Kinds of Research :Jahoda and Cook have described the following three kinds of research :
1. Exploratory Research :
In this type of research, we explain some problem by going into its depth to know the reasons. Such types of researches are called exploratory researches. For example, to know the reasons of death, to know the elements responsible to increase in crimes, reasons of poverty and unemployment etc.
2. Descriptive Research :
In this type of research, a social situation is studied, The specific reasons of the social situation and their effects are viewed and a foretelling is made. For example. the reasons of increase in population. its effects on society and if it continues in future, what effects and situation can be created.
3. Experimental Research :
When we adjudge a hypothesis in a specific controlled situation, this research is called experimental research. This is further divided into kinds :
a. Laboratory Experimental Research :
This research is the most effective and controlled method of collecting data in social research. The situation is under controlled environment and variable are studied with their effects and external effects can be avoided just as effects of cruelty on children observation.
b. Field Experimental Research :
The effects are observed by experimenting on free variables in a natural situation under controlled conditions with less external effects. Just as observation of effects of medicine of instruction on college students.
W. Lawrance Neuman :
His social research is of two kinds :
i. Pure Research
ii: Applied Research
i. Pure Research :
In knowledge for knowledge is sake research, theories and hypotheses are tested, having a knowledge importance, are helpful in future in social life, they may not be .helpful in present '.g« in the solution of problems. For example, research on family planning effects have no importance for our present society but
these may be useful in future to understand for a certain situation.
ii. Applied Research :
This is knowledge to solve problems and their planning. In this research, cause and effects relation is studied and finishing the causes, problem is solved through a planning. However, business circles can benefit from this research for the use of their products or their popularity.
Functions of Research :According to R.K. Merton, a research has the following functions :
1. Research gives rise to new theories, we collect data through research and facts formulate from theories. Thus research is a source of creation of theories.
2. Research reforms theories because of changed situation. Science is a continuous action. Social conditions change and these bring about changes in facts also. When it is seen that the theory does not coincide with the
new facts, then the changed theory is used to reform the society.
3. Research describes the opposite of a theory or rejects it, because when research reveals the facts totally against the theory, it is rejected and a new one takes the place of old one.
4. Research explains the theory. When the relation linked in the theory is tested through research, the relation variables are explained that help to enable better understanding of the theory.
5. After research, social phenomena can be foretold. It explains the cause and effects of a present social situation just if unemployment is due to overpopulation, information about future rate of unemployment can be guessed.
6. Social problems can be introduced in the society through a research study when the individual of a society does not know it and when they are made aware of the problems they are likely to think for their solutions.
7. Research plays an important role in rejecting unscientific knowledge because such habits and traditions hindering the way of progress can be rejected to make the speed of progress faster.
8. Common public opinion can be known through research. Many problems and their solutions for future planning can be done.
9. The daily problems can be get rid of by better understanding the facts just mills owners can make the situation better by solving the problems of the labourers after knowing the reasons of locks outs, strikes, etc.