Saturday, 28 February 2015

What is the Role of a teacher in the educative process

The teacher, as an element of the educative process, transmits content and kills to the students. A teacher is ranked high in every society of the world. He constructs the character of a nation. The role of a teacher in the educative process can be described in the following points :-

  • A teacher transmits the content to the students. This content is organized for the acquisition of curricular objectives. This process of transmission gives rise to the process of instruction.
  • A teacher is a guide, counselor and a friend of his/her students. He guides them continuously and provides help in solving the problems of life.

  • The students copy the character and conduct of his teacher. If the teacher possesses high character and broad knowledge, the students will long for the acquisition of the qualities of their teachers.
  • A teacher is like a gardener in the educative process. As the gardener looks after the plants, the teacher keeps watch the children. The role of a teacher is significant in the character building of the students. He enables them to understand the national values and traditions.
  • A teacher grows up the faculties of his students. He provides them a friendly environment where they find the opportunities to develop their abilities.
  • Transmission of the content is not the only responsibility of a teacher. This is also the duty of a teacher to evaluate the education achievement of the students.
  • A teacher motivates the students to learn in the educative process. This very motivation enables the students to exhibit their interests in the curricular and co-curricular activities.
  • Human building is also a responsibility of a teacher. An educational institution is, in fact, a mill that produces men. A teacher supervises this process of human building.


Give an account of the comparative evaluation of cognitive, affective and psychomotor change

Three types of changes occur due to learning. These changes are interlinked and Serve as foundations for each other. These changes determine the depth, and scope of education. A comparative evaluation of these changes is presented in the following lines :-

Cognitive Change :

  1. It is concerned with information and concepts.
  2. This change cannot be seen in the material form.
  3. This change is concerned with memory.

Affective Change :

  1. It is concerned with attitudes and formation of habits.
  2. The non-material feeling of this change is realized by the individual concerned.
  3. This change is concerned with the moral sense of the individual.

Psychomotor Change : 

  1. It is concerned with the participation of the individuals in practical activities.
  2. This change can be seen in the material form.
  3. This change is concerned with the training of the individual.


Friday, 27 February 2015

What is the scope of education

Education is concerned with individual and society. This relationship is seen in the observable changes. Good education brings about positive changes. The range of these changes determines the range or scope of education. Education is a change that can be seen in human behaviors in the following forms.

Cognitive change : 

Cognitive change refers to the increase in information and depth in concepts. For instance, acquaintance of a student of education with the books of John Dewey. is a cognitive change. The information, concepts and theories of different subjects are transmitted to the students during the educative process. They are concerned with the comprehension and understanding of the students. This understanding brings about cognitive change in the individuals. The significant elements of the cognitive change are mentioned below :-

  • Recognition of the things present in the environment and preserve the concerned information in the memory. 
  • Recalling the information at the conscious level of mind with the help of memory.
  • Explanation of the information and concepts collected.
  • Discovering the mutual relationship of the elements of information and concepts.

Affective change : 

The affective change is concerned with the formulation of attitudes, habits and feelings of an individual, An individual expresses his/her liking or disliking under the affective change. For instance, if an individual loves
truthfulness and feels pleasure in speaking the truth, this is due to affective change. This change contains the following significant characteristics :-

  • It formulates human attitudes and habits.
  • It forces the individual to express his/her liking and disliking.
  • This change serves as a foundation of an individual’s actions.
  • It tells an individual the value of an idea and life.
  • This change is, in general, a permanent part of an individual’s mind.
  • This change shapes the personality of an individual in a particular form.

Psychomotor Change : 

The psychomotor change refers to a change that enables an individual to participate in practical activities. The physical organs of the Individual play an important role in these activities. Driving an auto, browsing the internet, assisting the handicapped are the simple examples of psychomotor change. The significant characteristics of this change are listed below :- 

  • This change is the result of individual’s personal efforts. 
  • This change is closely concerned With the physical organs of the individual.
  • This change enables an individual to participate in an activity.
  • This change is concerned with the previous knowledge and experience of the individual.


Thursday, 26 February 2015

Describe a comparative study of formal, non-formal and informal education

Formal, informal and non-formal are three modes of education. These integrated modes bring about national stability and development. All these modes of education play significant role in the‘personality development of the individual. Human training begins with informal education. In early childhood, 21 child starts his formal education and then he starts his non-formal education. Formal education ends within a specific period but non-formal and informal education continues throughout life. The following column indicates the comparative study of the three modes of education.


