Saturday, 5 December 2015

Discuss the role of teachers, parents and government in connection with the aptitudinal differences of the students

The students of a class vary in aptitudes. These very aptitudes enable them play their roles in various fields of life. The role of teachers, parents and the government, in connection with the aptitudinal differences, is described in the following Points :

  • The teachers should help the students in the selection of  subjects and profession in conformity with their aptitudes.
  • The teachers should impart education in accordance with the natural tendencies of the students. They should use the methods of instruction which cope with the aptitudes and trends of the students.
  • The teachers should point out the aptitudes of the students by means of aptitude tests so that they may design their instructional strategies.
  • The parents should not force their children to opt those subjects which are compatible with their aptitudes and natural tendencies. If they are bound to do so, they would not be able to exhibit excellent performance in the field of education.
  • The parents should provide the opportunities to participate in the activities which match with the aptitudes of the children. This is the only way to develop the natural abilities of the children.
  • This is the responsibility of the state to established aptitudinal schools so that the students should be educated according to their respective aptitudes.


Friday, 4 December 2015

Define Intelligence Quotient and also discuss the types of children as per intelligence Quotient Classification

Intelligence Quotient refers to the measure of intelligence computed by dividing an individual mental age by his/her chronological age. This number is multiplied by 100.

  • Intelligence Quotient is a score derived» from intelligence tests that is designed to represent a person's overall intellectual capacity. In 1908, the French psychologist, Alfred Binet claimed that there is a mental age along with the chronological age. The mental age differs from the chronological age. Alfred Binet was entrusted with the charge of finding out the reasons for backwardness of the students in the schools of Paris. He, then, came to the conclusion that intelligence of a child develops without school education. He prepared a number of simple tests meant for measuring the intelligence of the children of each age level and applied these to them..He succeeded in the standardization of his test. He discovered three groups of  testees. Further developing the concept of mental age, the German psychologist, Stem introduced the theory of Intelligence Quotient. The numerical presentation of intelligence made possible due to this theory and consequently the measurement of intelligence took a new turn. The formula of IQ is

I.Q = MA/CA x 100

Suppose, ‘Sara is an intelligent girl. Her chronological age is 6 years. She has successfully solved a test which is prepared for the 8 years old children. It means that her mental age is 8 years. In this respect, her IQ would be 133.33. It would be calculated as under :

I.Q = MA/CA x 100

I.Q = 8/6 x 100

1.Q = 133.33

For the calculation of I.Q., the mental age is divided by chronological age and then the acquired number is multiplied by 100. The obtained number is termed as I.Q. It helps in knowing the level of intelligence of an individual... The children vary in intelligence. The I.Q. can present their level of intelligence in the numerical
form Prof. Terman has divided the children, according to their intelligence, in the following categories :

The gifted Children : 

The gifted children refer to those children whose Intelligence Quotient ranges from 140 to above. Following are the general characteristics of gifted children :

  • They succeed in drawing the attention of the members of society because their cognitive abilities and insight.
  • They hate strong inclination to research and observational ability in abundance.
  • They have the ability to solve their problems without the, assistance of others.
  • They are much involved in the educational activities and exhibit excellent performance.
  • They are generally, hardworking, well-mannered, confident and tolerant.
  • They are curious, inquisitive and creative.

The intelligent children :

The intelligent children refer to those children whose Intelligence Quotient ranges from 110  to 139. Following are the general characteristics of the intelligent children : 
  • They perform excellently in various fields of life.
  • They take part in the educational activities with full attention.
  • They are keenly interested in the social affairs of the day.
  • They have the ability of criticism and evaluation.
  • They do not need continuous guidance and supervision. They have deep understanding of their problems.

The average children : 

The average children refer to those children whose Intelligence Quotient ranges from 90 to 109. Following are the general characteristics of the average children :
  • They exhibit average performance in every field of life.
  • They need special attention and guidance from their teachers and parents.
  • If these children are not given proper attention, they leave the school without completing education.
  • Obedience is generally, observed in such children. They do not include their personal analysis during the act of obedience.

The dull children : 

The dull children, refer to those children whose Intelligence Quotient ranges from 80 to 90. Following are the general characteristics of the dull children :
  • They can get benefit of the learning process by means of drill method.
  • They can be turned into semi-skilled workers.
  • They are generally, inclined to crimes and anti-social activities. 
  • Their behavior and Conduct is normally a problematic for the society.
  • They are unable to adapt themselves to the needs of the environment.
  • They do not exhibit desirable educational performance.
  • The teachers have to pay special attention to such children.
  • An ordinary academic understanding can be developed in these children.

The borderline children : 

The borderline children refer to those children whose Intelligence Quotient ranges from 70 to 79. Following are the general characteristics of the borderline children :
  • Special educational institutions are established for such children.
  • They have no real understanding of the social values.
  • They are unable to participate in the productive activities.
  • They can be made limited literate due to special attention.
  • They have, in general, weak memory.
  • They join school at the age of six or seven.
  • They lack in self-confidence.
  • They cannot dispose of a task with in the normal time duration.
  • They demonstrate the abilities which are not corresponded to their chronological age.

The mentally backward Children : 

The mentally backward children refer to those children whose Intelligence Quotient is less than 70. Following are the general characteristics of the mentally backward children :
  • They have very limited lingual ability.
  • They have no sense of social values.
  • They cannot get benefit of the educative process.
  • They can be taught only the simple objects by means of individualized attention.
  • They have limited ability» of adapting to the needs of the environment.
  • They are backward in all respects as compared to other students.
  • Some social norms, for example, hand shake, smile in response to an object, feel pleasure in response to see the objects the person likes and greet someone, are generally observed in these children.


How can individual differences help the educationists in the selection of instructional methodology

The study of individual differences enables the educators to adopt various methods of instruction for the students having varied abilities. The individual differences have deep concerns with the methods of teaching. The study of individual differences for the selection of teaching methods is significant due to the following
points :

  • The study of individual differences allows the educators to adopt effective methods of teaching corresponding to the varied mental abilities of  the students.
  • The study of individual differences enables the educators to apply a method of teaching keeping in view the students belonging to various socio-economic groups.
  • The students vary in natural tendencies. Therefore, they have liking for particular methods of teaching. Likewise, they dislike some particular methods of teaching.
  • The study of individual differences allows the educators to select the methods of teaching corresponding to their natural tendencies and inclinations of the students.
  • All the methods of teaching have effects on the personality of the students. Some methods of teaching suit to the students of a particular age-group. On the other hand, some methods of teaching do not suit to the particular students. The study of individual differences enables the educators to get acquainted with the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the methods of teaching for particular students.
  • There is a collective attitude of the students of a particular educational institution. This attitude takes birth from the average of the individual differences of the students. This collective approach of the students enables the educators to select those methods of teachings which may ensure the acquisition of the instructional objectives.


