Wednesday, 22 October 2014

Describe the kinds of cooperation and competition and explain with reference to Indian or Pakistani society

Cooperation :-
           Cooperation is derived from two Latin words— "Co" meaning 'together' and "operari" meaning 'to work.
Harton and Hunt have given the definition: "Joint activity in pursuit of common goals or shared rewards."

Charles H. Persell:
"That manner of social interaction with which individuals get their common aims by uniting their efforts and capabilities."
Cooperation is a positive form of social interaction. This is such a collective activity which is useful for a group. Therefore, an individual uses his economic, physical or both energies in a full manner. Cooperation is found even in at least two individuals and the biggest groups like United Nations Organization. Cooperation is the most important social process of social life and on the basis of this, the necessities of life have become possible.

Types of Cooperation

1. Direct Cooperation :
    Such a cooperation where cooperating people try for the achievement of a common goal. In India or Pakistan, the harvesting of crops is done by direct cooperation by farmers. Dragging a carriage or building a house are all examples of direct cooperation.

2. Indirect Cooperation :
    Such a cooperation in which an individual or groups try in the form of a small group for getting a common aim just as in a carriage-making factory, workers act in small groups in different departments of the factory for making different parts of carriage. Similarly, people working in a bank under principle of division of work for a collective activity and aim, present a beautiful example of  cooperation.

3. Antagonistic Cooperation :
    This is such a manner of cooperation where a group of people for getting a common aim adopts such a method which is injurious for other. For example, a group of traders decreases the availability of a commodity by hoarding that to get  desired more price. This cooperation is against customers, therefore, it is called  Antagonistic Cooperation with reference to customers.

4. Competitive Cooperation :
    This is cooperation when a commodity is short and there is a large member of people demanding it. In this case, the competing parties try to gain their objectives though revised rules and regulations. For example, several individuals or teams for getting a trophy compete with each other.

5. Conflictive Cooperation :
    When the achievement of an aim is intense and is these go to a conflicting situation even then, they agree for some common allowance in which the benefit of conflicting parties lies. This type of cooperation is called Conflictive Cooperation. For example, in war to cooperate not to bomb the civilian population or the war prisoners will be exchanged and this kind of cooperation is the recognition of a civilized society but in Iraq-American war, they disgrace of this  kind of cooperation on behalf of America obliges one to think whether we are living a civilized world or this is just a mirage.

6. Formal and Informal Cooperation :
    When the individual or a few specific individuals determine a share in the common benefit in the rules and regulations before starting that cooperation, then  that cooperation will be called formal cooperation. It is generally a two-way process. The cooperation's benefits are of different nature, Just as passengers in a bus and driver and conductor has determined among themselves the fare for conveying them to the destination, If the rules and regulations of cooperation are not determined with no time fixation just as, farmers cooperate at the time of cutting of crops so that in a difficult time other may, help them, This cooperation is informal.


        Competition is such a social process in which attempt is made for getting some value or benefit like wealth, high status and love etc.
        C.H. Persell has defined it as: "A goal directed form of social interaction in which the goals or objects pursued are limited."
        Horton and Hunt has defined it as : "To get a social value, the attempt of individual of a society to exceed and excel each other in a positive manner,"
        In the opinion of Murdock : "The process of seeking to monopolize a reward by surpassing all the rivals,"
        In the light of above definitions, the competition is the name of that effort of individual of the society that they do to get•a commodity, value or an object. Competition is such a process which seems operative in the religious, social, economic, games and recreation fields of life and it fastens the social progress and 
evolution. According to Dirwin : "Competition was law of the universe, that evolution has been determined by a struggle for existence in which the strongest survived while the weaker were eliminated." In the opinion of social Darwinists, this principle applies to human social life also.

Types of Competition

1. Personal and Impersonal Competition :
        When individuals in the presence of each other are doing competition face to face for some object or for personal benefit, it is called personal competition. For example, to try to stand first, to try to become champion etc, A competition in the absence of individuals or where the opponents are not trying to defeat wilfully or directly, then this competition is called impersonal. For example, to try to succeed in the civil service examination etc.

2. Additional or Absolute Competition :
        Such a condition of a competition in which individuals of ' society are trying to achieve some object which is not limited like wealth, L 'our or high posts is called additional competition. There is no restrictions for wealth or honour whereas a competition whose value is very limited or only a. few people can try for it like to participate in the election for president of country etc.

3. Formal and Informal Competition :
     A competition for which principles are fixed and their disobedience may result in expulsion falls under a formal competition like to try to stand first in the examination of the university, to take part in games according to rules and regulations but such a competition where there is no restriction of rules or standard like bribery, fraud and honesty are all lawful.

4. Inter- and Inter-group Competition :
     When different groups, organizations or teams compete for the achievement of values and objectives, it is called inter-group competition. For example, competition among different colleges teams for speeches or election of political parties form a government by getting more votes. But if this competition is within the group for the achievement of a certain aim, it is called inter competition. For example, the student of the same college compete for best athlete or some leaders of a party try for president-ship of the party more and more support.


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