What are the modes of education

As an activity, education is Concerned with all fields of human life. it touches the inner feelings and changes the collective thinking. Tome, modes of education refer to such modes of learning which bring about changes in human behavior. The modes of education are also called types or sources of education that are described
blow :-

Formal education :

Formal education refers to the educational programs which are conducted in the schools, colleges and universities of the state according to the planned and organized procedure.
Formal education is the process of training and developing the abilities of the individuals in a certified program.
Formal education refers to the education which is conducted in the formal educational institutions for the achievement of pre-determined goals. Here are the salient characteristics of formal education :-

  • The process of formal education is executed for the acquisition of pre-determined goals. 
  • All possible sources are provided to the educational institutions establish for formal education.
  • Regular teachers are appointed for instruction and guidance in the formal educational institutions.
  • Formally designed curriculum is taught to the students in the formal educational settings. 
  • The students are evaluated in terms of examination after a particular academic session.
  • For the balanced development of the personality of students, co-curricular activities are also conducted along with the curricular activities.
  • Certificates, diplomas and degrees are awarded following the successful completion of the formal education program.
  • The chief aim of formal education is to develop the personality of  the students comprehensively so that they may play their effective role in the society. 
  • Formal education is conducted under the crystal clear. rules, competent administration and state supervision. Generally, this education is financed by the government. 
  • Formal schools are the representatives of the society. They are responsible for shaping the behavior of students in accordance with the social needs and norms.
  • Formal education is a blend of various elements. These elements are interlinked and interconnected which make the educative process a meaningful whole. This very meaningful whole as a unit plays its role in the acquisition of the national objectives of education.

Nonformal education : 

Nonformal education refers to the education which happens outside of the context of a formally structured educational institution.

Nonformal education means the educational programs in which individuals are educated through distance learning methods and means of communication.  
The educational programs which are launched to supplement the formal educational programs in order to get the comprehensive national objectives of education.  
The educational programs which are organized to meet urgent educational needs with respect to the national education policy. Here are the significant characteristics of nonformal education :- 

  • In nonformal educational programs, neither separate educational program are developed nor are separate teachers appointed; Physical and non-physical educational sources of the formal educational institutions are used in the nonformal educational programs.
  • Nonformal educational programs are developed for such people who could not get enrolled in the formal educational institutions due to the specific reasons. Nonfomal educational programs are a blessing for such people.
  • Some experts are of the view that nonformal education is an integral part of formal education. It aids in getting the objectives of formal education.
  • There is a deep similarity between the programs of formal and nonformal education. Like formal education, there are crystal clear rules under Which the process of nonformal education is executed.
  • There is a regular curriculum in nonformal education and duration of academic session largely depends on the psychological, social and economic conditions of the students.
  • Examinations are conducted to evaluate the educational performance of the students. Degrees are awarded following the success in the examination.
  • Nonformal educational programs are, successfully, conducted throughout the globe. They play a significant role in the promotion of adult and women education.
  • Electronic and print media are used in the execution of nonformal educational programs. Internet has introduced a new concept of instruction e.g. “online education” which has significantly influenced the Value of formal educational programs.
  • Distance learning is a significant part of nonformal educational programs. In this learning approach, instructional material is sent to the students through electronic mail or postal services. The students solve the assignments and send them to their respective tutors. Examination is conducted following the completion of the academic tenure and degree is awarded accordingly. In most of the nonformal educational programs, teacher and student are situated at different places. Open universities of the world and online education are the concrete examples of nonformal education.

Informal education : 

Informal education refers to a process of change in behavior which happens outside of the context of formal and nonformal educational programs. it is primarily concerned with the society rather than formal or nonformal educational settings. 
Informal education refers to the learning generated from the social experiences and observations of an individual. 
Much of human training and behavior modification is the result of informal education. 
Every individual takes influences of the social norms and values consciously or unconsciously. These influences change the behavior and conduct of the individuals. This change in behavior due to the social influences is called informal education.
Outside of the context of formal or nonformal educational settings, informal education is a sum total of the
experiences of an individual learnt from the parents and the environment as well. Here are the salient characteristics Of informal education :-

  • An individual continues to learn from his environment unconsciously. This learning is called informal education. Under this mode of education, human behavior continues to change in an unobservable way and thus his information and experiences increase.
  • Informal education is lifelong process in which an individual has to undergo various new experiences and events. These experiences bring about positive changes in individual’s behavior and conduct.
  • Home is the first informal educational institution. The attitudes, inclinations and orientations of the family influence the personality development of the child.
  • The home environment and means ‘of communication are included in the circle of informal education. Radio, television, journals, papers, and internet are included in the means of communication.
  • Informal training leaves heavy impression on the personality of the child. According to the experts, an individual is a product of the environment in which he lives. A positive or negative approach of the individual towards life largely depends on the social environments scattered around him.
  • A child spends most of his time in informal educational settings. These informal educational settings have the ability to minimize the influence of formal education. Keeping in view of this concrete reality, it seems necessary that a healthy social environment should be provided to the children so that they may develop their personality according to the pre-determined goals.
  • While living in the society, a child turns into an individual. During the process of informal education, he had to undergo various conditions and experiences. These experiences cause a social attitude of the individual under which he treats his fellow men.
  • The objectives of informal education are not .consciously determined. No organized effort is made to achieve the objectives of informal education.
  • Informal education enables an individual to learn the art of living in a society. He learns the values and norms of the society through this mode of education and consequently he turns into a useful citizen of the state.
  • Informal training can only be conducted in the society. If a state wishes to turn its individuals into well-aware and active social members of the society, it will have to establish an exemplary social environment. In this way, the goal of social stability may be achieved.


