What are the main problems of agriculture sector? suggest remedies or What are the causes of low agriculture productivity
Problems of Agriculture Sector or Causes of Low Per Acre Yield :-
Pakistan's economy is basically an agricultural. It contributes 23.87% of GDP. About 55% labour force is engaged with this sector but there are many obstacles in way of its development.
Following are the main problems of agriculture sector :
1. Lack of Capital :-
Our farmer is poor and they can not use the latest machines and better seeds. He always remains under debt. So due to lack of capital. production remains low.
2. Lack of Credit Facilities :-
Credit is important for the small and big farmers to improve the production. But in Pakistan credit facilities are insufficient to meet the requirements. Second problem is that credit is misused by the farmers.
3. Leasing System :-
Our leasing system also discourages farmer. The landlord and the tenant both can not take interest in the improvement of land. So it affects the production badly.
4. Water Logging and Salinity :-
It is the main problem of the agriculture, in Pakistan a large area is affected by it which has reduced our production particularly in the province of Sindh.
5. Smuggling :-
It is estimated that 25% food grains of Pakistan is smuggled to India and Afghanistan, so it creates shortage of food in Pakistan.
6. Old Methods of Cultivation :-
Our farmer is uneducated and they uses the old methods of cultivation which causes the low production. They are unable to use the modern technology due to non-availability of credit and skill.
7. Natural Circumstances :-
In Pakistan, our agriculture products also remains low due to the unfavorable circumstances. For example ,in 1973 and 1980, flood destroy our crops.
8. Inadequate Supply of Water :-
In Pakistan irrigation facilities are limited and due to this we can not cultivate our barren lands so production remains low.
9. Increase in Population :-
In Pakistan rate of population growth is faster than the food production. It creates the food shortage problem, and also problem of unemployment. Afghan refuges has also increased the size of population.
10. Small Holdings :-
In Pakistan land is divided into small units due to law of inheritance. Small units can not be cultivated properly and per acre yield remains low.
11. Single Cropping :-
There is low level of cropping intensity in the farm sector. The area under double cropping is limited and production remains low.
12. Under Utilization of Land :-
In Pakistan there is only 25% cultivable land out of 80 million hectares and there is a huge waste of natural resources. Due to this our production is low.
Measures to Improve the Agriculture Sector or Measures to Remove the Food Shortage Problem
1. Extension in Cultivation :-
The agriculture product can be increased by increasing the cultivable area. It can be increased by using the barren lands and including the water logging.
2. Intensive Cultivation :-
It means to cultivate the same areas which is already under cultivation by using better seeds and modern techniques of production. It increases the production.
3. Supply of Inputs :-
The productivity can be increased by using the modern inputs like improved seeds and fertilizer. The government should provide the adequate supply of these inputs to the farmers at the lower rates.
4. Use of Machinery :-
There is a need of modern technology for the improvement of agricultural product. The government of Pakistan has also realized the importance of machinery. So agricultural development bank and agricultural development corporation is providing the machinery on low rates.
5. Establishment of Credit Institutions :-
The government should establish the various financial institutions which may provide the credit to the small farmers on low rate of interest. In Pakistan the government has established the specialized credit institutions to provide the loan to the farmers.
6. Control on Waterlogged :-
The productivity of agriculture sector can increase by reclaiming the areas affected by water logging. Tube wells should be installed in those areas.
7 Incentive to the Farmers :-
The prices of the agriculture product should be at such level that it may encourage the farmers. In Pakistan rural development programme has been started to improve the economic condition of the rural areas. The government also fixes reasonable prices of wheat, rice, cotton and sugar to encourage the farmers every year.
8. Consolidation of Land :-
Small holdings in different areas can not be cultivated by one owner properly. So it is better to consolidate all the pieces of land at one place. Keeping in view this problem the government of Pakistan issued the act 1960 consolidation of land.
9. Market Facilities :-
The government should improve the agricultural market. The rural area should be linked with the urban markets by the roads. The farmers may be able to get the fair return of their product.