Thursday, 3 December 2015

How can the studies of individual differences help the educationists in curriculum development

The individual differences of the students are taken into consideration during the selection of content and other curricular activities. They are the individual differences which decide and organize the curricular activities for a particular level of education. The individual differences and curriculum are inter-related. The study of individual differences for the curriculists is significant due to the following points.

  • The study of individual differences guides the curriculists through the selection of content, activities and other behavioral skills corresponding to the abilities of the students.
  • The study of individual differences enables the curriculists to develop a curriculum having the ability to meet the individual and psychological needs of the students belonging to various socioeconomic classes.
  • The study of individual differences enables the curriculists to organize the curricular content keeping in view the abilities of the students. The curriculists also decide which content would be taught first and which would be taught later.
  • The study of individual differences enables the curriculists to evaluate the effects of the specific content on the students having varied mental abilities. The process of evaluation is conducted in order to get acquainted with those effects. 
  • The curricular activities must be compact and comprehensive. The study of individual differences enables the curriculists how to absorb the interests, tendencies and abilities of various individuals into the curriculum.


Briefly discuss the significance of the knowledge of individual differences for a teacher

The individual differences refer to the physical, mental, emotional and social differences found in the individuals of the world. A person is different from the others due to these individual differences. They play a significant role in the educative process. This significance can be highlighted in the following points :

  • The success of the learning process, largely rests on the individual differences. 
  • The instructional strategy can be better planned if the individual differences are taken into consideration.
  • The individual differences provide the society those individuals which effectively work in various field of life.
  • A teacher has to use different methods of teachings for the students having varied abilities. If the individual differences are taken into consideration, the instructional objectives could not be realized positively. 
  • The students of a class vary in mental abilities it is obligatory for the teacher to consider the cognitive differences of the learners so that the instructional objective may be acquired.
  • The students are grouped for better instruction. This grouping is based on the individual, difference of the students. If the individual differences are ignored during the process of instruction, it would increase the instructional difficulties of the teacher.
  • The individual differences help the teacher in maintaining discipline and order in the school. They allow the teacher to know the mental inclination and tendency of the students. They also enable the teacher to take necessary steps for making the students disciplined and law abiding. 
  • Individuals for Working in various fields of life are provided to the society by means of the educative process. The presence of individual differences in the educative process ensures the provision of the individuals capable of working in various fields of life.


Wednesday, 2 December 2015

Briefly discuss the general types of individual differences

The individual differences are concerned with various aspects of human development. Having been concerned with all aspects of human development, the individual differences are divided into the following categories :

Inborn differences : 

The inborn differences are those that are transmitted to the individual through heredity. The difference of height and color are the inborn differences. Generally, the inborn differences and the genetic differences are
considered in one category. But there are some inborn differences that are not necessarily genetic e.g., the differences of aptitude may be inborn but not necessarily genetic. Following are the significant points regarding the inborn differences :
  • The children having the same heredity may vary in height, color, texture and face appearance.
  • The children of the same parents may differ in intelligence.
  • The differences in tendencies are not absolutely hereditary and inborn but sometimes, they may occur due to the environment.

Environmental differences : 

Environmental differences refer to the differences in aptitudes, interests and goals on the basis of variation in environment. The environment of one individual varies from the other. Following are the Significant points regarding the environmental differences :

  • The children living in the same environment may vary in interests, liking and disliking.
  • The differences in tendencies may be born in the environment.
  • If the environment is irritating, the child will learn the attitudes of irritation.
  • Environment plays an important role in the emotional development.
  • Most of the individual differences are developed in the environment.

Physical differences : 

Physical differences refer to the differences of physical structure (weight, color, texture) in various individuals. These differences are, usually, inborn. Following are the significant , points regarding the physical differences :

  • They are generally, inborn and unlearned. Some physical differences are the results, of some incidents or accidents.
  • Physical deformity, weak eyesight, weak hearing and short height are the general forms of physical differences.
  • In most of the case, the physically-handicapped children are made fun by the others and consequently, they begin to feel, inferior to others.
  • The physical deformity makes the students lesser hearted and detached.

Cognitive differences : 

Cognitive differences refer to the differences in, the degree of intelligence of various individuals. That is why; individuals are grouped as the gifted, the intelligent and the dull etc. Following are the significant points regarding the cognitive differences :

  • Both heredity and environment affect the mental abilities of the individuals.
  • The intelligent students demonstrate excellent performance in the educative process.
  • Generally, environment cannot turn the dull students in intelligent ones.
  • The students of the same class vary in mental abilities.
  • The differences in intelligence directly influence the educative process positively or negatively.
  • The dull students require special education programs to be designed for them.

Emotional differences : 

Emotional differences refer to those differences which are manifested through behavioral forms such as tolerance, fellow feelings and irritability. Following are the significant points regarding the emotional differences :
  • The children vary in emotions.
  • The intensity of emotions Varies among the children.
  • Some children are not emotionally stable while others observe emotional control and peaceful silence.
  • The emotional instability hinders the way to education.
  • If the children are not given proper attention, they fall a prey to emotional complexities.
  • The emotionally disturbed children disturb the discipline of the school and the society as well.
  • The intensity of emotions negatively affects the physical and mental health of the learners.

Aptitudinal differences : 

Aptitude refers to the present ability of the individual that indicate future success in a particular field or profession. This ability is not a learned one. For instance, a person’s typing aptitude prior to practice on a typewriter.
Aptitudinal differences refer to the differences on whose basis various individual perform significantly in various professions and fields of life. These differences make an individual a renowned artist, teacher, scientist or an engineer. Following are the significant points regarding the aptitudinal differences :
  • The students vary in interests and natural inclinations. These interests and inclinations influence the educative process. Heredity and environment play a significant role in the development of interests and aptitudes of the students.
  • If the Students are educated according to their aptitudes and psychological needs, there would be greater chances of the success of the students in the field of education.  
  • If the students select the subjects against their aptitudes, they would not be able to produce excellent educational results.
  • If the children are allowed to work according to their own aptitudes tendencies the pace of the development of their abilities would increase.

Social differences : 

The social differences refer to the students belonging to different social groups, cultures, religions and conditions in the same educational institution. Following are the significant points regarding the social differences :
  • The students of a school belong to varied social groups and conditions.
  • The healthy social conditions positively affect the educational performance of the students.
  • The favorable and unfavorable social conditions equally affect the educational performance of the students.
  • The living in the favorable social conditions can easily adjust with the school environment.
  • The students, whose parents belong to lower social classes, do not have the guidance facilities from their parents.

Economic differences : 

The economic individual differences refer to the presence of students of different economic groups, economic conditions and economic backgrounds in the same classroom. Following are the significant points regarding the economic differences :
  • The students of a class belong to various economic groups and levels.
  • The children of economically stable parents, generally, exhibit excellent educational performance.
  • The children of economically backward parents, generally do not perform well in the field. of education.
  • The students with economic problems may suffer in some mental and emotional problems.
  • When the basic needs of the students are not fulfilled, they would not pay full attention towards their educational affairs.  
  • The children of economically stable parents take advantage of the available sources and thereby remove their educational hindrances.