Tuesday, 24 February 2015

Give an account of the abilities an individual possess

Man is a masterpiece of GOD, the Almighty who is a combination of various abilities. Man has collected much knowledge of universe and society by means of these abilities. Education develops the abilities of the individual and thereby enables them to benefit themselves of these abilities. A. normal individual, in general,
contains the following abilities:-

Physical abilities : 

The physical abilities refer to those abilities that enable an individual to perform physical functions. For instance, running is an activity that is based on physical ability. I have a fountain pen in my right hand. Its movements depend on my physical ability. If one is deprived of this ability, he cannot participate in life actively.

Cognitive abilities : 

The cognitive abilities are those abilities that enable an individual to adjust with the environment. The cognitive ability is manifested in the appropriate attitudes, skills,and balanced personality. For instance, I am writing the script of the book this time. The process of the preparation of the script is due to cognitive ability. The process of the development of this script is because of the cognitive ability. This process of development can be seen in the form of organized and meaningful lines of words.

Social abilities : 

The social abilities are those abilities that enable an individual a balanced and adjusted member of the society. This ability brings about social adjustment and development of appropriate social attitudes in an individual. An individual co-operates the other members of the society due to the social ability. This very social ability enables an individual to live life according to the social traditions.

Emotional abilities : 

The emotional abilities are those abilities that are attributed to the particular emotions and sentiments for a particular ideology, event or action. These emotional abilities enable an individual to love his civilizational heritage, to develop friendship with his fellows and to develop the feelings of sacrifice for his motherland.

Moral abilities : 

The moral abilities are those abilities that bring about sense of good and evil in an individual. These abilities enable an individual to discriminate between good and evil. This discriminating ability of good and evil is based on moral ability of the individual. The moral abilities of the society are developed on the basis of this ability. When a person loves to speak the truth and hates the falsehood, this is because of the moral ability.


Monday, 23 February 2015

What are the functions of education

Functions of education refer to those services and actions that are performed by education for individual and society. Education is given so importance due to the functions performed by it. Some experts are of the opinion that the functions of educations and the objectives of education are the same things. But it is decided that functions of education are the positive changes that are the result of the educative process. Following are the significant functions of education near me.

Preaching of life ideology : 

Every nation has its ideology of life according to which it prepares its life plan. Life ideology is a sum total of such beliefs according to which a nation leads its life. Education is an effective tool of preaching the life ideology of a nation. It enables an individual to lead his life in the light of life ideology.

Personality development : 

Different people have different abilities. Some of the abilities of an individual are inborn and some of them are the result of environment in which he/she lives. The human faculties are like seeds that have the desire to expose themselves in the form of plants. As a seed cannot be turned into a plant without cultivation in the soil, likewise, human faculties cannot be developed without a systematic process of education. There are millions of people around us who have different abilities which can tum them into a doctor, scientist, engineer, intellectual, leader and philosopher. But these faculties could not be developed. and exposed due to the unavailability of the educative process. Education is the only source of developing the faculties of the individual and enabling them a-useful citizen of the society.

Character formation : 

Character refers to the actions, sayings. mental bent and approach of an individual. Character includes all of the affairs that are concerned with the mind and though of the individual. Character formation is the activity of
turning the attitudes, habits, actions and approach into the national ideology and Values. There are heavy effects of life ideology on the character and conduct of an individual. For instance, the Christian traditions can be found in the individuals grown up in the democratic states and democratic system of education. A system of education is mirrored in the character an individual. It is the responsibility of education to provide such opportunities that enable them to adjust themselves with the life ideology.

Civic sense : 

Every nation of the world preaches individual rights and national responsibilities. The individuals cannot be turned into balanced citizens with the awareness of civic rights and duties. Nobody can play his social role without the acquaintance with civic responsibilities. This training of the individuals is called civic training and education is the chief source of this training. Education provides the opportunities of developing the civic sense of the citizens. Acting upon the traffic rules, assisting the old people and maintaining the cleanliness of roads are the simple examples of civic Sense.

Social development : 

Society is a group of people organized because of common values and common interest. A harmony is found in the values and traditions of the members of a society. A nation is composed of individuals. An‘individual is a basic unit of a society. Peace, equality, justice and fair play and necessary for social stability and development. This social development cannot be processed without education. This s is the duty of education to unite together the individuals of the society and thereby paves .the way to. social development.

