Education as a Social InstitutionThe great Greek philosopher Aristotle says: mat "The only difference between man and animal is that of education." Islamic view about education especially religious view is that the first work after his creation done by man was that of getting education.’As it is in Surah Buqra, “God made men learn name of things.” All religion, especially lslarn has stressed education very much by calling it as sign of way of paradise. Education is necessary to understand the situation and incidents in the world, to adapt to the environment and to prepare better for the world hereafter. In the modern age, both individual and collective education has got importance and to get an honourable place in the nations of the world, the promotion of education at the national level is necessary.
Definitions of Education1. Caroline H. Persell :
“The process, in school or beyond, of transmitting a society’s knowledge's, skills, values and behave others.”
2. Richard T. Schaefer :
“The life-long process of learning, knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and behaviour appropriate to individual as members of a particular culture.”
3. F.J. Brown :
Education is the process of-interaction, changes in behaviour occurs in both the individual and the culture."
Structure of Educational Institutions
i. Informal Education :
A learning process takes place at working place, i. e., at forms, at workshops, etc. is called Informal Education."
During work, the process of getting education is called informal education. Just as, while working in the fields to teach the ways of agriculture or doing work in a workshop to teach skill of different jobs without any syllabus, curriculum, duration and examination is called informal system of education. China adopted this method in the walk and talk. In doing industrial job, s: tern of education was continued.
ii. Formal Education :
Such a process of education where basic qualification, curriculum, duration of education, system of education and norms of education are fixed is called formal education." All schools, colleges universities, skilled and
professional training institutions deal with formal education. Today in the whole world, a tendency of formal education is there, which is considered as a guarantee of social progress and welfare.
Functions of EducationJust like other social institutions, educational institution has some manifest and latent functions. The detail of which is given below :
1. Manifest Functions
The basic and central function of education is to train the new generation. In the prehistoric ages, when there was no schooling, elders of family and the Wise of the society gave. informal education to train the new generation. Afterwards, school became the greatest institution of socialization that affects an individual permanently and teaches one to lead better life, obey with social mores and values. It is also a cause of increasing the status of an individual in a society by providing a better environment.
ii. Transmission of Knowledge :
l Knowledge is a basic source of conveying abilities and experiences from one generation to another generation, from a social group to another social group for an individual. It teaches (me to read, write and speak, to have behaviour at a particular time, to solve problems and to do duties. It teaches one, different skills, knowledge and information about different departments of life. Transmission of knowledge is the greatest service of humanity that has enabled man to travel in space and to conquer space, to treat fatal diseases and to travel rapidly.
iii. Research and Development :
The aim of education is to prepare such individuals that can meet the needs of the administration, professional and skilled arts, to provide continuity to the social life. All institutions are doing this service not only in transferring cultural heritage to the next generation but also adding to the culture. The research in biological, social, medical and engineering is in progress because of important role of education.
In the modern age, educational institutions are changing into research centers and new discoveries and inventions are being made for the spread of progress. Facilities for human beings are being increased because of research.
iv. Bestowal of Status :
Education enhances the social status of an individual. An increase of capability, increases the status of the individual, and that of his family. Income increase, creates chances of better standard of life. Education takes an individual change from inferior status to superior status and ends the social difference on the basis of economic and social equality.
v. Getting a Job and Job Performance :
Education is the only source that helps in getting a job. In the modern age, its importance has increased. An educated individual has more chances of getting a job than an uneducated individual and that an educated person can do his duty with more responsibility. lf an individual has good information, skill and ability, he does better in discharging his duties and is better than that of an uneducated person.
Apart from manifest functions of education, there are latent functions of education which are of no less importance. The detail of these is given below:
i. Transmission of Culture :
As a social institution, educational institution not only supervises the culture but also transmits it. it provides socialization in the form of norms, values and arts to the new generation. Social control is taught, respect and regard and social status is also taught in the institutions. The transmission of culture in its Various forms builds the personality of an individual.
ii. Promotion of Social and Political Integration :
The most important latent function of educational institutions is promotion of social and political integration. It is an important source of making opposite linguistic religious groups into a culture structures and its common recognition gives stability and unity. So, common cultural characteristics take place and promote political and social unity.
iii. Maintenance of Social Control :
Under manifest function, an educational institution provides the students a socialization of social and behaviour samples. to live their lives according to the social norms in an organized way and to abide by the sanctions for social control and such abilities are taught to be useful in practical life like punctuality, hard work and sense of responsibility.
iv. Agent for Change :
An educational institution is a source of new thought, views and information and also creates a change in views and tendencies because of new discoveries and individuals are made to accept these and thus, it an agent for change also.
v. Mobility Escalator :
It does .the.function of mobility escalator also. Since it shows new directions, it brings about changes in the lives of people, becomes a cause of better social life, better social strata, increase in income and finally a vertical social mobility direction is promoted for the progress and welfare of the individuals.