Tuesday, 1 December 2015

Define individual differences

The individual differences in mental abilities, physical characteristics and traits of personality have been known for centuries. But in the recent years, the extent, causes and educational  significance of individual differences have been studies and made explicit.

  • The individual differences refer to the differences between persons on psychological and educational dimensions. 
  • Individual differences refer to the variations in characteristics or developmental outcomes between one child and another. 
  • Individual differences refer to variations in mental abilities and physical characteristics. 
  •  Individual differences are concerned with the ways in which people can differ from one another in particular gender, personality and intelligence
  • Individual differences refer to the vast range of variations that are commonly observable among various individuals. 
  • Individual differences are concerned with the deviations in mental or physical characteristics noticed among individuals who differentiate them from the average of the group. 
  • The relatively persistent dissimilarities in structure of behavior among persons or members of the same species. 
  • Individual differences are the stable and consistent ways individuals are different from each other. 
  •  The variations in characteristics or developmental outcomes between on child and another. 
  • The individual differences refer to differentiation. These differences distinguish one person from the other. 
  • To me, the individual differences mean the differences between persons on psychological, social and educational dimensions. The branch of psychology which is devoted to a systematic study of individual differences is known as ‘differential psychology’.


Harmony between heredity and environment is necessary and Give arguments in favor of the statement

Human personality takes effects from heredity and environment. The harmony between heredity and environment leads to individual and collective welfare. Every man is born with natural abilities. An appropriate environment is required for the development of these abilities. Development of abilities and an
appropriate environment are interdependent. The human personality development is subjected to the harmony between heredity and environment. The harmony between the two is significant due to the following reasons:

  • An individual’s behavior develops due to the harmony between heredity and environment. A renowned psychologist, Dr. Munn holds that heredity brings about the possibility of natural ability. This probable ability is provided the opportunities of development by the environment. For instance, a child is a born genius. Genius is a hereditary trait. This child belongs to a poor family. He did not find the opportunities of schooling. His natural intelligence could not be developed due to the inappropriate environment. Here we may conclude that the hereditary traits cannot develop without appropriate environment.
  • Every individual strives for adjusting in such an environment for which he/she possesses relevant hereditary trait. For example, the people who have the natural ability of play writing search out the opportunities for drama writing training. If they are provided appropriate training their natural ability of drama writing may be developed and they may turn into genuine playwrights (drama writers). If they do not have the natural ability of drama writing, they could not have been turned into good playwrights. The hereditary traits and natural abilities serve as raw material in the development of personality and behavior.
  • The favorable environment brings the natural abilities to the world scene and moulds them according to the needs of the society. For example, a child has the ability of becoming a good hockey player. But he Was not provided the balanced diet and training which was necessary for becoming a good player. So to say, he was not provided favorable environment and conditions. The unfavorable environment did not allow the hereditary traits to develop and the child could not become a good player of hockey. On contrary, a child had a lesser ability of becoming a player. of hockey as compared to the earlier. But he became a good hockey player due to the balanced diet, proper rearing and training. The favorable environment helped him in becoming a good player. A particular region produces players of hockey, cricket, squash and other sports due to the specific environment and conditions.
  • Heredity is like a seed that has the probable ability of turning into a tree. If the seed is provided proper water, light and supervision the possibilities of  turning the seed into a tree would increase. Likewise, if the hereditary traits are provided favorable environment and training, the individual would turn into concrete form of human personality. Training can turn an individual into a poet if he/she has the natural inclination for poetry. If he/she has not natural tendency for poetry, training would be useless for him/her.


Saturday, 28 November 2015

Discuss the principles which determine the hereditary traits

The principles determining the hereditary traits refer to those foundations which serve as guidelines for determining the hereditary traits.
The experts predict the hereditary traits of an individual in the light of these principles. These principles
describe the foundations on whose-bases the hereditary traits are transmitted from the parents to their children. The experts have described the following laws which determine the hereditary traits :

Law of similarity : 

The law of similarity states that similar things give rise to similar things. Children are similar to their parents in many respects. This law is of the view that intelligent parents give birth to intelligent children and the dull parents may produce the dull ones. According to this law, it is generally observed that the beautiful parents have beautiful babies.

Law of dissimilarity : 

The law of dissimilarity states that similar things can give birth to dissimilar things. This law also states that intelligent parents can give birth to less intelligent children and less intelligent parents can give birth to intelligent children. According to this law, the children are not completely similar to their parents. The children of the same parents may different from one another in physical structure, color, intelligent, height and habits.

Law of recurrence : 

The law of recurrence states that direction of the development is from extreme to middle. This law is of the View that exceptionally talented parents may give birth to less exceptionally talented children. According to this law, the children possess average traits as compared to their parents. It is generally observed that the traits of the children are between the two extremes. Their traits follow the average line between the two extreme limits. The children of the gifted parents are the comparatively lower level of giftedness as compared to their parents. It is quiz possible that the children of the lesser intelligent parents may possess average


Friday, 27 November 2015

Discuss factors influencing development with reference to arguments or Discuss the determinants of development in detail

Factors influencing development means the causes and elements which affect the human development and thereby cause changes. 
According to the developmental psychologists, heredity and environment are two such elements which can be termed as the ‘determinants of personality’. The human behavior and conduct is the product of these two factors of development. We cannot make a judgment about the exact share of heredity and environment in the development of human personality. But this is an established truth that both the factors play a significant role in the development of personality. These factors are explained in the following lines :

Heredity : 

Heredity means the genetic program that is transmitted from the parents to their offspring at the time of conception. To me, heredity refers to all those traits and effects that are transmitted to the individual through germ plasm of his/her parents
These traits are concerned with many past generations of the individual. Heredity provides the raw material or the potentialities for the development of human personality. It sets the limits of human capacities. What the individual inherits are the potentialities in relation to growth, appearance, intelligence and the like. Every individual is influenced by the genes that he/she inherits from his/her parents. The following points are significant in connection with role of heredity in the development of human personality :

  • A person gives birth to a person only because of heredity. A monkey never gives birth to a man because a monkey does not have human like hereditary traits.
  • An individual begins his/her life with a fertilized cell. This cell is a combination of sperm and ovum.
  • The share of mother and of father is equal in the heredity of a child. The chain of heredity is not confined to the parents of the child. It extends to the forefathers of the child too.
  • Physical appearance, bone structure, height, color and cognitive abilities are the result of hereditary traits.
  • The investigators have proved that there are some diseases which are genetic.
  • It is generally observed that the tall parents give birth to the tall children and the average intelligent parents give birth to average children. 