Social stability : 

A prosperous individual is a balanced citizen. The economically instable nations, in general, have to face moral downfall. On contrary, an economically stable nation enjoys a high moral status and has sound potentials for religious affairs. It is generally observed that bribery, theft, robbery, petty jealousies and falsehood are very common in the low-income societies as social crimes. The ratio of these social crimes is low in the economically developed countries than the economically underdeveloped countries. Education can make a national economically stable and developed. If there is no education, there is not economic stability

Promotion of human values : 

A value is one that is selected from many available options. A nation leads its life according to the values determined by the life ideology. For instance, truthfulness, equality, justice and brotherhood are the values.
When values are practiced in the society, they become traditions. Education is the chief source of promoting the values like trustworthiness, tolerance, affection, good behavior and honesty in the character of individuals. Education teaches men the values and its significance in their life.

Leadership : 

Every nation has the desire to lead the nations of the world. This desire of a nation Can only be fulfilled by the superiority over other nations in the fields of education, research and social development. A nation can become a role model for other nations due to the development in different fields of life. In this way, a nation will be in a position-to lead the nations of the world. This is the basic function of education to train the individual in a way that they can perform the duty of leading the globe.

International harmony : 

The scientific developments have facilitated the man of today. But side by side these facilities, man has prepared fatal war weapons for the destruction of mankind on earth. Wars of natural sources, disputes of borders and economic exploitation are the gifts of modern scientific age. The international harmony is not possible in the presence of these gifts. This is the duty of education to develop a program for promoting international harmony so that humanity can achieve its humanly objectives.

Scientific approach : 

Human life is full of challenges and problems. Education enables man to comprehend and solve these problems. Education develops a scientific approach towards life in the individuals. it is necessary to discriminate the scientific attitudes from'the nonscientific ones. The scientific attitudes are observable and verifiable. For instance, you are studying in the light of table lamp. Suddenly, he bulb stopped working. This is a problem that required scientific approach to site. Now you will trace out the causes of the breakdown of bulb. You will begin to think whether the bulb fuse has blown, or the electric current is run short or someone
has turned the main switch off. We can solve the problems of life by adopting the scientific approach.

Understanding the universe :

Understanding the universe refers to the knowledge of natural laws of nature and their application on human Well-being. Man cannot know the laws of nature without education. Scientific knowledge is necessary for the understanding of natural laws. Science does mean discoveries but it stands for the discovery and organization of the laws of nature. When we talk about understanding the universe, we, in fact, talk about the discovery of natural laws. We cannot comprehend the mysteries of the universe unless we absorb the scientific knowledge in the system of education. This is the function of education to develop scientific attitude in the students so that they can discover new worlds and galaxies.

Development of faculties : 

An individual is born with many faculties. Education prepares a plan for the development of these faculties, But the question arises, what does a faculty stand for? A faculty refers to those experiences, energy or force that decides the future line of action of a living organism. For instance, a seed has the faculty of turning into a plant. If it lacks this faculty, it will not be planted in the soil. Human faculties are like seeds and the educative process is like soil for the development of faculties.

Promotion of science & technology : 

Science has influenced human life very much. All the facilities in human life are the result of scientific development. The scientific development ranges from the discovery of bulb to human walk on moon. We are living in the age of science and technology. Highly developed fields of medicine, surgery, atomic energy, space, construction and environment protection are the products of science and technology. This is the function of education to make the human mind scientific and take the responsibility of the promotion of science and technology.

Safeguard of civilization & culture : 

A nation can survive with the survival of civilization and culture. Cultural heritage is the most valuable asset of a nation. That is why; a nation strives for the preservation of its cultural and civilizational heritage. This is considered one of the chief aims and functions of education.

Transmission of cultural heritage : 

Transmission refers to the shift of ideas or things from one place to another. When we talk about transmission of culture, we mean the transmission of cultural values from one generation to another. Education provides the opportunities which enable transmission of values and traditions.


What are basic needs for fulfillment of educational objectives

The fulfillment of the basic needs of. the individual is a primary function of education. Personality development and completeness of the self by means of schooling are the major concerns of the educative process. An individual is the central point of the process of education. A system of education is developed for the fulfillment of his basic needs. To me, the following basic needs are significant for completeness of the individual self and personality :-

Recognition :

Every normal child is born with a natural desire to be known and acknowledged. This very desire of the child motivates him to do high and positive works. This desire for recognition produces emotions for doing higher
tasks. This very emotion paves the way to human and social welfare. It is necessary for the teachers and parents to honor this natural desire of the children. They should provide the necessary sources for the fulfillment of this desire.

Development of abilities :

Every child is born with some natural abilities. These abilities enable us to adjust with the environment. Education is the chief source of development of the abilities of the individual. This very development prepares an individual for the future life. This is the responsibility of the school to develop the abilities of the children and thereby enables them to succeed in various fields of life. Education is, but, an art of leading a successful life. This is the basic aim of education.

