GovernmentGovernment is those individual and groups who control the state apparatus and direct state power."
According to authority, power is divided in different kinds, depending upon the nature of relation of people and the rulers.
It has three basic kinds :
i. Administration :
This is a government that does not tolerate people’s opposition and it cannot be dismissed by legal way. Its example is ancient kingship. In the modern age, such government is not found. However, its another manner is dictatorship, when a military officer snatches the power of a democratic government and opposes all types of opposition and every danger to government is finished.
Such type of government has the following characteristics :
i. No opposition tolerance. No difference of opinion.
ii. Ruler cannot be dismissed in a legal way.
iii. Public is not associated with the government decisions.
ii. Totalitarian :
“Totalitarian is an authoritarian form of government in which the rulers recognize no limits to their authority and are willing to regulate virtually any aspect of social life.”
Its characteristics are given below :
i. In this type of government, individual life is fully controlled in terms of education, service, marriage and number of children of family.
ii. This type of government controls all aspects of social life. Family, education, economic, religion and political institution are to abide by the policies and orders in terms of size of family, religious sanctions, economic activities and their nature, education and the level thereof are all under the control of government. China and North Korea are the examples of this type of government.
iii. Democracy :
Democracy is a form of government in which it is recognized that ultimate authority belongs to the people, who have the right to participate in the decision-making process and to appoint and dismiss their rulers."
An American President, Lincolin, has defined it as the government of the people, by the people and for the people.”
It has the following characteristics:
i. People have the authority to appoint rulers.
ii. People participate in decision-making.
iii. People have all human freedoms.
iv. People have right to dismiss rulers.
America, Britain, France, Pakistan and India have such governments.
Functions of Political Institution :Functions of Political institution have become important. In the traditional societies, its position was informal whereas in the modern societies it has its structure and functions which are important from social stability point of view because it stands as a security to the whole social system.
The following are the functions of political institutions:
1. Enforcement of Norms :
In traditional societies, norms are unwritten and are in vogue socially; but in the complicated societies, such a system is not workable. In such a case, a political institution accepts this formation to give them a law form and to ensure that negative sanction and its obedience will be compulsory. Laws prevent individuals from deviation and the rights of groups and individuals are safeguarded through formal norms to make the social life pleasant.
2. Arbitration of Conflict :
A political institution decides formal institutional system, regarding the achievement of social aims and their limits in a peaceful manner by acting an arbitrator between conflicting groups through judiciary, administration which frame rules to decide conflict and quarrels and also determine rights and duties of all individuals.
3. Planning and Direction :
Planning and direction are important to deal with matters of a complicated society through coordination by the political institutions.
i. A review of economy Should be done to save the society from inflation and unemployment.
ii. The availability of required trained people for industry through establishing training institutions and keeping in view the future demands.
iii. To start research work on the plan in view of the needs of public and to provide food to make those continue.
iv. To ensure the welfare of the poor, shelter-less and needy people on permanent basis so that the individuals may not deviate from social norms.
It is the responsibility of the political institution .to do its functions to provide correct status, to plan better and to make the plans execute in an organized form.
4. Relation with other societies :
It is the responsibility of the political institutions to establish political, economic, cultural and defensive relations with other societies, to function in 'a friendly environment with other international organization, to promote economic activities by establishing economic contacts‘to stabilize its own economy. It is also the responsibility of the political institution to defend the society from external aggression by making diplomatic relations better, by making defense strong and by promoting relations with other societies to finish or lessen the dangers of war or conflict.
Thomas Hobbs (1588-1697) speculated that:
“Without a strong political authority, life would be solitary, poor, nasty, bruted and short. To Hobbes, people created the state by an implicit social contract, in which they surrendered much of their own liberty to a higher authority in or due to prevent chaos."
5. Making of Laws :
A political institution makes laws for the welfare of a society, amends the existing rules and cancels outdated laws, thus saving the societies from rigidity. The needs and desires of the society, the laws save the society from disunity and dispersion. The enforcement of laws is primary function of political institutions. Where there is no such functions, there is no progress and there are so many social and psychological worries in that society.