Environment : 

Environment refers to those factors and effects which bring about changes in a fertilized egg externally. Environment refers to all the physical factors and emotional influences that surround the member of a particular group or individual. I maintain that environment is an array of experiences to which individuals are exposed from conception to death. These experiences may be biological in nature, such as exposure to disease, drugs or inadequate nutrition. Or they may be primarily social, such as interaction with family members, teachers or exposure to the media and community culture. Environment plays a significant role
in the development and formation of human personality. The interests and attitudes of the individuals are subjected to the environment. The investigations have shown that the mental state, disease and nutrition of the pregnant women are the factors which influence the prenatal development The significant influences of environment can be observed following the birth of the baby. An individual cannot avoid him/herself from the environmental influences. A child learns his/her language, accent, culture and habits following his/her birth. Home is the first environment for a child. Then, gradually, he moves to the streets of his/her locality and then he/she joins a school. His/her social contacts increase gradually. He learns from- his/her parents, peers,
friends, class fellows, teachers and other senior members of the society. A renowned psychologist, Watson, says that make me a custodian of a child. 1 shall turn him/her into one that you wish. According to him, environment is the only responsible factors for the construction or destruction of the Children. Both the balanced personality and the defective personality is the product of favorable or unfavorable environment. The following points are significant in connection with role of environment in the development of human
personality :
  • The experiences and observations associated with the environment bring about behavioral changes in the individuals.
  • The healthy environment allows the hereditary traits to flourish.
  • Due to the environment, the experiences of the individual enrich the personality.
  • The hereditary trait can develop only if it is provided a favorable environment.
  • The dull children cannot be turned into the intelligent ones by means of favorable environment.
  • Environment is the only factor which decides to how much the abilities of an individual polished and developed.  
  The concluding remarks

The question of what determines development is one of the oldest controversies in the recorded history of human race. Even the ancient Greeks speculated about this particular issue. But in the contemporary time,
the controversy has centered around two major factors: heredity and environment. The controversy over what determines development often has taken as extreme form. One group of researchers argues for heredity as the primary factor in development. On contrary, an opposing group of researchers argue for the unique role of environment in human development. In this extreme form, however, the heredity environment (nature-
nurture) issue has-proven net be very fruitful for understanding development. To me, both heredity and environment play a significant “role in the development of personality and the formation of attitudes. It is very difficult to calculate which of the factors has greater influence on development than the other. The researchers have found the following truths regarding the influences of heredity and environment on human development :

  • The unfavorable environment cannot suppress the good heredity. According to this law, the intelligent children perform excellently even in the unfavorable environmental conditions. Their performance can be increased if they are provided favorable environmental conditions.
  • The investigators have argued that development can be better understood only in terms of the interaction between genetic and experiential forces.
  • Most agree that neither development nor environment alone can adequately explain the complicated way in which each of us grows and develops. At the same time, however, it is not assumed that each of these factors plays an equal role in all aspects of human development. Certain behaviors, such as walking, can best be explained by the process of maturation that is guided by our genetic blueprint. Other behaviors such as wearing a business suit or playing cricket are best explained by examining the influence of the individuals and society we encounter.
  • The critical question concerning development is not which factor-heredity or environment is responsible for our behavior, but how these two general factors interact to propel (push forward) us along our unique developmental paths.
  • Development of the hereditary, traits is determined to a large extent by the environmental opportunities.
  • The behavior of a pregnant woman affects her unborn child’s development. Medieval European doctors advised pregnant women that uplifting thoughts would help the baby develop into a good, happy person while negative emotions might disrupt the pregnancy and possibly influence the infant to become sad or mean-spirited.
  • Environment, to some extent, can influence heredity. while heredity is not capable of influencing the environment because the genes are inactive and the environment is an active organism.
  • Environment allows the genetic traits to flourish. On contrary, the defective environment makes the natural abilities inactive and passive.
  • Heredity provides the raw material for the development of human personality whereas environment shapes it in a meaningful form.
  • Environment has the ability: to develop most of the human traits. But the unfavorable environment can cause the defective development of many aspects of human personality.
  • Heredity determines the extent of human abilities whereas environment indicates the activities which an individual can conduct with the help of natural granted abilities.
  • Heredity and environment do not fully determine the extent of a trait. In some cases, there are heavy effects of heredity e.g. physical texture, height, color and level of intelligence. On the other hand, greater involvement of environment can be observed in the formation of beliefs; attitudes and habits of the individuals.
  • The favorable environment cannot take the place of good heredity. A dull person cannot be turned into an intelligent one due to the favorable environment. The favorable environment, to some extent, can polish the hereditary traits but huge changes and modifications in the hereditary traits cannot be made possible with the help of favorable environment.


Wednesday, 25 November 2015

Briefly discuss the salient aspects (types) of development

Development refers to those changes which occur in the behavior and functions of an individual. It this change is concerned with cognition, it would be termed as ‘cognitive development’. It these changes are Concerned with human body, emotion or society, they would be termed as ‘physical development’, ‘emotional development’, and social development’ respectively. The developmental psychologists have stated the following four types (aspects) of development :

Physical development : 

Physical development refers to all those internal and external changes, that take place in different body organs. As a result of these changes, the body organs achieve their natural form and thus starts doing their
instinctive functions e.g. increase in height and Weight.
Physical development means the progressive development of the various parts of the body and their capacity to function in a natural way. An individual is first and foremost a physical being. From conception until death, he/she is constantly changing. He/she is never static. Throughout the childhood and adolescent years, he/she develops into an adult. Even at the stage of adulthood, changes do not cease. Instead they continue at a
slower rate. To me, development is a continuous process which ranges from birth to death. In the early years of life, the physical changes are rapid in rate. Each physical change is dependent upon what preceded it and, in turn, affects which will come afterward. The experts hold that physical development influences behavior and behavior, in turn, influences physical development.

Cognitive development : 

Cognitive development refers to a gradual increase in memory, thinking ability, imagination and other cognitive abilities. These abilities help the individual to get adjusted with the environment, e. g. development of memory. 
Cognitive development refers to the increase and expansion in mental abilities like memory, imagination, creativity and thoughtfulness. These abilities enable the individuals to acquire better adjustment. For instance improvement in memory and discrimination abilities is directly concerned with the adjustment of the individuals. The cognitive abilities develop as the time passes and ultimately an individual, secures the destination of mental maturation. The individual can solve his/her problems by him/herself at the life period of mental maturation. In this way, he/she organizes his/her daily life affairs.

Social development : 

Social development refers to all those changes that occur due to the different accepted social activities. These activities are in harmony with the cultural heritage and social values, e. g. respecting the elders. Social development means the exhibition of the abilities which enable the individuals to cope with the social needs and values and thereby make them adjusted individuals of the Society. Social development is a combination of organized activities carried out for awakening the social understanding in the individuals. Social development ranges from heme to the remote areas of the society. a child begins his/her social life from home. At this stage, home is a society for him/her. Afterwards, as the time passes, a child comes across his/her neighboring street and school. A socially developed person leads a balanced and successful life in the society. This is the responsibility of the school to develop social abilities of the individuals as Man is s social-being in nature.

