Causes of Overpopulation1. Social and Cultural System :
Social and cultural needs of Pakistan demand big homes, because it is accustomed to extended family system which has patriarchy family system as its motive and it harmonizes the social system also. In other words, economy of collective activities demands more power and, therefore, a big family is a source of pride and economic condition demand more manpower. Thus increase in population becomes a social and cultural need.
2. Early Marriage :
A strong family system is a. characteristic of a Pakistani society where sacredness of relations is a cultural norm. Parents desire to marry a daughter as soon as possible and it is considered a good luck from a cultural and religious point of view but it courses early marriages and thus reproductive period of a woman (15-49) increases which increases population at a fast rate.
3. Cultural Traditions :
There are certain cultural and religious traditions in Pakistan which increases rate of growth rapidly.
A. Desire for Male Child :
Our society is basically male dominant and man has superiority in every matter. If daughters remain to be born, reproduction action lasts till the birth of male child. Thus unwanted children of this type increases population.
B. Polygamy :
Islam allows polygamy because of wealth. Many men do marry with more than one woman taking benefit of religious sanction and this augments the increase in population.
C. Manliness Show :
A man becomes of male dominant society takes pride of his manliness in having more children consciously or unconsciously to make his manpower admitted by the wife to prove it before the family. More male individuals add to the domination and power of a family, especially in our rural society this is a population cultural tradition that is increased if the family is well to do but it increases population.
4. Control over Infants Mortality Rate :
Medical science and medicine production have produced position effects in a Pakistani society by controlling the infant mortality rate and by saving them from fatal diseases in the infancy period whereas they died in the very first year of their infancy preventive injection, vaccination, antibiotic medicine have decreased the rate death thereby increasing the population growth.
5. Illiteracy and Ignorance :
Literacy rate in Pakistan is 40% according to the census of 1998, especially women rate of literacy is less than 28% and in rural areas, it is less than 12%. Though it is said that Pakistan did well in increasing the rate of literacy, because in 1961 it was 17% which increased to 40% in 1998.
In spite of rate of growth of literacy, the number of illiterate person is increasing day by day that was 22 million in 1961 as against 55 million in 1998 and its effects are increasing in the'form of increasing population.
A. Contentious Grouping of Rural Society :
Because of illiteracy and ignorance, quarrels and contenting incidents are becoming a cause of grouping. Since for such quarrels and contention more people are required, therefore, a big family is considered effective and useful. Therefore, children birth is stressed for having more power show.
6. Backward Farming System :
In the Pakistan social society, there is an old and obsolete farming system. Because of illiteracy and ignorance, farmers are not able to use modern agricultural implements. Most of the farming is done through tilling with bulls, cows, wooden plough. This requires more manpower and there are birth of children for this economic need. Because of low income, they cannot educate their children which add to the illiteracy and unskilled persons with increasing the population of the country. These illiterate people increase the incidents of quarrels, murders, thefts and kidnapping. Being unsuccessful in getting employment. .they indulge in unlawful activities like terrorism making the situation of law worse than before. There is a sphere of terror in people and they want more children consciously. Some urban society people also become a cause
of increasing population and want more children because of their insecurity sense of feelings.
7. Opposition to Family Planning :
Religious people and scholars do not believe in family planning and think this against Islam and all Islamic beliefs. Because of ignorance and illiteracy, this is thought against Islam. The advertisement of this scheme was started without taking into confidence. The cultural and religious traditions and a common person felt dissatisfaction. Thus the opposition of family planning became a cause of increase in rate of growth.
Culturally, Pakistani society feels proud of having more child birth and elders of the family allow early age marriage just increase the number of children and to their old age leisure, they use children as a source of recreation and in rural area the elder people make a fun of this scheme and oppose it. Thus this scheme failed to achieve its objective.