Curiosity : 

Every child wishes to know about the things scattered around him. God has granted him this natural desire for knowing the things and secrets of the universe. This desire is termed as ‘curiosity’ in psychology. The desire for acquisition of knowledge and discovery of principles are due to the natural ability of curiosity of the child. Due to this natural ability, man has conquered the stars, has discovered the hidden secretes of the earth and has known the hidden mysteries of. human soul and body. It is necessary for the acquisition of the objectives of education to satisfy the emotions of curiosity of the students. The teachers and the parents should not create hurdles in the way to the satisfaction of the emotions of curiosity of the students. As satisfaction of the emotions of curiosity is the natural and educational right of the students.

Co-curricular activities : 

The co-curricular activities are very helpful in the acquisition of the objectives of education. They have a significant role in the personality development of the children. Some objectives are directly concerned with the organization of the co-curricular activities for the students. The balanced and comprehensive development of the students is not possible without the provision of co-curricular activities for the students. It is necessary for the school administration to create a harmony between curricular and co-curricular activities
so that the comprehensive objectives of education can be secured.

Appreciation : 

Every individual has the desire to'be'appreciated. If the children are appreciated and encouraged, they will be motivated to do more good tasks. It is, but, natural that every man does only the work for which he is appreciated. So, the children should be rewarded for their educational performance. A word of appreciation matters much in the lives of the children. If children are appreciated by their parents and teachers, their educational performance improves. In this way, they earn goodwill and good name for their school. It is the chief responsibility of the teachers and the parents to encourage the students so that hey may show better performance in the academic field.

Physical health : 

It is generally believed that a sound body possesses a sound mind. The physical health allows a child to participate in the curricular and co-curricular activities of the school. The educational objectives cannot be
achieved with an unhealthy body. It seems necessary that concrete steps must be taken for the physical health of the students. They should be provided balanced diet. In connection with the health care of the students, teachers and the parents are equally responsible. The children should be medically examined according to the medical schedule and concrete measures should be taken in the light of the medical reports of the students.

Confidence : 

A sense of confidence should be produced by means of co-curricular activities for the acquisition of educational objectives. If there is a lack of confidence in the children, they should not be able to participate in the activities of life successfully. Confidence is the key to success in all walks of life. The educative process can produce confidence in the personality of the students. The students need guidance and cooperation during the educative process. The positive attitude of the teachers towards their students influences the level of confidence of the students. A student learns confidence form the behavior and conduct of their teachers and parents. If the trust of the child is broken, it leaves negative effects on his educational performance. It also causes hurdles in the way to personality development of the child. If the students are allowed to 'tell their
inner words and emotions to their teachers, it will help the process of confidence building in the students.

Freedom of opinion : 

Every individual has the right to think freely. Freedom of opinion leads to the personality development and a democratic society in the a true sense of the term. If there is no freedom of expression, there is no freedom of speech. Freedom of expression, as a. fundamental human right, has been acknowledged by all civilized states of the globe. Every thought needs expression. If an opinion is not allowed to express, it is the negation of the fundamental human right. If the children are given the freedom of opinion, they express their inner emotions; in this way, harmony is produced between the teachers and the students. It is necessary for the acquisition of educational objectives that children should be given the freedom of expression in the educative process. In this way, it can be hoped that the children will become creative, dynamic and confident.

Skills :

Education produces such skills in an individual which are necessary for adopting a particular profession. These skills are concerned with the training of human physical organs. An individual cannot participate in the economic activities without the concerned skills. Education equips the individuals with such skills that‘are necessary for the smooth running of the society. Painting, driving, computer operating, calligraphy, swimming, boxing and drawing pictures are the significant skills.

Mental health : 

Mental health refers to a state of mind by means of which an individual employs his abilities in achieving the aims of life. A child with mental health actively participates in the educational and social activities. A student should have mental health. In this way, he will be in a position to get benefit of the educational activities. This is the duty of the school to take practical measures for maintaining mental health of the! children. The educative process can only be made effective if the learning situations are in harmony with the mental and psychological needs of the students.

Sense for acquisition of knowledge :

A sense for acquisition of knowledge must be produced in order to achieve the educational objectives. This sense can only be produced by the provision of useful information to the students. Every child is inclined to know new things. This natural inclination persuades him, to think what are things in nature, how do they come into being and what are the principles behind their existence. A teacher should answer to the questions raised
by the students. A teacher can produce a sense for acquisition of knowledge if he answers to the questions raised by the students in an organized manner.

Natural environment : 

Every child is a born innocent and his innocence can be developed and maintained. in the natural environment. Natural environment refers to an environment in which an individual is provided the opportunities for the development of abilities. This environment is harmonized with the natural and psychological needs of the students. A school cannot get its objectives without the provision of natural environment to its students. As water is a natural environment for a fish and it cannot alive without its natural environment. In the fashion, the environment harmonized with the psychological needs is a natural environment for an individual. Human abilities can only be developed in the natural and favourable environment.


