As an activity, education is Concerned with all fields of human life. it touches the inner feelings and changes the collective thinking. Tome, modes of education refer to such modes of learning which bring about changes in human behavior. The modes of education are also called types or sources of education that are described
Formal education :Formal education refers to the educational programs which are conducted in the schools, colleges and universities of the state according to the planned and organized procedure.
Formal education is the process of training and developing the abilities of the individuals in a certified program.
Formal education refers to the education which is conducted in the formal educational institutions for the achievement of pre-determined goals. Here are the salient characteristics of formal education :-
- The process of formal education is executed for the acquisition of pre-determined goals.
- All possible sources are provided to the educational institutions establish for formal education.
- Regular teachers are appointed for instruction and guidance in the formal educational institutions.
- Formally designed curriculum is taught to the students in the formal educational settings.
- The students are evaluated in terms of examination after a particular academic session.
- For the balanced development of the personality of students, co-curricular activities are also conducted along with the curricular activities.
- Certificates, diplomas and degrees are awarded following the successful completion of the formal education program.
- The chief aim of formal education is to develop the personality of the students comprehensively so that they may play their effective role in the society.
- Formal education is conducted under the crystal clear. rules, competent administration and state supervision. Generally, this education is financed by the government.
- Formal schools are the representatives of the society. They are responsible for shaping the behavior of students in accordance with the social needs and norms.
- Formal education is a blend of various elements. These elements are interlinked and interconnected which make the educative process a meaningful whole. This very meaningful whole as a unit plays its role in the acquisition of the national objectives of education.
Nonformal education :
Nonformal education refers to the education which happens outside of the context of a formally structured educational institution.
Nonformal education means the educational programs in which individuals are educated through distance learning methods and means of communication.
The educational programs which are launched to supplement the formal educational programs in order to get the comprehensive national objectives of education.
The educational programs which are organized to meet urgent educational needs with respect to the national education policy. Here are the significant characteristics of nonformal education :-
- In nonformal educational programs, neither separate educational program are developed nor are separate teachers appointed; Physical and non-physical educational sources of the formal educational institutions are used in the nonformal educational programs.
- Nonformal educational programs are developed for such people who could not get enrolled in the formal educational institutions due to the specific reasons. Nonfomal educational programs are a blessing for such people.
- Some experts are of the view that nonformal education is an integral part of formal education. It aids in getting the objectives of formal education.
- There is a deep similarity between the programs of formal and nonformal education. Like formal education, there are crystal clear rules under Which the process of nonformal education is executed.
- There is a regular curriculum in nonformal education and duration of academic session largely depends on the psychological, social and economic conditions of the students.
- Examinations are conducted to evaluate the educational performance of the students. Degrees are awarded following the success in the examination.
- Nonformal educational programs are, successfully, conducted throughout the globe. They play a significant role in the promotion of adult and women education.
- Electronic and print media are used in the execution of nonformal educational programs. Internet has introduced a new concept of instruction e.g. “online education” which has significantly influenced the Value of formal educational programs.
- Distance learning is a significant part of nonformal educational programs. In this learning approach, instructional material is sent to the students through electronic mail or postal services. The students solve the assignments and send them to their respective tutors. Examination is conducted following the completion of the academic tenure and degree is awarded accordingly. In most of the nonformal educational programs, teacher and student are situated at different places. Open universities of the world and online education are the concrete examples of nonformal education.
Informal education :
Informal education refers to a process of change in behavior which happens outside of the context of formal and nonformal educational programs. it is primarily concerned with the society rather than formal or nonformal educational settings.
Informal education refers to the learning generated from the social experiences and observations of an individual.
Much of human training and behavior modification is the result of informal education.
Every individual takes influences of the social norms and values consciously or unconsciously. These influences change the behavior and conduct of the individuals. This change in behavior due to the social influences is called informal education.
Outside of the context of formal or nonformal educational settings, informal education is a sum total of the
experiences of an individual learnt from the parents and the environment as well. Here are the salient characteristics Of informal education :-
- An individual continues to learn from his environment unconsciously. This learning is called informal education. Under this mode of education, human behavior continues to change in an unobservable way and thus his information and experiences increase.
- Informal education is lifelong process in which an individual has to undergo various new experiences and events. These experiences bring about positive changes in individual’s behavior and conduct.
- Home is the first informal educational institution. The attitudes, inclinations and orientations of the family influence the personality development of the child.
- The home environment and means ‘of communication are included in the circle of informal education. Radio, television, journals, papers, and internet are included in the means of communication.
- Informal training leaves heavy impression on the personality of the child. According to the experts, an individual is a product of the environment in which he lives. A positive or negative approach of the individual towards life largely depends on the social environments scattered around him.
- A child spends most of his time in informal educational settings. These informal educational settings have the ability to minimize the influence of formal education. Keeping in view of this concrete reality, it seems necessary that a healthy social environment should be provided to the children so that they may develop their personality according to the pre-determined goals.
- While living in the society, a child turns into an individual. During the process of informal education, he had to undergo various conditions and experiences. These experiences cause a social attitude of the individual under which he treats his fellow men.
- The objectives of informal education are not .consciously determined. No organized effort is made to achieve the objectives of informal education.
- Informal education enables an individual to learn the art of living in a society. He learns the values and norms of the society through this mode of education and consequently he turns into a useful citizen of the state.
- Informal training can only be conducted in the society. If a state wishes to turn its individuals into well-aware and active social members of the society, it will have to establish an exemplary social environment. In this way, the goal of social stability may be achieved.