What do you mean by farm mechanization and discuss the importance of farm mechanization for agriculture or Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of farm mechanization
Farm mechanization means the use of machines and technology in the agriculture sector. The use of tractor, tube-wells and plant protection measures are included in the farm mechanization. So in the farm mechanization the use of machinery is greater as compared to the labour.
Importance or Advantages of Farm Mechanization :-
In underdeveloped countries the per acre yield is low because our farmer is not using the machines and technology in the agricultural operation. Keeping in view the performance of farm mechanization, So most of developing countries has decided to provide loans to the farmers for the purchase of tractors and tube-wells. Its importance can be judged by the following facts :
1. Increase in the Cultivable Area :-
The use of machines like tractor and bulldozers will enable the farmers to bring more areas under cultivation. A large area of barren land can be cultivated more easily.
2. Irrigation Facility :-
In poor countries the canal irrigation facilities are inadequate. The installation of more tube-wells will relieve the cultivators from uncertainty of water supply which will increase the production.
3. Transportation Facility :-
Tractor and Trolly is also used for transferring the agriculture product from one place to another. A huge amount of product is wasted due to non availability of transport.
4. Reduction of Cost :-
The use of machinery decreased the cost of production and due to this income of the farmer increases. It also improves the quality of production.
5. Saving of Time :-
The use of machinery saves the time of the farmers which can be utilized for other purpose. Many acre land can be cultivated with tractor in few hours.
6. Increase in Efficiency :-
The use of machinery increases the efficiency of the worker and rises the out put per worker. So the income and efficiency of workers improves.
7. Water-logging Solution :-
In poor countries every year thousands acre land is destroyed by the water logging. We can remove the water-logging through installation of tube-wells.
8. No Dependence Upon Animal Power :-
The use of machinery reduces the dependence upon animal power which is costly and slow. There is always a fear of animal death when it is over burden.
9. Relief to Farmer :-
The use of machinery has relieved the farmer from hard work and has increased the production of agriculture sector. Before the use of machinery ploughing and thrashing was a hard job.
Disadvantages of Farm Mechanization :-
1. Increase in Unemployment :-
In the poor countries the rate of unemployment is already high. So the use of machinery in agriculture has increased the rate of unemployment in the country. It is useful in those countries where labour is not available or labour is costly.
2. Not Suitable for Small Holding :-
The use of machinery is not profitable for small holdings. The majority of the farmers in underdeveloped countries is the owner of small holdings. For instance, owner of a 5 acre land can not purchase tractor.
3. Costly Machinery :-
In the poor countries farmer is unable to purchase the expensive machinery due to poverty. While labour is cheap in the poor country. Costly machinery increases the cost of production.
4. Lack of Technical Knowledge :-
In the underdeveloped countries majority of farmers are uneducated and they cannot handle the machines. So misuse of machinery causes a great loss to the farmer.
5. Lack of Foreign Exchange :-
Foreign exchange is required to make payments for imported machinery. There is a shortage of foreign exchange in poor countries. So it becomes difficult to import the machinery.
6. Preparing Facilities :-
In most of developing countries maintenance and repairing facilities are not available in the rural areas. The break down of the machinery will cause delay in agricultural operation.
7. Lack of Energy Resources :-
Oil, Gas, and Electricity are the main source of energy. These are essential for the farm mechanization but there is shortage of these resources in the most of underdeveloped countries. Prices of oil are increasing day by day.
8. Lack of Capital :-
In the developing countries farmers are very poor and they are unable to purchase the tractor and heavy machinery.
9. Lack of Credit Facilities :-
In the poor countries, the credit facilities are inadequate so the farm mechanization can not be adopted.
Keeping in view the above facts we conclude that farm mechanization increases the agriculture productivity. It increases the income, saving and investment of the farmers. In the other word we can say that farm mechanization is very useful for the development of agriculture sector.
Now in the today modern world every country has also realized importance of farm mechanization and has encouraged the import of machinery. Most of countries providing loans on low rate of interest to the farmers.