Sunday, 22 February 2015

What are the elements of education

Education is a social and purposive act that is a combination of various elements. These integrated elements make the process of education a purposeful activity. These elements depend on each other. The expected aims of the process of education cannot be achieved without the mutual coordination of these elements.
Various units of a. factory work jointly in the process of production. Likewise, various elements of education proceed to the process of education .for the acquisition of educational objectives. The educationists have pointed out the following basic elements of education :-

Objectives of education :
Chirp-fives of education refer to the justifications of the formulation of a system of education. These justifications are based on the national ideology of life and social needs. To me, social needs, aspirations, and expectations are the real objectives of education. Education derives its objectives form life ideology and society. Life ideology and society direct education that what it has to do, which objectives it has to achieve and what changes it has to bring about in the children. First of all objectives of education are determined in the process of education. Education seeks guidance from life ideology and society for the determination of objectives of education. Life ideology and social values are mirrored in the objectives of education.

Curriculum : 
A question arises following the determination of the objectives of education that is how to achieve these objectives. A formal procedure is adopted for the acquisition of the objectives of education. This formal procedure is a combination of various planned activities. These planned activities are called ‘curriculum’ in the field of ‘education’. Curriculum is. a course that enables a system of education to achieve its objectives. Curriculum is a sum total of activities, experiences and skills by which objectives of education are achieved. It is directly concerned with the objectives of education. There is a harmony between curriculum and objectives of education. The curricular activities cannot be decided without the guidance of the objectives of education. For instance, ‘development of civic sense in the individual’ is an important objective of every system of education of the world. This objective can only be achieved when civic sense is developed in the individuals through the process of education, 'To develop civic sense in the individuals, we will have to include such activities in the curriculum that help in developing civic sense in the individuals. These activities maybe in terms of the subjects like political science, sociology, theology, ethics, and civics etc.

Teacher : 
Teacher is an essential element of the process of education that transmits the curricular content to the students. He/she guides the students in the selection of the ways of life. He also supervises the co-curricular activities. No system of education of the world can get the objectives of education without the active participation of the teacher in the educative process. Teacher is the person who transmits the curricular content and thereby causes positive changes in the character of the students. The instructional process cannot be conducted without the presence of a teacher. Teacher, content, methodology and the student should rightly understand their responsibilities for the successful conduct of the instructional process. The instructional process begins with the teacher and he himself evaluates the instructional process. The experts agree that a. teacher makes the instructional process meaningful and purposeful. As there is a gardener for the garden, a soldier for watching the border, a teacher is necessary for supervising the educating and
training process of the children.

Instruction :
Instruction is a process by which the curricular content is transmitted to the students. Information and skills are transmitted from one place or mind to another place or mind. Broadly speaking, all efforts of the teacher for the purpose of getting the objectives of education are called instruction. Instruction is a significant
activity of the educative process which aims at bringing about positive changes in then character of the children. It is necessary fer a teacher to keep in mind the cognitive and psychological needs of the students. In this Way, the expected objectives of instruction may be achieved. A teacher should adopt various methods of teaching for the instruction of various subjects.

Learning :
Learning refers to a change in behavior due to experience, and observation. Generally, this change is permanent and is a part of an individual’s behavior. The changes occurred due to learning enable a person to lead a better social life. Our attitudes and habits are the results of learning. The educative process is, in fact, a learning process which aims at producing changes in the behavior of the students. For instance, a teacher delivered a lecture on ‘objectives of education”. This is an instructional process by means of which you came to know the ‘objectives of education’. You did not know the ‘objectives of education‘ before the delivery of the lecture. Now, there is a change in your behavior in terms of the acquaintance with the ‘objectives of education’. This clear understanding regarding the objectives of education is learning. This learning is almost durable and permanent.

Student : 
Student is the most significant element of the process of education. A student is a person who has the desire to bring about changes in his behavior, attitudes, and skills. This is the person for whom the learning process is conducted. The instructional process cannot be held without the student; To me, he is the pivot and central focus of the educative process. The objective of all the educational activities is to produce changes in the behavior of the student. In the past, the student was regarded as the person'sitting in the classroom and listening to his teacher. Now, in the modem world, the concept of a student is absolutely changed. Now, a student is a person who learns through formal, non-formal, and informal methods of education. There are a lot of possibilities of learning before us. We learn from nature, mistakes, and experiences and also from teachers. Now, the responsibilities of the students have been increased. In spite of all these, formal education cannot survive without the presence of students.