Emotional development : 

Emotional development refers to all those healthy and balanced changes in the emotions and feelings of the individuals that are concerned with emotional response, e.g., tolerance, patience, fellows feeling etc. the word ‘emotion’ is used in psychology to describe a state of excitement in an organism. The emotion represents effective feeling tone. It is characterized by inner adjustment, conditioned by functioning of the automatic nervous system and aroused by the interaction between an external stimulus and the inner mental status. The complex study of emotions provides us a view of the vital subjective influences in the individual’s life. Emotional development is the most difficult areas of the human life to comprehend. A parent or a teacher is frequently ineffective because of his/her own emotions and feelings. Emotional development involves many questions. A child who is apparently mature and balanced in his emotional life suddenly becomes upset.
Is emotional development cyclic like other forms of development? What can the parents and teacher do to help the child become emotionally mature? In short emotional development is primarily concerned with the emotional responses like tolerance, patience, affection and politeness etc. the number of emotions increases as the time passes. At birth, the number of emotions is very few but they increase as the interaction between the individual and the environment strengthens.


Discuss the significance of the knowledge of the principles of development for a teacher

The primary aim of education is to fulfill the natural needs and develop the personality of the individuals. The knowledge of the basic principles of development helps in preparing the instructional program for the students. The knowledge of the principles of development also enables the teacher to comprehend the interests, tendencies, capacities and aptitudes of the students belonging to various levels of education. With the help of this practical knowledge a teacher becomes able to take practical steps for the fulfillment of social and emotional needs of the students. The significance of the knowledge of the principles of development can be described in the following headings :

Objectives of education and the principles of development : 

The objectives of education are first formulated in the process of education. The different objectives are determined for various levels of education. These objectives are classified and categorized in line with the stages and aspects of development. There are different physical, cognitive, social and emotional needs at different phases of life. During the formulation of objectives of education, these versatile needs of the students should be taken into account by the developmental psychologists and the curriculists.

Learning and the principles of development : 

The process of learning and instruction cannot be successful and effective unless it is in conformity with the
mental level, tendencies, interests and psychological needs of the learners. The knowledge of the principles of development enables the teachers to understand the broad-based developmental needs and aspirations of the students. The knowledge of fire principles of development is also concerned with the extent of physical and mental ability which is required for a particular level of education.

Individual differences and the principles of development : 

It is obligatory for a teacher to take into consideration the individual differences of the students during the course of instruction. Every child is born with unique and distinct faculties. This is an educational misconception to consider all the children possessing the similar abilities and tendencies. The study of principles of development assists the teacher in understanding the individual differences of the students. To me, no effective instruction is possible Without the consideration of individual differences.

Curriculum and the principles of development : 

Understanding of the principles of development guides to the development of curriculum. To me, there are
peculiar needs and demands of a student of a certain level of education. The content of curriculum cannot be selected and organized without the consideration of these needs and demands of the students. If the content of curriculum is not compatible with the mental level of the students, the process of education would become aimless and unproductive. The curricular content should be harmonized with the cognitive, emotional, social and emotional needs of the students.

Co-curricular activities, and the principles of development : 

The school organizes various co-curricular activities keeping in view the stages of development. The experts maintain that the co-curricular activities must be in harmony with the stages of cognitive and physical development. This is a significant educational need which must be taken into account during the selection of co-curricular activities for the program of the school. The study of the basic principles and characteristics of
development enables the teacher to select particular co-curricular activities for the students of particular age and educational level.

Methods of teaching and the principles of development : 

Successful and effective instruction is not possible without a suitable method of teaching. The knowledge of the principles of development enables the teachers to draw their instructional strategies according to the psychological needs and mental abilities of the students of different ages. If the developmental principles and characteristics are not considered during the educative process, the students would feel boredom and take no interest in the learning and instructional activities.

Educational administration and the principles of development : 

The study of principles of development helps the educational administrators to administer the affairs of the school in accordance with the objectives of education. The children of different age group can be brought under desirable discipline by means of various disciplines approaches. The duration of instruction should correspond to the span of attention of the child. As the span of attention increases, the duration of instruction
could be increased. The school administration can draw a code of conduct and behavior if they are well aware of the principles of development.

Exceptional children and the principles of development : 

The exceptional children refer to those children Who cannot be educated in the class constructed for the children With average abilities. Such children find difficulties in the normal educational settings. The knowledge of principles of development allows the teachers to discriminate the exceptional children from the normal ones. The exceptional children require special attention. They need special teachers, special curriculum and special methods of teaching. If a teacher has full Command over the principles of development, he/she would be able to take necessary measures for the education of exceptional children.

Guidance and the principles cf development : 

The study of the principles of development enables the teachers to guide the students through the affairs of school and social life. They assist the students in the selection of subjects and professions, solution of socio-psycho problems and maintaining domestic concerns. A teacher can better understand the emotional problems of the students if he/she is well aware of  the principles of development. The process of education is, in fact, a process of guidance. The students face various problems at various stages of development. In
this regard, it seems necessary for the teachers to be equipped with the knowledge of development.

Evaluation and the principles of development :

The study of the principles of development plays a significant role in the evaluationof educational achievement of the students. Educational evaluation is directly concerned with the abilities of the learners. The process of evaluation is carried out to evaluate the all-round abilities and skills of the students. The stages of cognitive development are taken into consideration during the evaluation of the cognitive abilities of the students. A
teacher should know the abilities and capacities of the students belonging to various age groups. This is possible only if the teacher is well-equipped with the knowledge of the principles of development.

Mental health and the principles of development : 

The mental health of the learner contributes enough to the fulfillment of the objectives of education. The study
of the principles of development points out the mental problems and concerns of the students. A teacher should take necessary steps- for maintaining the mental health of the students so that the comprehensive objectives of the instructional process may be realized. The knowledge of principles of development makes the teachers aware of the characteristics of mental health at various stages of development. A good student
contains sound mental health. And the principles of development render their  services for the maintaining the sound mental health of the students.

Social activities and the principles of development : 

This is the responsibility of education to make the individuals useful citizens of the society. For the acquisition of the social aims of education, the individuals should be socially adjusted by means of the educative process, The study of the principles of development makes the teachers aware of the patterns of Social development in certain phases of life of a student. In this way, the teacher suggests the social activities which support in
obtaining the destination of social adjustment of the individuals.


Sunday, 30 August 2015

Define Growth and differentiate between growth and development

Growth refers to changes inhuman weight, height and structure. It is a part of development which is primarily concerned with the human physique.

