseph Edison and Richard Steel. Both of them were the best writers of that time. T his paper became very popular immediately, and its circulation was raised up to three thousand copies.

1. Daily Newspaper :
The Spectator was launched as daily newspaper.

2. Moderate Essays :
The Spectator was not involved with any political party but its essays had a moderate effect.

3. Literary Essays :
This paper also used to publish literary essays for the betterment of common public.

4. Writing Style :
Usually journalistic language was used to convey message.

5. Humour :
Satire is the best tool for betterment. Readers get entertainment through humorous writings as well as lessons. This style was adopted by the Spectator. It was the reason of its popularity.

6. Epilogue of Social Evils :
The objective of the Spectator was to eliminate society from social evils. It was proved very successful in this field. It was tried to spread goodness among people.


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