Evaluation : Lexically speaking, evaluation means to assess a thing or idea. But in the field of education, evaluation refers to assess the educational performance of the Students within the specific academic period. The purpose of evaluation is to know the quality and quantity of the behavioral changes occurred due to, the instructions provided to the students. The concept of evaluation is found in all the education systems of the world. Examinations are the practical form of the concept of evaluation. The results of examination speak of the educational performance of the students. They indicate the effects of curricular and co-curricular activities on the behavior of the students. The process of evaluation is necessary if we wish to know to what extent the objectives of education have been achieved.

Society :
Every individual is born in a society. in this way, he is a part of a society. The educative process can only be conducted in a society. Education cannot be separated from society. Education cannot be carried out and organized in space. It requires a society to take birth. Society affects the individuals. Likewise, the role of
an- individual also affects the society. Social stability can only be ensured and maintained if there is a harmony between individual and society. If we wish to develop the abilities of the individuals, we will have to produce an appropriate social environment. This environment can only be produced through the establishment of the educative process. Education can never ignore the needs of the society. Society can never survive without the existence of education. If there is no society, there is no education. The existence of education and society is interlinked and inter-dependent.


Saturday, 21 February 2015

What are salient aspects found in the definitions of education

Education is life and life has many dimensions. All these integrated aspects of life make a meaningful picture of life. In this way, education has many aspects too. Every aspect of life is concerned with life in some ways. We discuss these aspects that are reflected on our minds due to our study the definitions of education.

  • Education is concerned with the development of human faculties.
  • Education is a primary source of accomplishment of national desires.

  • Education produced harmony between individual and society.

  • Education stabilizes and develops men and society.

  • Education ensures the transmission of cultural values and traditions

  • Education is concerned with the discovery of truths scattered in the universe.

  • Education is a primary source of accomplishment and expression of the self.

  • Education is concerned with the positive changes in mind and character.

  • Education enables the individuals to lead a balanced and successful life in the society.

  • Education is concerned with the preparation of pious men and society.

  • Education unfolds the mysteries of God, Universe and Man.


Define education or Different definitions of education

Define education 

Education is a process of change which embodies all these forms of activities that fit an individual for social living and that help transmit the mankind heritage from one generation to another. Here are some established definitions of education.

  • Socrates :  Education refers to discover the universal principles of  truth, beauty and goodness which govern human conduct.
  • Plato :  Education is the process of development of the mind and body of. man so that he/she eagerly pursues the ideals. perfection of citizenship.
  • Aristotle : Education is the process of training man to fulfill his aims by exercising all the faculties to the fullest extent as a member of society. This aim is discovered by intellect and by his freewill.
  • Benjamin Rush : Education is an endeavor for the making of better people, better nation and consequently a better humanity.
  • Samuel Knox : Education refers to instruct and improve minds and to perfect the youth so as to ensure the welfare and prosperity of the society.
  • Friedrick Herbart : Education is the process of formation of the highest moral character of the individual through many sided interests.
  • Spencer : Education is the preparation for complete life.
  • Ellis : Education is a process by which a person gains understanding of self as well as the environment.
  • Parker : Education consists of training a child to participate in life activities systematically, to love work and to put his brain and heart into his work.
  • Frobel : Education is the process of preparation for making life pleasant and acquaintance with right principles of life.
  • Hutchins : Education is the activity of instructing humanity to the individuals.
  • J. S. Mill : Education refers to the acquisition of excellences and transmission to the next generation.
  • Rousseau : Education is the process of development of child’s individuality in the natural environment. 
  • Pestalozzi : Education is the activity of integrated and gradual development of individuals abilities.
  • Comenius : Education is a manufacturing enterprise which produced men capable of performing social liabilities.
  • John Dewey : Education is the reconstruction or reorganization of experience which adds to the meaning of experience and which increases to direct the course of subsequent experiences.
  • Huxley : Education is the instruction of the intellect in the law of Nature under which I include not merely things and their forces but men and their way and the fashioning of the affections and of the will into an earnest and loving desire to move in harmony with these laws.
  • Ghazali : Education is the activity of enabling an individual to recognize God and discriminate between good and evil.
  • Shah Wali ullah : Education is the activity of developing the sense of good and evil so that an individual can choose the good and reject the evil.

Comprehensive definitions of education

  • Education is a process of change in which an individual is equipped with the human academic and cultural heritage for the purpose of stable and successful individual and'group life.
  • Education is social process that. aims at the all-round development of human personality. This development is gradual in nature that leads to the accomplishment of human self. 
  • Education is the activity of recognizing God, Universe; and Man. This recognition leads the individual to understand the demands of life, society and the environment as well.
  • Education is such a social and conscious activity by which a society takes steps to transmit its religious, cultural, social, moral and economic traditions and skills to the next generations.
  • Education is a process through which a society transmits its collected excellenccs to the next generations. For this purpose. the society established formal schools, colleges and universities.