  • Growth refers, to quantitative changes in an organism particularly growth in size and structure. 
  • Growth means a measurable increase in size, height, weight and length of the various parts of the body.  
Growth refers to the change in height, width and bone structure of an individual. On the other hand, development refers to a continuous process of changes through which task managing abilities of the individual are polished resulting in experiences and learning. In simple words, development refers to several changes taking place in the individual. Growth is a part of development that is concerned only with the physical development.

                       Difference between Growth and Development

Growth :-

  • Growth is concerned with the quantitative changes.
  • Growth may be looked upon as the cellular multiplication.  
  • Growth does not continue throughout life.
  • Growth is an aspect of development.
  • Changes occurred due to growth are observable and measurable.
  • The changes occurred due to growth takes place under natural principles.
  • Various parts of body become larger due to growth.
  • Increase in height, weight and structure is regarded as growth.
Development :-
  • Development is concerned with the qualitative changes.
  • Development may be looked upon as organization of all the parts which growth has produced.
  • development goes on continuously throughout the human life-span.
  • Development is an integrated whole which includes growth too.
  • The development changes cannot be measured scientifically.
  • Development changes are concerned with learning, experiences and observations of individual.
  • An organization is functions of various parts of body is observed due to development.
  • Development includes intelligence, social understanding, expertise in language and utilization of educational opportunities.


Saturday, 29 August 2015

Define development and the salient principles or characteristics of development

Development refers to the changes an individual goes through from conception to death.

  • Development refers to the changes that begins at conception and continues through the life span. 
  • Development refers to orderly durable changes in a learner resulting from a combination of learning, experience, and maturation.
  • Development refers to the, ways people grow, adapt and change during their lifetime. 
  • Development is a process in Which not only quantitative changes are observed but also it is an integrated process in which different structures and their fictions are tried to comprehend with reference to each other. 
  • Development refers to, the process whereby a living thing transforms itself from a single cell into a vastly complicated multi-cellular organism. 
  • Development means orderly and adaptive change we go through from conception to death.
  • Development means the process involving all the orderly changes that occur during progress towards maturity. 

Since development is orderly and predictable, it seems essential to know the principles of development and developmental patterns. Knowledge of the principles of development, it becomes possible to predict which behavior and which development takes place at what age. If a baby does not show a particular behavior as
per the norm of development, the parents may take necessary steps to improve his development. Following are the fundamental principles of development :-

Development is a continual process : 

Development is a process which continues from conception to maturity. Of course, there are some visible differences in the rate of development of different parts of the human organism. It takes place at a slow but regular pace rather than by leaps and bounds. We Should keep into consideration that it is not always smooth and gradual. There  are some spurts in physical growth and psychological functioning as increase in height and weight and sudden improvement in problem-solving abilities during adolescence. It is commonly
observed that due to illness or psychological disorder, children do not grow as per the general norm of development but after recovery they improve and reach the expected standard of development by compensating the deficiency.

Development involves change : 

The process of development involves Changes from conception till death of an individual. Development refers to qualitative changes while growth involves quantitative changes. These changes are concerned with the change in size and structure of the body and the mental conditions. All the changes bring about development and growth. Changes in height, weight and internal organs are concerned with the physical development. But changes in perceptual capacity, leaning, thinking, reasoning and creative ability are concerned with the psychological development. Due to the process of development, old features are
replaced with the newer ones.

Development follows an orderly sequence : 

Though the individuals vary in the rate of growth and development but even then the development follows the universal orderly sequence. A high degree of similarity can be observed in the order in which various developments appear. The developmental psychologists have reported several directional trends in development. ‘Cephalocaudal sequence’ ‘Proximodistal sequence’ and ‘Locomotion sequence’ are the main developmental trends which rule the process of development and growth.

Development is an individualized process : 

All the individuals grow and develop in their own way. All the children vary in the rate of physical, social,
emotional, cognitive and intellectual development. If we observed the children of seven-year age group, we may notice remarkable differences in their height, weight, social attitudes and learning readiness. The developmental psychologists hold that children have different rate of development at different stages of age. The rate of growth is high in infancy and childhood but it slows down in the later growth stages. To Summarize, development is individualized in nature. It varies from person to person in some respects despite there are particular similarities in the process of development.

Development is a cumulative process : 

The developmental psychologists hold that development is a cumulative process. There are changes Which draw the attention of the. observers with their dramatic suddenness but actually they do not emerge all of a sudden. The child’s first word, first step and first emotional response are the results of cumulative progression. A child has continuously been preparing for performing these functions. Each change is the result of previous growth and experience. An individual, is a cumulative whole. All of his developmental changes provide grounds for Other changes. The chain of changes do not end or stop.

Development proceeds from general to specific : 

According to this principle of development, a child exhibits general responses and learns to exhibit specific and goal directed responses afterwards. For instance, a baby starts moving his arms in a general random movement but these general motor movements are converted into specific responses like grasping and handling. Similarly, when a newborn infant cries, his whole body is involved in this action but as he develops, it is limited to the vocal cords, facial expressions and eyes impressions. In: the development of language, the child begins with generalized response such as by calling all men daddy and all women mom but as he develops, he begins to use these names only for his father and mother. In short, a specific activity emerges from a general activity. All the developmental activities are first general in nature and then they become specific.

Development is predictable : 

The researches regarding development tell us that development is predictable. With the help of uniformity of pattern and sequence of development, a developmental psychologist, to a great extent, can forecast the
general nature and future behavior of the child in one or more aspects at any particular stage of his growth and development. That is why; a developmental pathologist discusses the general nature of development at different stages such as infancy, childhood, neo-adolescence, adolescence and maturity. At every stage of
development there are certain developmental changes which can be expected or predicted.

Development is an interactive process : 

The process of development involves an active interaction between the individual and environment. An organism inherits at the time of conception in the womb of the mother. After birth, physical and socio- psychological environment influences the development of an individual. Therefore, at every stage of growth and development, the behavior and personality make up of an individual is nothing but an end-product of the Constant interaction between the hereditary environment and environmental set up. To summarize, both heredity and environment influence the development of the organism. It is difficult to distinguish the contribution either of the two forces. To me, the role of heredity and environment is the developmental process is unquestionable. That is why; development is an interactive process.

Development is a correlated process : 

It is generally observed that there exists positive correlation amongst various aspects of development. For instance, there is a correlation between physical and cognitive development. Usually a healthy child enjoys a good mental health. An intelligent child has good health and capable of good social adjustment. On contrary, an inadequate physical or cognitive development may result in socially or emotionally maladjusted personality. Development of sexual behavior largely depends upon the growth and maturation of the sexual organs. Likewise, language development depends upon the development of speech organs. Learning depends upon the maturational development of brain and various parts of the body. That is why; all educational efforts are directed towards achieving harmonious development in all aspects of an individual’s personality.