Further conceive the following definitions of education

  • Education is the process of change in human behavior, attitudes and potentials which consequently lift an individual from animal level and place onto human level so as to pave the way to human welfare.
  • Education is a‘ social process which encompasses all aspects of human-development. This development leads a man to perfection. 
  • Education is a conscious activity of transmitting cultural heritage and human endeavors to the next generations for social'stability and survival.
  • Education refers to those activities which aim at the humanization of man. Thus, education makes a man ‘a man’.
  • Education refers to the. activity of modifying human behavior, developing individual’s faculties and understanding natural laws so as to secure human success and global peace.
  • Education is such a social process which aims at developing the potentials of an individual so that the individual and collective development may be paved.
  • Education refers to organized and sustained instruction designed to communicate a combination of knowledge, skills and understanding valuable for all the activities of life.
  • Education includes all the process that develops human ability and behavior.
  • Education is a sum total of processes by means of which a society transmits its acquired power and aims with a view to securing its own continuous existence and growth.


Friday, 20 February 2015

What is the concept, literal meaning and technical meaning of education

Concept of education

Education is'the process of change. It includes all those activities that make an individual to become a useful member of the society. It also provides its services in the transmission of human heritage from one generation to another. In fact, change is the basic element of the process of education. This very element is the key to progress of individual and society.

Literal meaning of education

The word ‘education’ has its origin in the Latin word ‘educatum’ composed of two terms ‘E’ and ‘Duco’. ‘E’ implies a progress frominward to outward while Duco’ means developing or progressing. In its most literal sense, education means becoming developed from inside to outside. Thus, education is the process of
developing the inner abilities of the individuals. The term ‘education’ is also connected with the Latin ‘E’ meaning ‘out’ and ‘ducere’ meaning to ‘lead out’. In this sense, education means drawing out or bringing out the best of what a person is capable of However, some experts relate the word ‘education’ with the Latin rooted word ‘educare/educere’ meaning propulsion (development) from the internal to the external. Thus, this Latin term means to educate through a change brought about by practice. It implies change for the betterment in the individual. In this sense, education is drawing out of the best in child’s mind, body and spirit.

Technical meaning of education

The lexical meaning of the term ‘education’ leads us to the technical meaning of the term. Technically speaking, education is as process of change and development of the individual. This continuous process aims at transmitting. information, skills and cultural heritage from one generation to another. It attempts to draw out of the best in child’s mind and body. A system of education is developed for the training of individual’s faculties. Thus education is the manifestation of the perfection that already exists in man. It indicates that there is a ‘self’ in man which is a part of universal reality. The purpose of education is to make an individual aware of the cosmic power in him and enable him to draw this out to lead a successful life. I further honestly speak that.

  • Education is a social process that enables an‘individual to lead a balanced life in the society in the light of human academic‘heritage.
  • Education is the activity of development of human mind and character in the light of national ideology and collective consciousness so that a sound and stable may come into existence.

  • Education is a formal process that aims at development of the faculties of the individuals so that they may utilize the available resources scattered around them.
  • Education is such a process of change in human character, attitudes and potentials that lift man from the animal level to the human level and there by paves the way to human total welfare.
  • Education is such a social activity that aims at the development of human faculties so that the purpose of individual and group growth can be achieved.


Introduction to Education

Introduction to Education

Education is a process of change through the acquisition of excellencies and when a man’s education is finished, he is finished. So, we can say that education is the continuous process that stops nowhere. It simply
aims at changing men and environment. This is the fundamental property of this enterprise that makes it a sacred activity human beings have ever engaged. It has a beginning but no end. It can manifest itself in a variety of ways e.g. ‘formal, informal, or non-formal and many more man does not know yet. If it loses the faculty of changing and developing humans, it will be no more education. As a flower has to blossom to justify its existence likewise education has to promote human and humanity for the justification of its being. Man survives subject to the survival of education. The promotion of education is the promotion of human future. In the capacity of subject, education is concerned with the technology that is required for the transmission, expansion, preservation and discovery of academic excellencies that man has gathered through different sources of knowledge.  "An extract from Maiki’s diary"

Prologue :

When man came to know that the‘universe is full of truths, he began to explore them. These explorations changed the human vision about God, society and universe. These explorations and discoveries gave birth to consciousness and civilization. The evolution of civilization continued because of the continuous discoveries of truths. At one time in the period of human history man realized the need for preservation of civilization and explored truths. He rightly realized that if these truths are not preserved, they might he slipped out from the hands of mankind just after the expiry of the existing race. In this'way, the journey of civilization and development would have stopped. The human mind thought it necessary the transmission of these truths to the next generations so as to ensure the evolution and development of civilization. At last, man prepared a formal plan for the preservation and transmission of civilization and truths. This plan is regarded as ‘education’ in the modern world of today. Every society of the world formulates a system of education for its individuals. Education is responsible for all civilizational, scientific, social and intellectual development of the world. Education enables an individual to think, to find new ways of life and to act corresponding to the norms of the society.


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