Development is similar to all : 

Every normal human being grows and develops through a similar pattern and process of development. An individual creeps, crawls, sits and stands before he walks and runs. The language development of a baby starts from meaningless voices and babbling. Then he learns to utter meaningful sentences and at last he speaks in a scholarly manner. Every normal human being is subjected to the similarity in the process of development. The researchers have found no deviation anywhere to the general principles of development. Though there are individual differences in the rate of development yet there is no deviation in the general principles of growth and development.

There is a lack of uniformity in the rate of development : 

Though, development is a continual process yet it does not exhibit steadiness and uniformity in terms of the rate of development in various dimensions of personality. There are periods of accelerated growth and decelerated growth as well. During the first three years of infancy, the rate of growth and development become rapid. Then the rate of growth slows down which is again accelerated at the adolescence stage. Different internal organs like heart and liver develop slowly in childhood but grow very fast during adolescence. Intelligence also develops at different rate in different stages of human life. Similarly, neither of the parts of body grows at the same rate nor all aspects of cognitive development progress equally. Various aspects of development reach their maturity at different times.


Human Development

A new born baby has to be dependent on the environment around him. But as the time passes, he begins to sit, then to stand, then to walk and to run at last. At first, he just weeps but with the passage of time, smile begins to appear on his face. Then he expresses anger, love and hatred. At first, he cannot speak. Gradually, he begins to speak word and then utters broken sentences. Afterward, a time comes and he speaks the mother tongue fluently. At birth, his society is just confined to his parents, brothers and sisters. Gradually,
his contacts become larger and deeper. They expand from street to city. All these changes bring the child to the stage of maturity. In psychology, these changes are considered as ‘development’.

Development is a continual process beginning in the conception and ending with death. Although physical changes may be the most obvious, we also change socially, personally, cognitively, intellectually and educationally. The subject of human development has traditionally been the primary concern of educational psychologists. Most commonly the field is called developmental psychology. It focuses primarily on child development. Psychology itself is often defined as the scientific study of behavior and mental process. Development deals with how individuals change with time while remaining in some respects the same. In the present days, the field of life-span development has been multidisciplinary. It encompasses not only psychology but also biology, sociology and anthropology. A developmental psychologist should avoid the tendency to view the various academic disciplines as somehow separated into water tight departments. The academic disciplines are loosely defined. The borderlines are so, vague that a researcher gives little thought to whether he is invading discipline’s field of study. Such academic overlap encourages a freshness of approach and functions as a stimulus in advancing the frontiers of knowledge. A true researcher welcomes aid and collaboration from any qualified person where or not that person belongs to the same academic discipline.


Tuesday, 25 August 2015

Economic gains of education

The economic gains of education are concerned with the individual and collective economic development. These gains are closely related with the social stability. The individual and collective development is connected with the acquisition of these gains. The experts hold the following economic gains of education :-

Provision of skillful manpower : 

Provision of skillful manpower to the society is a significant economic gain of education. Acquisition of this gain can cause economic development and individual well-being. The skilled work force of a country plays a productive role in the economic development. Provision of competent and skilled men to the society i is the primary responsibility of education. An education system trains the individuals in conformity with the needs of the country. These skilled competent and trained men do their best for the overall development of the country and thereby make it a stronger, flourishing and prosperous one.

Economic development : 

Education is directly linked with the individual and collective economic development and stability. Education enables an individual to participate in the productive economic activities and thereby promote his standard of
living. When an individual’s standard of living is raised, he starts moving towards the individual economic growth and consequently collective economic development is ensured. Keeping in view the concern of economic development with education, this is the duty of the state to take necessary practical steps to educate and train the men of society so that economic backwardness may be eradicated.

Utilization of natural resources : 

The educationists hold that utilization of natural resources is one of the significant economic gain of education. This is the responsibility of education to enable the individuals to fully utilize the national natural resources. In this Way, the Grand National Products will increase. No nation can utilize their natural resources without an organized system of education established for the individuals. Education produces such skilled and professionally trained individuals who are capable of utilizing the natural resources for national welfare and promotion.

Promotion of economic opportunities : 

Promotion of economic opportunities is also a significant economic gain of education. The abundance in economic opportunities is closely linked with the abundance in employment opportunities. If there is no economic activity, there is no possibility of employment. Education opens new ways of development and economic stability. The individuals get benefit of new economic opportunities and thereby strengthen their economic conditions by means of the process of education.

Increase in individual and national income : 

Every system of education desires an increase in individual and national income. A developed system of education opens new ways of economic development. Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood in accordance with" his potentials and professional skills. In this way, his individual income increases. This very individual income causes an increase in the national income. The experts maintain that individual income is in fact, a national income and economic stability of an individual is the economic stability of the society in reality. When an individual is economically stable, this is the economic stability of the society in general

Rise in the standard of living : 

Betterment in the standard of living is another economic gain of education of today. Education increases and develops those abilities of the individual with which he becomes able to participate in the productive economic activities. In this way, the individual income and the purchase power increase. Increase in purchase power brings about rise in the standard of living which enables the individuals lead a prosperous life. 


Monday, 24 August 2015

Discuss the political gains of education

Man has established many institutions for the organization of collective life. ‘State’ is the most remarkable of all these. The state plays a valuable role in the formation of human life. It grants meaning to the social life. A healthy political system cannot be established in the society without education. Education provides organized foundation on which the society ensures its survival. It develops the political awareness of the individual and makes the useful citizens of the society. Education and politics are concomitant to each other. To me, following are the valuable political gains of education :-

Political insight : 

Education enables an individual to comprehend and solve the political problems. This is the fundamental right of every citizen to express his opinion. This is possible only if he has been politically trained in an organized
manner. Education cultivates critical and philosophical abilities in the individual which enable them to trace the positive solutions of the political problems.

Leadership : 

A good system of education ensures the provision of political leaders to the country. Education develops the leadership qualities in the individuals and then they are capable of performing the duty of leadership. Education enables the individuals to make political policies for the smooth running of the political affairs of the country. This is the only way for securing national stability and integrity.

Character formation : 

Education builds the character of the individuals in the light of national ideology and social values. After being education, the social and political character of an individual thus becomes the true follower of the national values and traditions. Then, we observe the national values in the character and conduct of the individual. A country needs sincere, industrious, honest, patriot and untiring persons to run the political affairs. This is the responsibility of education to provide such persons to the society.

Internationalization : 

Means of communication and the means of transportation have brought the countries of the world close to one another. All the citizens belonging to different countries are now considered the citizen of a single global
state. Education produces such individual who may understand the international affairs and thereby run the business of the state in a wisely manner. Education enables the individual to understand the modern changing international trends. This. is what we call cultivation of internationalization in the terminology of education.

National unity & stability : 

The destination of national unity and stability is achieved by means of education. Education makes the people aware of their cultural and nationalization heritage. The instruction of the Same curriculum. makes the people
united and . integrated. It produces the feelings of fraternity and mutual affection among of the people of the country. A feeling of patriotism is awakened in the hearts of the people through education. No country can get progress unless the citizens are united together because mutual differences cause political unrest.

Public opinion : 

Every government plans various projects of social welfare according to the pre-decided policies. The people of a country become aware of those policies through formal and non-formal education. In this way, various modes of education level the public opinion for the execution of those policies and the government succeeds in the acquisition of objectives. The experts hold that education is the most significant tool for leveling and Changing the public opinion.

Development of creativity : 

One of the significant aims of education is to produce the critical and creative abilities so that an individual may look into the political affairs seriously. The people having concerns with politics are usually confronted
with new conditions and circumstances. They have to look into various circumstances from a variety of angles. In these circumstances, the creative and critical abilities help the individual a lot. These abilities pave the way for all-round development of the individual and the society.


Sunday, 31 May 2015

Discuss the moral aims of education

Moral gains of education refer to the character development of the individuals, promotion cf values, and development of productive human traditions. Education is the sole source of developing the moral character of the individuals in the light of life ideology. The aims of education concerned with the character development of the individual cannot be fulfilled without a system of education. To me, following are the significant moral gains of education :-

Purification of soul : 

Purification of soul is the fundamental moral gain of education. Purification of soul refers to harmonize the self character and potentials of the individual with the Divine will. Education is, in fact, a process of soul
purification which leads to the spiritual destination proposed by God. When a soul is purified, it leads to the purification of all the human deeds in life. That is why; purification of soul is a notable gain of education.

Propagation of moral values : 

Propagation of moral values is one of the most significant moral gains of education. Every society has its own set of system of values according to which the members of  society lead their lives. A society discriminates itself  from the other societies on the basis of values and traditions. The moral values such~as truthfulness, justice, brotherhood, piety, devoutness, honesty, promise fulfillment, benevolence and generosity are propagated and transmitted to the present and future generations by means of the educative process The society run by these values paints a picture of heaven. These very values pave the way to social stability and economic rise.

Character building : 

Character building is an important responsibility of education. Every system of education has the aim of character building of the individuals to achieve through the formal educational settings. Better and stable social life largely depends of the moral training of the individuals. The education which cannot provide moral training of the individuals is useless and unproductive. For the character building of the individuals, the students should be taught moral subjects in the schools.

Moral training : 

For the accomplishment of the national aims, moral training of the individuals in the light of social values is necessary. This is the responsibility of education to develop the character of the individuals in the light of national ideology. Moral training of the individuals serves valuable purposes for the Society. This is an
effective source of individual and collective development.

Healthy moral environment :

Provision of healthy moral environment to the individuals of the society is an important gain of education. A healthy moral environment allows an individual to practice moral values with his free will. Such environment is helpful in the promotion and development of established moral values and traditions. Education should take steps to maintain a healthy moral environment in the schools. 


Friday, 29 May 2015

Briefly discuss the academic gains of education

Academic gains of education are concerned with these information and discoveries which change human understanding about society and universe. For instance, this is an academic gain of education that scientific approach is produced in an individual. For the acquisition of this academic gain of education, it is necessary
to make an individual acquainted with the scientific discoveries and principles discovered. To me, following are the significant academic gains of education :-

Expansion in academic excellencies : 

Education gives rise to sciences, skills and discoveries. The subject-matter of natural and social sciences has much increased because of education. The content and subject-matter of various sciences are, in fact, academic excellencies which are being increased with the passage of time. If the educative process suspends, the evolution and development of various sciences would come to an end and the world would go back to the Stone Age again.

Preservation of knowledge : 

The facts, truths and findings collected from various fields cannot be preserved and safeguarded without the process of education. Education is the only key to preservation of knowledge acquired through different
means. If education did not exist, there would be no academic capital in the hands of mankind. Discovered truths and other academic excellences are preserved in terms of curriculum. Then, this curriculum is transmitted to the next generations through the instructional process.

Research tendency : 

Development of research tendency is another academic gain of education. Research in various fields of knowledge has significantly increased the academic capital. The subject specialists and experts are contributing to natural and social sciences in the research centers. Research is an integral part of the educative process. Findings of the research activities are included in the process of education in terms of curriculum. This curriculum, afterwards, brings about individual and collective development and productive evolution. If the research activities are not carried out, the development in various fields of knowledge would discontinue.

Reconstruction of knowledge : 

Reconstruction of knowledge refers to the modification and re-organization in the existing body of knowledge. This medication is carried out on the basis of research. Old theories are replaced by newer ones
due to the educative process. New content is added in the subject-matter of various subjects due to the new discoveries and principles. All this is termed as reconstruction of knowledge and this paves the way to the development of mankind. In this sense, we may say that reconstruction of knowledge is another academic gain of education.

Preparation for global leadership : 

Education prepares the individuals of the society for global leadership. The experts hold that 'preparation for global leadership' is an important academic gain of education. A nation gets the destination of scientific and technological progress due to education. Education enables an individual to play his role in the global community. History knows that the nations, who are the leaders in the fields of science and technology, lead the rest of the nations.

Acquaintance with earthly responsibilities : 

Education enables the individuals to know their earthly responsibilities. Education also tells the individual the purpose of life and human existence. Man has been sent down on earth for the fulfillment of particular functions. For these functions, man has been declared the 'supreme being'. When an individual is aware of his responsibilities, it brings about behavioral changes in the individual. When behavioral changes occur in the individual, it paves the way to individual and collective development and betterment.


Monday, 18 May 2015

Discuss the salient points of economic foundation of education

Consideration of the economic needs - of the individual and society is a significant economic foundation of a system of education. This foundation is composed of many thoughts, doctrines and theories. To my mind, following are the notable points regarding the economic foundation of education :-

  • A sense of dignity of lawful earning should be awakened in the individuals through education.
  • The economic research should be included in the educative research so that new vistas of economic development may be opened.
  • A comprehensive plan must be arranged in order to discover the hidden natural resources of the universe. In this way, the country will become prosperous and economically stable.
  • The content of curriculum should consist of such information and activities which clarify the concepts of lawful and unlawful earning in the light of life ideology.
  • A comprehensive program should be designed to make the manpower of the country competent, trained and skillful.
  • There is a need for strengthening a sense in the individual that struggle for lawful livelihood is worship.
  • Necessary steps should be taken to remove the obstacles in the way to sound economic development. This is the only .way to discourage the exploiting, corrupting and unlawful money making elements of the society.
  • For the fulfillment of the financial needs of the individual, the society should increase the earning and employment opportunities, This increase will lead to economic development.
  • The all-round development of the society can be ensured by producing skilled individuals for various professions.
  • The financial problems of the economically deprived class can be reduced by the promotion of feelings like tolerance, unity, and fraternity among the member of the society.
  • Economic stability is a source of social stability. It seems necessary that the individual should be ideologically and professionally trained as well.


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